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On-Road Evaluation of an Integrated SCR and Continuously Regenerating Trap Exhaust System

Four-way, integrated, diesel emission control systems that combine selective catalytic reduction for NOx control with a continuously regenerating trap to remove diesel particulate matter were evaluated under real-world, on-road conditions. Tests were conducted using a semi-tractor with an emissions year 2000, 6-cylinder, 12 L, Volvo engine rated at 287 kW at 1800 rpm and 1964 N-m. The emission control system was certified for retrofit application on-highway trucks, model years 1994 through 2002, with 4-stroke, 186-373 kW (250-500 hp) heavy-duty diesel engines without exhaust gas recirculation. The evaluations were unique because the mobile laboratory platform enabled evaluation under real-world exhaust plume dilution conditions as opposed to laboratory dilution conditions. Real-time plume measurements for NOx, particle number concentration and size distribution were made and emission control performance was evaluated on-road.
Technical Paper

Real Time Measurement of Volatile and Solid Exhaust Particles Using a Catalytic Stripper

A system has been developed that allows near real time measurements of total, volatile, and nonvolatile particle concentrations in engine exhaust. It consists of a short section of heated catalyst, a cooling coil, and an electrical aerosol analyzer. The performance of this catalytic stripper system has been characterized with nonvolatile (NaCl), volatile sulfate ((NH4)2 SO4), and volatile hydrocarbon (engine oil) particles with diameters ranging from 0.05-0.5 μm. The operating temperature of 300°C gives essentially complete removal of volatile sulfate and hydrocarbon particles, but also leads to removal of 15-25% of solid particles. This system has been used to determine total, volatile, and nonvolatile particle concentrations in the exhaust of a Diesel engine and a spark ignition engine. Volatile volume fractions measured in Diesel exhaust with the catalytic stripper system increased from 19-65% as the equivalence ratio (load) decreased from 0.64-0.13.
Technical Paper

Diesel Exhaust Particle Size Distributions - Fuel and Additive Effects

Particle mass and size distribution measurements have been made on the exhaust of an Onan prechamber diesel engine. Seven fuels were examined: no. 1 and no. 2 diesel fuel, 40 and 50 cetane number secondary reference fuels, and no. 2 diesel fuel doped with three different concentrations of Lubrizol 565, a barium-based smoke suppressant. The no. 1 and no. 2 diesel fuels and the 50 cetane number reference fuels produced very similar emissions with emission indices in the range 0.3-1.3 mg (gm-fuel)-1 and volume mean diameters between .09 and 0.15 μm. The 40 cetane number reference fuel produced both smaller emission indices, 0.2 to 0.8 mg (gm-fuel)-1, and particle diameters, 0.03 to 0.09 μm. These reductions were apparently related to the longer ignition delay period of the 40 cetane number fuel, which allowed better mixing of the fuel and air prior to combustion.
Technical Paper

Further Studies with a Hydrogen Engine

This paper describes the performance and emissions of a hydrogen-fueled, spark-ignited engine. An electronic control device, designed to provide the engine with a timed injection of the fuel, is shown to give high mean effective pressures and high efficiencies. The oxides of nitrogen from the exhaust gases have been analyzed and the mechanism for their formation is reviewed. The paper further describes an experiment with traces of hydrocarbons added to the hydrogen in an attempt to explain any additional phenomena that may be taking place during the combustion, such as “prompt NO” which is known to occur in hydrocarbon flames only. As it turns out, such additions have a negligible effect on the NOx formation in the region investigated.
Technical Paper

Total Cylinder Sampling from a Diesel Engine: Part III - Particle Measurements

Particle formation, growth, coagulation and combustion in the cylinder of an indirect injection passenger car type diesel engine have been studied using a system which allows the cylinder contents to be rapidly expelled through a blowdown port, diluted, and collected in a sample bag for subsequent analysis. Characteristic blowdown times were about 0.5 ms. Samples were analyzed using a condensation nuclei counter to determine particle number concentrations and an electrical aerosol analyzer to determine particle volume concentrations in the 0.01 to 1.0 μm diameter range. Measurements were made with the engine operating at 1000 rpm and an equivalence ratio of 0.32. Peak particle number concentration in the cylinder 13 times the exhaust level, and peak particle volume (or mass) concentration in the cylinder 3 times the exhaust level were observed. These results suggest that significant particle coagulation and oxidation occur during the expansion stroke.
Technical Paper

