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Technical Paper

Comprehensive Characterization of Particulate Emissions from Advanced Diesel Combustion

2007-07-23
2007-01-1945
The applicability of several popular diesel particulate matter (PM) measurement techniques to low temperature combustion is examined. The instruments' performance in measuring low levels of PM from advanced diesel combustion is evaluated. Preliminary emissions optimization of a high-speed light-duty diesel engine was performed for two conventional and two advanced low temperature combustion engine cases. A low PM (<0.2 g/kg_fuel) and NOx (<0.07 g/kg_fuel) advanced low temperature combustion (LTC) condition with high levels of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and early injection timing was chosen as a baseline. The three other cases were selected by varying engine load, injection timing, injection pressure, and EGR mass fraction. All engine conditions were run with ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel. An extensive characterization of PM from these engine operating conditions is presented.
Technical Paper

Extinction Measurements of In-Cylinder Soot Deposition in a Heavy-Duty DI Diesel Engine

2001-03-05
2001-01-1296
The combustion process in diesel engines deposits soot on the in-cylinder surfaces. Previous works have suggested that these soot deposits eventually break off during cylinder blow-down and the exhaust stroke and contribute significantly to exhaust soot emissions. In order to better understand this potential pathway to soot emissions, the authors recently investigated combusting fuel-jet/wall interactions in a diesel engine. This work, published as a companion paper, showed how soot escaped from the combusting fuel jet and was brought in close proximity to the wall so that it could become a deposit. The current study extends this earlier work with laser-extinction measurements of the soot-deposition rate in the same single-cylinder, heavy-duty DI diesel engine. Measurements were made by passing the beam of a CW-diode laser through a window in the piston bowl rim that was in-line with one of the fuel jets.
Technical Paper

Diffusion-Flame / Wall Interactions in a Heavy-Duty DI Diesel Engine

2001-03-05
2001-01-1295
Over the past decade, laser diagnostics have improved our understanding of many aspects of diesel combustion. However, interactions between the combusting fuel jet and the piston-bowl wall are not well understood. In heavy-duty diesel engines, with typical fuels, these interactions occur with the combusting vapor-phase region of the jet, which consists of a central region containing soot and other products of rich-premixed combustion, surrounded by a diffusion flame. Since previous work has shown that the OH radical is a good marker of the diffusion flame, planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) imaging of OH was applied to an investigation of the diffusion flame during wall interaction. In addition, simultaneous OH PLIF and planar laser-induced incandescence (PLII) soot imaging was applied to investigate the likelihood for soot deposition on the bowl wall.
Technical Paper

Detailed Diesel Exhaust Particulate Characterization and DPF Regeneration Behavior Measurements for Two Different Regeneration Systems

2007-04-16
2007-01-1063
Three distinct types of diesel particulate matter (PM) are generated in selected engine operating conditions of a single-cylinder heavy-duty diesel engine. The three types of PM are trapped using typical Cordierite diesel particulate filters (DPF) with different washcoat formulations and a commercial Silicon-Carbide DPF. Two systems, an external electric furnace and an in-situ burner, were used for regeneration. Furnace regeneration experiments allow the collected PM to be classified into two categories depending on oxidation mechanism: PM that is affected by the catalyst and PM that is oxidized by a purely thermal mechanism. The two PM categories prove to contribute differently to pressure drop and transient filtration efficiency during in-situ regeneration.
Technical Paper

Effects of DPF Washcoat Variations on DPF Active Regeneration Characteristics

2007-09-16
2007-24-0092
Three Cordierite diesel particulate filters (DPF) with variations in the washcoat† (bare, washcoat-only, and catalyzed washcoat) were filled with equal amounts of PM (∼2 g/l) from a single steady-state engine operating condition (30% load, 1800 rpm). Two regeneration systems were used: an electrical furnace to extract the kinetic parameters by performing Temperature Programmed Oxidation (TPO) experiments and an inline burner to study how DPF washcoat variations affect active regeneration performance. Detailed emissions measurements were performed upstream and downstream of the DPF during the filtration and regeneration processes to quantify DPF filtration and regeneration performance. These measurements included gaseous emission, PM mass concentration, and particle size distribution.
Technical Paper

