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Technical Paper

Fuel Consumption Evaluation of Cooled External EGR for a Downsized Boosted SIDI DICP Engine

A 2.0L twin-scroll turbocharged SIDI engine was used to evaluate low-pressure loop water-cooled external EGR at operating conditions between 1000 rpm 75 Nm and 3000 rpm 250 Nm. The engine compression ratio was increased from 9.3 to 10.9. The maximum fuel consumption reduction potential, the boost pressure requirements, and the optimized external EGR calibration were determined. Combination of higher compression ratio and external EGR achieved 5-7% better fuel economy over mid-load region when using the twin-scroll turbocharger. A similar (4-6%) better fuel economy was observed over much of the higher-load region, including peak torque condition at 1000rpm, when the required boost pressure was provided by an externally-driven auxiliary boost system (not connected to the engine). The power consumption of auxiliary boost system (supercharger loss) was estimated and considered in fuel economy assessment. The fuel consumption reduction mechanisms of EGR were also analyzed.
Technical Paper

Simulation-Guided Air System Design for a Low Reactivity Gasoline-Like Fuel under Partially-Premixed Combustion in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

In this study a detailed 1-D engine system model coupled with 3-D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis was used to investigate the air system design requirements for a heavy duty diesel engine operating with low reactivity gasoline-like fuel (RON70) under partially premixed combustion (PPC) conditions. The production engine used as the baseline has a geometric compression ratio (CR) of 17.3 and the air system hardware consists of a 1-stage variable geometry turbine (VGT) with a high pressure exhaust gas recirculation (HP-EGR) loop. The analysis was conducted at six engine operating points selected from the heavy-duty supplemental emissions test (SET) cycle, i.e., A75, A100, B25, B50, B75, and C100. The engine-out NOx target was set at 1 g/hp-hr (1.34 g/kWh) to address a future hypothetical tailpipe NOx limit of 0.02 g/hp-hr (0.027 g/kWh) while an engine-out particulate matter (PM) target of 0.01 g/hp-hr (0.013 g/kWh) was selected to comply with existing EPA 2010 regulations.
Technical Paper

An Experimental and Computational Investigation of Gasoline Compression Ignition Using Conventional and Higher Reactivity Gasolines in a Multi-Cylinder Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

This research investigates the potential of gasoline compression ignition (GCI) to achieve low engine-out NOx emissions with high fuel efficiency in a heavy-duty diesel engine. The experimental work was conducted in a model year (MY) 2013 Cummins ISX15 heavy-duty diesel engine, covering a load range of 5 to 15 bar BMEP at 1375 rpm. The engine compression ratio (CR) was reduced from the production level of 18.9 to 15.7 without altering the combustion bowl design. In this work, four gasolines with research octane number (RON) ranging from 58 to 93 were studied. Overall, GCI operation resulted in enhanced premixed combustion, improved NOx-soot tradeoffs, and similar or moderately improved fuel efficiency compared to diesel combustion. A split fuel injection strategy was employed for the two lower reactivity gasolines (RON80 and RON93), while the RON60 and RON70 gasolines used a single fuel injection strategy.
Journal Article

CFD-Guided Heavy Duty Mixing-Controlled Combustion System Optimization with a Gasoline-Like Fuel

A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) guided combustion system optimization was conducted for a heavy-duty compression-ignition engine with a gasoline-like fuel that has an anti-knock index (AKI) of 58. The primary goal was to design an optimized combustion system utilizing the high volatility and low sooting tendency of the fuel for improved fuel efficiency with minimal hardware modifications to the engine. The CFD model predictions were first validated against experimental results generated using the stock engine hardware. A comprehensive design of experiments (DoE) study was performed at different operating conditions on a world-leading supercomputer, MIRA at Argonne National Laboratory, to accelerate the development of an optimized fuel-efficiency focused design while maintaining the engine-out NOx and soot emissions levels of the baseline production engine.
Journal Article

CFD-Guided Combustion System Optimization of a Gasoline Range Fuel in a Heavy-Duty Compression Ignition Engine Using Automatic Piston Geometry Generation and a Supercomputer

A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) guided combustion system optimization was conducted for a heavy-duty diesel engine running with a gasoline fuel that has a research octane number (RON) of 80. The goal was to optimize the gasoline compression ignition (GCI) combustion recipe (piston bowl geometry, injector spray pattern, in-cylinder swirl motion, and thermal boundary conditions) for improved fuel efficiency while maintaining engine-out NOx within a 1-1.5 g/kW-hr window. The numerical model was developed using the multi-dimensional CFD software CONVERGE. A two-stage design of experiments (DoE) approach was employed with the first stage focusing on the piston bowl shape optimization and the second addressing refinement of the combustion recipe. For optimizing the piston bowl geometry, a software tool, CAESES, was utilized to automatically perturb key bowl design parameters. This led to the generation of 256 combustion chamber designs evaluated at several engine operating conditions.
Journal Article

Conventional and Low Temperature Combustion Using Naphtha Fuels in a Multi-Cylinder Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

The regulatory requirements to lower both greenhouse gases and criteria pollutants from heavy duty engines are driving new perspectives on the interaction between fuels and engines. Fuels that lower the burden on engine manufacturers to reach these goals may be of particular interest. Naphtha, a fuel with a higher volatility than diesel, but with the ability to be burned under traditional mixing-controlled combustion conditions is one such fuel. The higher volatility promotes fuel-air mixing and when combined with its typically lower aromatic content, leads to reduced soot emissions when compared directly to diesel. Naphtha also has potential to be less energy-intensive at the refinery level, and its use in transportation applications can potentially reduce CO2 emissions on a well-to-wheels basis.
Journal Article

Operation of a Gasoline Direct Injection Compression Ignition Engine on Naphtha and E10 Gasoline Fuels

Gasoline Direct Injection Compression Ignition (GDCI) is a partially premixed low temperature combustion process that has demonstrated high fuel efficiency with full engine load range capabilities, while emitting very low levels of particulate matter (PM) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx). In the current work, a comparison of engine combustion, performance, and emissions has been made among E10 gasoline and several full-boiling range naphtha fuels on a Gen 2 single-cylinder GDCI engine with compression ratio of 15:1. Initial results with naphtha demonstrated improved combustion and efficiency at low loads. With naphtha fuel, hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions were generally reduced at low loads but tended to be higher at mid-loads despite the increased fuel reactivity. At higher loads, naphtha required less boost pressure compared to gasoline, however, up to 20% additional EGR was required to maintain combustion phasing.