Electrostatic Collection of Diesel Particles

Diesel particles carry charges ranging from 1-5 units of elementary charge per particle. The charge is bipolar, i.e., there are approximately equal numbers of positively and negatively charged particles. The charge distribution with respect to size follows a high temperature, Boltzmann equilibrium relationship. The first part of this paper describes charge measurements made on diesel particles emitted by three different diesel engines, and postulates a charging mechanism. The second part of the paper is an examination of how this natural charge may be used to collect particles from the exhaust. The charge level produced by combustion is only slightly lower than the charge level produced by the corona discharge in a conventional electrostatic precipitator. Thus, a simple electrostatic precipitator without a corona section will collect diesel particles affectively.
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Measurements of Particulate Formation in an Indirect Injection Diesel Engine

Measurements of particle concentrations in one cylinder of a 1982 5.7 liter GM V-8 diesel engine have been made using a unique total cylinder sampling system. The first part of the paper is devoted to an examination of the performance of the sampling system. The role of blowoff and nucleation in the formation of sample artifacts is discussed. The remainder of the paper is devoted to the results of a study of the formation and removal of carbon particles during diesel engine combustion. Several operating conditions have been examined. The influence of injection timing, load, EGR, and oxygen addition on particle formation and removal has been investigated. The concentrations of volatile and nonvolatile particulate matter have been measured as a function of crankangle position. Particle formation begins 1-5 crankangle degrees (CAD) after the start of combustion.
Technical Paper

The Influence of a Ceramic Particle Trap on the Size Distribution of Diesel Particles

The U.S. Bureau of Mines has sponsored research Co determine the particle size distribution and concentration of submicron particles upstream and downstream of a ceramic particle trap mounted in the exhaust stream of a Caterpillar 3304 diesel engine. Particle size distribution and mass were measured with an electrical aerosol analyzer, a diffusion battery-condensation nuclei counter combination, and filters. The engine was operated at 1400 and 1800 RPM and 3 load conditions at each speed-In general, the collection efficiency of the trap was high, ranging between 89 to 96%. Size distribution analysis revealed that the trap was generally more efficient at removing particles smaller than 0.1 µm diameter than larger particles. However, under certain conditions formation of nuclei (less than 0.056 µm diameter) downstream of the trap took place.
Technical Paper

Particulate Emissions from Diesel Engines:Influence of In-Cylinder Surface

There is a growing body of evidence that in-cylinder surfaces play an important role in determining the nature and quantity of soot emitted by diesel engines. This paper describes recent experimental results which demonstrate the importance of both the deposition of soot on walls during the combustion process and its subsequent reentrainment during exhaust blowdown. Soot deposition was demonstrated both experimentally and theoretically. The principal mechanism of soot deposition during combustion is thermophoresis. Our results suggest that the gross rate of in-cylinder deposition in the indirect injection diesel engine is between 20 and 45 percent of the net soot emission rate. Thus, a significant fraction of the soot emitted may have been stored on combustion chamber surfaces and protected from oxidation. Further evidence of wall deposition and subsequent reentrainment has been obtained by making time-resolved measurements of soot concentrations in the exhaust.
Technical Paper

Further Studies of Electrostatic Collection and Agglomeration of Diesel Particles

The use of a corona-less electrostatic precipitator as a collection and agglomeration device for diesel soot has been investigated. It collects and grows diesel particles which are emitted in the submicron diameter range and grow into much larger particles. These larger particles may then be collected with a relatively simple inertial device. Previous testing of a full scale precipitator designed for a Caterpillar 3304 engine showed that the reduction in sub-micron sized mass from the engine was roughly 30 to 40%. Greater reductions were desired. A sub-scale electrostatic agglomerator was built to analyze in greater detail the behavior of an existing full scale device. Tests were designed to determine; the charged fraction of the particles from the engine used, the collection efficiency of the electrostatic agglomerator, the effect of geometry on collection efficiency, and the size distribution of the particles reentrained after electrostatic collection.
Technical Paper

