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Technical Paper

Comprehensive Characterization of Particulate Emissions from Advanced Diesel Combustion

The applicability of several popular diesel particulate matter (PM) measurement techniques to low temperature combustion is examined. The instruments' performance in measuring low levels of PM from advanced diesel combustion is evaluated. Preliminary emissions optimization of a high-speed light-duty diesel engine was performed for two conventional and two advanced low temperature combustion engine cases. A low PM (<0.2 g/kg_fuel) and NOx (<0.07 g/kg_fuel) advanced low temperature combustion (LTC) condition with high levels of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and early injection timing was chosen as a baseline. The three other cases were selected by varying engine load, injection timing, injection pressure, and EGR mass fraction. All engine conditions were run with ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel. An extensive characterization of PM from these engine operating conditions is presented.
Technical Paper

Detailed Diesel Exhaust Particulate Characterization and DPF Regeneration Behavior Measurements for Two Different Regeneration Systems

Three distinct types of diesel particulate matter (PM) are generated in selected engine operating conditions of a single-cylinder heavy-duty diesel engine. The three types of PM are trapped using typical Cordierite diesel particulate filters (DPF) with different washcoat formulations and a commercial Silicon-Carbide DPF. Two systems, an external electric furnace and an in-situ burner, were used for regeneration. Furnace regeneration experiments allow the collected PM to be classified into two categories depending on oxidation mechanism: PM that is affected by the catalyst and PM that is oxidized by a purely thermal mechanism. The two PM categories prove to contribute differently to pressure drop and transient filtration efficiency during in-situ regeneration.
Technical Paper

Effects of DPF Washcoat Variations on DPF Active Regeneration Characteristics

Three Cordierite diesel particulate filters (DPF) with variations in the washcoat† (bare, washcoat-only, and catalyzed washcoat) were filled with equal amounts of PM (∼2 g/l) from a single steady-state engine operating condition (30% load, 1800 rpm). Two regeneration systems were used: an electrical furnace to extract the kinetic parameters by performing Temperature Programmed Oxidation (TPO) experiments and an inline burner to study how DPF washcoat variations affect active regeneration performance. Detailed emissions measurements were performed upstream and downstream of the DPF during the filtration and regeneration processes to quantify DPF filtration and regeneration performance. These measurements included gaseous emission, PM mass concentration, and particle size distribution.
Technical Paper

Integrated Engine, Emissions, and Exhaust Aftertreatment System Level Models to Simulate DPF Regeneration

An integrated system model containing sub-models for diesel engine, emissions, and aftertreatment devices has been developed. The objective is to study engine-device and device-device interactions. The emissions sub-models used are for NOx and PM (particulate matter) prediction. The aftertreatment sub-models used include a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and a diesel particulate filter (DPF). Controllers have also been developed to allow for transient simulations, active DPF regeneration, and prevention/control of runaway DPF regenerations. The integrated system-level model has been used to simulate DPF regeneration via exhaust fuel injection ahead of the DOC. In addition, the controller model can use intake throttling to assist in active DPF regeneration if needed. Regeneration studies have been done for both steady engine load and with load transients. High to low engine load transients are of particular interest because they can lead to runaway DPF regeneration.
Technical Paper

An Investigation Into the Effect of Fuel Composition on HCCI Combustion Characteristics

A single cylinder CFR research engine has been run in HCCI combustion mode for a range of temperatures and fuel compositions. The data indicate that the best HCCI operation, as measured by a combination of successful combustion with low ISFC, occurs at or near the rich limit of operation. Analysis of the pressure and heat release histories indicated the presence, or absence, and impact of the fuel's NTC ignition behavior on establishing successful HCCI operation. The auto-ignition trends observed were in complete agreement with previous results found in the literature. Furthermore, analysis of the importance of the fuel's octane sensitivity, through assessment of an octane index, successfully explained the changes in the fuels auto-ignition tendency with changes in engine operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Detailed Chemical Composition and Particle Size Assessment of Diesel Engine Exhaust