Integrated Engine, Emissions, and Exhaust Aftertreatment System Level Models to Simulate DPF Regeneration

2007-10-29
2007-01-3970
An integrated system model containing sub-models for diesel engine, emissions, and aftertreatment devices has been developed. The objective is to study engine-device and device-device interactions. The emissions sub-models used are for NOx and PM (particulate matter) prediction. The aftertreatment sub-models used include a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and a diesel particulate filter (DPF). Controllers have also been developed to allow for transient simulations, active DPF regeneration, and prevention/control of runaway DPF regenerations. The integrated system-level model has been used to simulate DPF regeneration via exhaust fuel injection ahead of the DOC. In addition, the controller model can use intake throttling to assist in active DPF regeneration if needed. Regeneration studies have been done for both steady engine load and with load transients. High to low engine load transients are of particular interest because they can lead to runaway DPF regeneration.
Technical Paper

An Investigation Into the Effect of Fuel Composition on HCCI Combustion Characteristics

2002-10-21
2002-01-2830
A single cylinder CFR research engine has been run in HCCI combustion mode for a range of temperatures and fuel compositions. The data indicate that the best HCCI operation, as measured by a combination of successful combustion with low ISFC, occurs at or near the rich limit of operation. Analysis of the pressure and heat release histories indicated the presence, or absence, and impact of the fuel's NTC ignition behavior on establishing successful HCCI operation. The auto-ignition trends observed were in complete agreement with previous results found in the literature. Furthermore, analysis of the importance of the fuel's octane sensitivity, through assessment of an octane index, successfully explained the changes in the fuels auto-ignition tendency with changes in engine operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Effects of Water-Fuel Emulsions on Spray and Combustion Processes in a Heavy-Duty DI Diesel Engine

2002-10-21
2002-01-2892
Significant reductions of particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions from diesel engines have been realized through fueling with water-fuel emulsions. However, the physical and chemical in-cylinder mechanisms that affect these pollutant reductions are not well understood. To address this issue, laser-based and chemiluminescence imaging experiments were performed in an optically-accessible, heavy-duty diesel engine using both a standard diesel fuel (D2) and an emulsion of 20% water, by mass (W20). A laser-based Mie-scatter diagnostic was used to measure the liquid-phase fuel penetration and showed 40-70% greater maximum liquid lengths with W20 at the operating conditions tested. At some conditions with low charge temperature or density, the liquid phase fuel may impinge directly on in-cylinder surfaces, leading to increased PM, HC, and CO emissions because of poor mixing.
Technical Paper

Effects of Fuel Parameters and Diffusion Flame Lift-Off on Soot Formation in a Heavy-Duty DI Diesel Engine

2002-03-04
2002-01-0889
To better understand the factors affecting soot formation in diesel engines, in-cylinder soot and diffusion flame lift-off were measured in a heavy-duty, direct-injection diesel engine. Measurements were obtained at two operating conditions using two commercial diesel fuels and a range of oxygenated paraffinic fuel blends. A line-of-sight laser extinction diagnostic was improved and employed to measure the relative soot concentration within the jet (“jet-soot”) and the rates of soot-wall deposition on the piston bowl-rim. An OH chemiluminescence imaging technique was developed to determine the location of the diffusion flame and to measure the lift-off lengths of the diffusion flame to estimate the amount of oxygen entrainment in the diesel jets. Both the jet-soot and the rate of soot-wall deposition were found to decrease with increasing fuel oxygen-to-carbon ratio (O/C) over a wide range of O/C.
Technical Paper

Detailed Chemical Composition and Particle Size Assessment of Diesel Engine Exhaust