Variability in Particle Emission Measurements in the Heavy Duty Transient Test

A study of the sources of variability in particulate measurements using the Heavy-Duty Transient Test (40 CFR Subpart N) has been conducted. It consisted of several phases: a critical examination of the test procedures, visits to representative facilities to compare and contrast facility designs and test procedures, and development of a simplified model of the systems and procedures used for the Heavy-Duty Transient Test. Some of the sources of variability include; thermophoretic deposition of particulate matter onto walls of the sampling system followed by subsequent reentrainment in an unpredictable manner, the influence of dilution and cooling upon the soluble organic fraction, inconsistency among laboratories in the engine and dynamometer control strategies, and errors in measurements of flows into and out of the secondary dilution tunnel.
Technical Paper

Oxidation of Soot Agglomerates in a Direct Injection Diesel Engine

Carbon black particles, which morphologically and chemically simulate a diesel exhaust soot, were mixed with the intake air of a single-cylinder direct injection diesel engine to investigate the efficiency of their removal by oxidation in the combustion chamber. An aerosol generation system, which is capable of generating carbon black aerosol of a size distribution and mass flow rate comparable to those of the soot agglomerates, was developed first. The aerosol was then introduced into the engine which was operating on conventional fuel. Four methods were used to characterize the exhaust particles: an electrical aerosol analyzer, a condensation nuclei counter, a low volume filter, and a micro-orifice cascade impactor. The size distribution and concentration of the diesel soot particles in the lubricants were investigated by methods of photosedimentation and quantitative spectrophotometry, respectively.
Technical Paper

The Performance of an Electrostatic Agglomerator as a Diesel Soot Emission Control Device

A major problem with many soot emission control devices is the fact that they quickly become loaded with soot which must be removed by a controlled burning (regeneration) process. The need for regeneration greatly complicates such diesel particle emission control devices. In this paper, an electrostatic agglomerator (ESA) which efficiently collects diesel particles but does not require regeneration is described. The ESA is an electrostatic precipitator which is designed to collect and subsequently reentrain diesel soot particles. The collection and reentrainment processes results in growth of particle diameter from roughly 0.2 μm to larger than 1.0 μm. The agglomerated particles are large enough to be collected by a relatively simple inertial device, e.g., a cyclone separator. The collected particle may be either recycled to the engine or disposed of by other means. Electrostatic collection is made easier by the fact that diesel particles are charged by the combustion process itself.
Technical Paper

Nanoparticle Growth During Dilution and Cooling of Diesel Exhaust: Experimental Investigation and Theoretical Assessment

Nanoparticle formation during exhaust sampling and dilution has been examined using a two-stage micro-dilution system to sample the exhaust from a modern, medium-duty diesel engine. Growth rates of nanoparticles at different exhaust dilution ratios and temperatures have been determined by monitoring the evolution of particle size distributions in the first stage of the dilution system. Two methods, graphical and analytical, are described to determine particle growth rate. Extrapolation of size distribution down to 1 nm in diameter has been demonstrated using the graphical method. The average growth rate of nanoparticles is calculated using the analytical method. The growth rate ranges from 6 nm/sec to 24 nm/sec, except at a dilution ratio of 40 and primary dilution temperature of 48 °C where the growth rate drops to 2 nm /sec. This condition seems to represent a threshold for growth. Observed nucleation and growth patterns are consistent with predictions of a simple physical model.
Technical Paper

Exhaust Particle Number and Size Distributions with Conventional and Fischer-Tropsch Diesel Fuels

Diesel exhaust particle number concentrations and size distributions, as well as gaseous and particulate mass emissions, were measured during steady-state tests on a US heavy-duty engine and a European passenger car engine. Two fuels were compared, namely a Fischer-Tropsch diesel fuel manufactured from natural gas, and a US D2 on-highway diesel fuel. With both engines, the Fischer-Tropsch fuel showed a considerable reduction in the number of particles formed by nucleation, when compared with the D2 fuel. At most test modes, particle number emissions were dominated by nucleation mode particles. Consequently, there were generally large reductions (up to 93%) in the total particle number emissions with the Fischer-Tropsch fuel. It is thought that the most probable cause for the reduction in nucleation mode particles is the negligible sulphur content of the Fischer-Tropsch fuel. In general, there were also reductions in all the regulated emissions with the Fischer-Tropsch fuel.
Technical Paper