A dilution source sampling system has been incorporated into the exhaust measurement system of a research single-cylinder diesel engine. To allow more detailed assessment of the individual chemical components of the diesel particulate matter (PM) the exhaust dilution system includes a residence time chamber (RTC) to allow for residence times of 30 to 60 seconds in the second stage of dilution before sampling. Samples are collected on a range of different filters where mass loading, elemental and organic carbon (ECOC), trace metals, sulfate ions (SO4), particle-phase organic compounds, and semi-volatile organic compounds are evaluated. In addition, particle size distributions have been determined using a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). Results show that the chemical composition of the particulate matter is highly dependent on the engine operating conditions.
Technical Paper

A Numerical Study to Control Combustion Duration of Hydrogen-Fueled HCCI by Using Multi-Zone Chemical Kinetics Simulation

An engine cycle simulation code with detailed chemical kinetics has been developed to study Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion with hydrogen as the fuel. In order to attain adequate combustion duration, resulting from the self-accelerating nature of the chemical reaction, fuel and temperature inhomogeneities have been brought to the calculation by considering the combustion chamber to have various temperature and fuel distributions. Calculations have been done under various conditions including both perfectly homogeneous and inhomogeneous cases, changing the degree of inhomogeneity. The results show that intake gas temperature is more dominant on ignition timing of HCCI than equivalence ratio and that there is a possibility to control HCCI by introducing appropriate temperature inhomogeneity to in-cylinder mixture.
Technical Paper

Chemiluminescence Measurements of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Combustion

A spectroscopic diagnostic system was designed to study the effects of different engine parameters on the chemiluminescence characteristic of HCCI combustion. The engine parameters studied in this work were intake temperature, fuel delivery method, fueling rate (load), air-fuel ratio, and the effect of partial fuel reforming due to intake charge preheating. At each data point, a set of time-resolved spectra were obtained along with the cylinder pressure and exhaust emissions data. It was determined that different engine parameters affect the ignition timing of HCCI combustion without altering the reaction pathways of the fuel after the combustion has started. The chemiluminescence spectra of HCCI combustion appear as several distinct peaks corresponding to emission from CHO, HCHO, CH, and OH superimposed on top of a CO-O continuum. A strong correlation was found between the chemiluminescence light intensity and the rate of heat release.
Technical Paper

Development of a System Level Soot-NOx Trap Aftertreatment Device Model

A Soot-NOx Trap (SNT) is a combinatorial aftertreatment device intended to decrease both particulate and NOx emissions simultaneously. A system-level Soot-NOx Trap model was developed by adding Lean NOx Trap kinetics to a 1D Diesel Particulate Filter model. The hybrid model was validated against each parent model for the limiting cases, then exercised to investigate the interacting redox behavior. Modulations in temperature and exhaust air-fuel ratio were investigated for their ability to facilitate particulate oxidation and NOx reduction in the trap.
Technical Paper

Study on Characteristics of Gasoline Fueled HCCI Using Negative Valve Overlap

Gasoline fueled Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion with internal exhaust gas re-circulation using Negative Valve Overlap (NOL) was investigated by means of calculation and experiment in order to apply this technology to practical use with sufficient operating range and with acceptable emission and fuel consumption. In this paper we discuss the basic characteristics of NOL-HCCI with emphasis on the influence of intake valve timing on load range, residual gas fraction and induction air flow rate. Emission and fuel consumption under various operation conditions are also discussed. A water-cooled 250cc single cylinder engine with a direct injection system was used for this study. Three sets of valve timing were selected to investigate the effect of intake valve opening duration. Experimental results demonstrated that an engine speed of approximately 2000rpm yields an NMEP (Net Mean Effective Pressure) range from 200kPa to 400kPa.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Mixing and Temperature Effects on HC/CO Emissions for Highly Dilute Low Temperature Combustion in a Light Duty Diesel Engine