2002-10-21
2002-01-2670
A dilution source sampling system has been incorporated into the exhaust measurement system of a research single-cylinder diesel engine. To allow more detailed assessment of the individual chemical components of the diesel particulate matter (PM) the exhaust dilution system includes a residence time chamber (RTC) to allow for residence times of 30 to 60 seconds in the second stage of dilution before sampling. Samples are collected on a range of different filters where mass loading, elemental and organic carbon (ECOC), trace metals, sulfate ions (SO4), particle-phase organic compounds, and semi-volatile organic compounds are evaluated. In addition, particle size distributions have been determined using a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). Results show that the chemical composition of the particulate matter is highly dependent on the engine operating conditions.
Technical Paper

A Numerical Study to Control Combustion Duration of Hydrogen-Fueled HCCI by Using Multi-Zone Chemical Kinetics Simulation

2001-03-05
2001-01-0250
An engine cycle simulation code with detailed chemical kinetics has been developed to study Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion with hydrogen as the fuel. In order to attain adequate combustion duration, resulting from the self-accelerating nature of the chemical reaction, fuel and temperature inhomogeneities have been brought to the calculation by considering the combustion chamber to have various temperature and fuel distributions. Calculations have been done under various conditions including both perfectly homogeneous and inhomogeneous cases, changing the degree of inhomogeneity. The results show that intake gas temperature is more dominant on ignition timing of HCCI than equivalence ratio and that there is a possibility to control HCCI by introducing appropriate temperature inhomogeneity to in-cylinder mixture.
Technical Paper

Chemiluminescence Measurements of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Combustion

2006-04-03
2006-01-1520
A spectroscopic diagnostic system was designed to study the effects of different engine parameters on the chemiluminescence characteristic of HCCI combustion. The engine parameters studied in this work were intake temperature, fuel delivery method, fueling rate (load), air-fuel ratio, and the effect of partial fuel reforming due to intake charge preheating. At each data point, a set of time-resolved spectra were obtained along with the cylinder pressure and exhaust emissions data. It was determined that different engine parameters affect the ignition timing of HCCI combustion without altering the reaction pathways of the fuel after the combustion has started. The chemiluminescence spectra of HCCI combustion appear as several distinct peaks corresponding to emission from CHO, HCHO, CH, and OH superimposed on top of a CO-O continuum. A strong correlation was found between the chemiluminescence light intensity and the rate of heat release.
Technical Paper

Development of a System Level Soot-NOx Trap Aftertreatment Device Model

2006-10-16
2006-01-3287
A Soot-NOx Trap (SNT) is a combinatorial aftertreatment device intended to decrease both particulate and NOx emissions simultaneously. A system-level Soot-NOx Trap model was developed by adding Lean NOx Trap kinetics to a 1D Diesel Particulate Filter model. The hybrid model was validated against each parent model for the limiting cases, then exercised to investigate the interacting redox behavior. Modulations in temperature and exhaust air-fuel ratio were investigated for their ability to facilitate particulate oxidation and NOx reduction in the trap.
Technical Paper

Study on Characteristics of Gasoline Fueled HCCI Using Negative Valve Overlap

2006-11-13
2006-32-0047
Gasoline fueled Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion with internal exhaust gas re-circulation using Negative Valve Overlap (NOL) was investigated by means of calculation and experiment in order to apply this technology to practical use with sufficient operating range and with acceptable emission and fuel consumption. In this paper we discuss the basic characteristics of NOL-HCCI with emphasis on the influence of intake valve timing on load range, residual gas fraction and induction air flow rate. Emission and fuel consumption under various operation conditions are also discussed. A water-cooled 250cc single cylinder engine with a direct injection system was used for this study. Three sets of valve timing were selected to investigate the effect of intake valve opening duration. Experimental results demonstrated that an engine speed of approximately 2000rpm yields an NMEP (Net Mean Effective Pressure) range from 200kPa to 400kPa.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Mixing and Temperature Effects on HC/CO Emissions for Highly Dilute Low Temperature Combustion in a Light Duty Diesel Engine