Light Absorption Measurements of Diesel Particulate Matter

Light absorption and scattering coefficients have been measured for particles emitted by two diesel engines; one direct injection and one indirect injection, operating over a range of speeds and loads. Integrating plate absorption measurements yield a specific absorption coefficient of 9.1 square meters per gram of non-volatile particulate matter at 550 nm wavelength. This absorption coefficient is inversely proportional to wavelength and independent of engine operating conditions or type. The scattering coefficient was simultaneously measured as 1.3 square meters per gram of undifferentiated particulate matter. These experimental results are shown to be in the range predicted by theoretical absorption and scattering calculations, which have been made for elongated carbon-void particles.
Technical Paper

Impact of a Ceramic Trap and Manganese Fuel Additive on the Biological Activity and Chemical Composition of Exhaust Particles from Diesel Engines Used in Underground Mines

This study examines the effect of a ceramic particle trap and a manganese fuel additive on the mutagenic activity and chemical composition of diesel exhaust particulate matter from a heavy-duty mining engine. Particles were collected by dilution tunnel sampling from a 4-cylinder, Caterpillar 3304, naturally-aspirated, indirect-injection engine operated at six steady-state conditions. Depending on engine load and speed the ceramic particle trap reduced the following emissions: particulate matter, 80 – 94%; soluble organic fraction (SOF), 83 – 95%; 1-nitropyrene, 94 – 96%; and SOF mutagencity, 72% (cycle-weighted average). When the Mn fuel additive was used without a ceramic particle trap the total cycle mutagenic activity emitted increased 7-fold, in part, due to elevated emissions of 1-nitropyrene.
Technical Paper

Physical Factors Affecting Hydrocarbon Oxidation in a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst

A study of factors affecting hydrocarbon oxidation in a diesel oxidation catalyst was undertaken. The objective was to determine whether interactions between particulate-adsorbed hydrocarbons and the catalyst significantly influenced hydrocarbon oxidation. Theoretical modeling supported by experimental data obtained at the U.S. Bureau of Mines' Diesel Emissions Research Laboratory indicated that the mass of particles interacting with the ceramic support was negligible. Additionally, a model of hydrocarbon adsorption onto diesel particulate predicted that over 98% by mass of exhaust hydrocarbons would be gas-phase, rather than particulate-adsorbed, at converter operating temperatures. A second physical process, the diffusion of gas phase hydrocarbons to the catalytic surface, was subsequently investigated. Theoretical and experimental results for the unburnt fuel hydrocarbons indicated that hydrocarbon oxidation was diffusion limited under high temperature operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Influence of Fuel Additives and Dilution Conditions on the Formation and Emission of Exhaust Particulate Matter from a Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engine

Experiments were performed to measure the number-weighted particle size distributions emitted from a gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine. Measurements were made on a late model vehicle equipped with a direct injection spark ignition engine. The vehicle was placed on a chassis dynamometer, which was used to load the engine to road load at five different vehicle speeds ranging from 15 - 100 km/hr. Dilution of the exhaust aerosol was carried out using a two-stage dilution system in which the first stage dilution occurs as a free jet. Particle size distributions were measured using a TSI 3934 scanning mobility particle sizer. Generally speaking, the presence of the additives did not have a strong, consistent influence on the particle emissions from this engine. The polyether amine demonstrated a reduction in particle number concentration as compared to unadditized base fuel.
Technical Paper

Reducing Utility Engine Exhaust Emissions with a Thermal Reactor

A test reactor was designed for a 6.7 kW, 303 cc, single cylinder, air cooled, gasoline fueled engine. The reactor was very efficient at hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) reductions - with up to 99.9 and 98.6% removed, respectively. It had no effect on oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions. With the reactor, the engine met the California Air Resources Board (ARB) proposed Tier II emission standards. A factorial test was used to determine that A/F ratio and air injection rate significantly affected CO reduction efficiency whereas air injection location, ignition timing, and engine load did not. Relationships were established between CO reduction, air injection rate, and reactor core temperature.