There is a significant global effort to study low temperature combustion (LTC) as a tool to achieve stringent emission standards with future light duty diesel engines. LTC utilizes high levels of dilution (i.e., EGR > 60% with <10%O2 in the intake charge) to reduce overall combustion temperatures and to lengthen ignition delay, This increased ignition delay provides time for fuel evaporation and reduces in-homogeneities in the reactant mixture, thus reducing NOx formation from local temperature spikes and soot formation from locally rich mixtures. However, as dilution is increased to the limits, HC and CO can significantly increase. Recent research suggests that CO emissions during LTC result from the incomplete combustion of under-mixed fuel and charge gas occurring after the premixed burn period [1, 2]1. The objective of the present work was to increase understanding of the HC/CO emission mechanisms in LTC at part-load.
Technical Paper

Soot Structure in a Conventional Non-Premixed Diesel Flame

An analysis of the soot formation and oxidation process in a conventional direct-injection (DI) diesel flame was conducted using numerical simulations. An improved multi-step phenomenological soot model that includes particle inception, particle coagulation, surface growth and oxidation was used to describe the soot formation and oxidation process. The soot model has been implemented into the KIVA-3V code. Other model Improvements include a piston-ring crevice model, a KH/RT spray breakup model, a droplet wall impingement model, a wall-temperature heat transfer model, and the RNG k-ε turbulence model. The Shell model was used to simulate the ignition process, and a laminar-and-turbulent characteristic time combustion model was used for the post-ignition combustion process. Experimental data from a heavy-duty, Cummins N14, research DI diesel engine operated with conventional injection under low-load conditions were selected as a benchmark.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Intake Charge Preheating in a Gasoline-Fueled HCCI Engine

Experiments were performed on a homogeneously fueled compression ignition gasoline-type engine with a high degree of intake charge preheating. It was observed that fuels that contained lower end and/or non-branched hydrocarbons (gasoline and an 87 octane primary reference fuel (PRF) blend) exhibited sensitivity to thermal conditions in the surge tanks upstream of the intake valves. The window of intake charge temperatures, measured near the intake valve, that provided acceptable combustion was shifted to lower values when the upstream surge tank gas temperatures were elevated. The same behavior, however, was not observed while using isooctane as a fuel. Gas chromatograph mass spectrometer analysis of the intake charge revealed that oxygenated species were present with PRF 87, and the abundance of the oxygenated species appeared to increase with increasing surge tank gas temperatures. No significant oxygenated species were detected when running with isooctane.
Technical Paper

Modern Diesel Particulate Matter Measurements and the Application of Lessons Learned to 2007 Levels and Beyond

Experimental tests were conducted to determine the sensitivity of Diesel particulate matter (PM) at a given engine operating condition using a single cylinder research engine at the University of Wisconsin Engine Research Center. Utilizing a full dilution tunnel with a second stage partial dilution tunnel, the PM emissions were characterized. Physical properties were measured with a variety of instruments including a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS), Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalance (TEOM) as well as traditional filter-based gravimetric measurements. Chemical composition was determined through the use of the Thermal/Optical Transmittance (TOT) Method, Ion Chromatography (IC) and Inductively Coupled Plasma - Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP/OES). Particulate mass emissions were shown to be on the order of 0.05 g/bhp-hr for the light load engine operating condition selected.
Technical Paper

Modeling the Effects of EGR and Injection Pressure on Soot Formation in a High-Speed Direct-Injection (HSDI) Diesel Engine Using a Multi-Step Phenomenological Soot Model

Low-temperature combustion concepts that utilize cooled EGR, early/retarded injection, high swirl ratios, and modest compression ratios have recently received considerable attention. To understand the combustion and, in particular, the soot formation process under these operating conditions, a modeling study was carried out using the KIVA-3V code with an improved phenomenological soot model. This multi-step soot model includes particle inception, surface growth, surface oxidation, and particle coagulation. Additional models include a piston-ring crevice model, the KH/RT spray breakup model, a droplet wall impingement model, a wall heat transfer model, and the RNG k-ε turbulence model. The Shell model was used to simulate the ignition process, and a laminar-and-turbulent characteristic time combustion model was used for the post-ignition combustion process.
Technical Paper

Expanding the HCCI Operation With the Charge Stratification

A single cylinder CFR research engine has been run in HCCI combustion mode at the rich and the lean limits of the homogeneous charge operating range. To achieve a variation of the degree of charge stratification, two GDI injectors were installed: one was used for generating a homogeneous mixture in the intake system, and the other was mounted directly into the side of the combustion chamber. At the lean limit of the operating range, stratification showed a tremendous improvement in IMEP and emissions. At the rich limit, however, the stratification was limited by the high-pressure rise rate and high CO and NOx emissions. In this experiment the location of the DI injector was in such a position that the operating range that could be investigated was limited due to liquid fuel impingement onto the piston and liner.
Technical Paper

Modeling Iso-octane HCCI Using CFD with Multi-Zone Detailed Chemistry; Comparison to Detailed Speciation Data Over a Range of Lean Equivalence Ratios

Multi-zone CFD simulations with detailed kinetics were used to model iso-octane HCCI experiments performed on a single-cylinder research engine. The modeling goals were to validate the method (multi-zone combustion modeling) and the reaction mechanism (LLNL 857 species iso-octane) by comparing model results to detailed exhaust speciation data, which was obtained with gas chromatography. The model is compared to experiments run at 1200 RPM and 1.35 bar boost pressure over an equivalence ratio range from 0.08 to 0.28. Fuel was introduced far upstream to ensure fuel and air homogeneity prior to entering the 13.8:1 compression ratio, shallow-bowl combustion chamber of this 4-stroke engine. The CFD grid incorporated a very detailed representation of the crevices, including the top-land ring crevice and head-gasket crevice. The ring crevice is resolved all the way into the ring pocket volume. The detailed grid was required to capture regions where emission species are formed and retained.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Numerical Results and Experimental Data on Emission Production Processes in a Diesel Engine

Simulations of DI Diesel engine combustion have been performed using a modified KIVA-II package with a recently developed phenomenological soot model. The phenomenological soot model includes generic description of fuel pyrolysis, soot particle inception, coagulation, and surface growth and oxidation. The computational results are compared with experimental data from a Cummins N14 single cylinder test engine. Results of the simulations show acceptable agreement with experimental data in terms of cylinder pressure, rate of heat release, and engine-out NOx and soot emissions for a range of fuel injection timings considered. The numerical results are also post-processed to obtain time-resolved soot radiation intensity and compared with the experimental data analyzed using two-color optical pyrometry. The temperature magnitude and KL trends show favorable agreement.
Technical Paper

Investigation of the Effects of Cetane Number, Volatility, and Total Aromatic Content on Highly-Dilute Low Temperature Diesel Combustion

The objective of this study is to increase fundamental understanding of the effects of fuel composition and properties on low temperature combustion (LTC) and to identify major properties that could enable engine performance and emission improvements, especially under high load conditions. A series of experiments and computational simulations were conducted under LTC conditions using 67% EGR with 9.5% inlet O₂ concentration on a single-cylinder version of the General Motors Corporation 1.9L direct injection diesel engine. This research investigated the effects of Cetane number (CN), volatility and total aromatic content of diesel fuels on LTC operation. The values of CN, volatility, and total aromatic content studied were selected in a DOE (Design of Experiments) fashion with each variable having a base value as well as a lower and higher level. Timing sweeps were performed for all fuels at a lower load condition of 5.5 bar net IMEP at 2000 rpm using a single-pulse injection strategy.
Technical Paper

Investigations into the Effects of Thermal and Compositional Stratification on HCCI Combustion – Part I: Metal Engine Results

This study utilized a 4-valve engine under HCCI combustion conditions. Each side of the split intake port was fed independently with different temperatures and reactant compositions. Therefore, two stratification approaches were enabled: thermal stratification and compositional stratification. Argon was used as a diluent to achieve higher temperatures and stratify the in-cylinder temperature indirectly via a stratification of the ratio of specific heats (γ = cp/cv). Tests covered five operating conditions (including two values of A/F and two loads) and four stratification cases (including one homogeneous and three with varied temperature and composition). Stratifications of the reactants were expected to affect the combustion control and upper load limit through the combustion phasing and duration, respectively. The two approaches to stratification both affect thermal unmixedness. Since argon has a high γ, it reached higher temperatures through the compression stroke [1].