2007-04-16
2007-01-0193
There is a significant global effort to study low temperature combustion (LTC) as a tool to achieve stringent emission standards with future light duty diesel engines. LTC utilizes high levels of dilution (i.e., EGR > 60% with <10%O2 in the intake charge) to reduce overall combustion temperatures and to lengthen ignition delay, This increased ignition delay provides time for fuel evaporation and reduces in-homogeneities in the reactant mixture, thus reducing NOx formation from local temperature spikes and soot formation from locally rich mixtures. However, as dilution is increased to the limits, HC and CO can significantly increase. Recent research suggests that CO emissions during LTC result from the incomplete combustion of under-mixed fuel and charge gas occurring after the premixed burn period [1, 2]1. The objective of the present work was to increase understanding of the HC/CO emission mechanisms in LTC at part-load.
Technical Paper

Soot Structure in a Conventional Non-Premixed Diesel Flame

2006-04-03
2006-01-0196
An analysis of the soot formation and oxidation process in a conventional direct-injection (DI) diesel flame was conducted using numerical simulations. An improved multi-step phenomenological soot model that includes particle inception, particle coagulation, surface growth and oxidation was used to describe the soot formation and oxidation process. The soot model has been implemented into the KIVA-3V code. Other model Improvements include a piston-ring crevice model, a KH/RT spray breakup model, a droplet wall impingement model, a wall-temperature heat transfer model, and the RNG k-ε turbulence model. The Shell model was used to simulate the ignition process, and a laminar-and-turbulent characteristic time combustion model was used for the post-ignition combustion process. Experimental data from a heavy-duty, Cummins N14, research DI diesel engine operated with conventional injection under low-load conditions were selected as a benchmark.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Intake Charge Preheating in a Gasoline-Fueled HCCI Engine

2005-10-24
2005-01-3742
Experiments were performed on a homogeneously fueled compression ignition gasoline-type engine with a high degree of intake charge preheating. It was observed that fuels that contained lower end and/or non-branched hydrocarbons (gasoline and an 87 octane primary reference fuel (PRF) blend) exhibited sensitivity to thermal conditions in the surge tanks upstream of the intake valves. The window of intake charge temperatures, measured near the intake valve, that provided acceptable combustion was shifted to lower values when the upstream surge tank gas temperatures were elevated. The same behavior, however, was not observed while using isooctane as a fuel. Gas chromatograph mass spectrometer analysis of the intake charge revealed that oxygenated species were present with PRF 87, and the abundance of the oxygenated species appeared to increase with increasing surge tank gas temperatures. No significant oxygenated species were detected when running with isooctane.
Technical Paper

An Empirical, Mixing-Limited, Zero-Dimensional Model for Diesel Combustion

2004-03-08
2004-01-0924
A zero-dimensional model is introduced that combines recently presented empirical relationships for diesel jet penetration and flame lift-off length in order to produce a realistic heat release rate and predict the temperature and equilibrium species concentrations in five zones within the combustion chamber. The new model describes the compression, combustion and expansion portions of a diesel cycle. During fuel injection and combustion, the temperature, geometry, and composition of five zones are calculated: 1) vaporizing fuel and air, 2) vaporized reactants, 3) premixed products, 4) adiabatic flame sheath, and 5) surrounding charge gas. The apparent heat release rate predicted by the model is compared with data from a constant volume combustion vessel (CVCV) and two single-cylinder direct-injection diesel engines. The rate of charge air entrainment is determined from the correlation of a non-vaporizing, non-reacting jet with no wall impingement.
Technical Paper

Modern Diesel Particulate Matter Measurements and the Application of Lessons Learned to 2007 Levels and Beyond

2005-04-11
2005-01-0194
Experimental tests were conducted to determine the sensitivity of Diesel particulate matter (PM) at a given engine operating condition using a single cylinder research engine at the University of Wisconsin Engine Research Center. Utilizing a full dilution tunnel with a second stage partial dilution tunnel, the PM emissions were characterized. Physical properties were measured with a variety of instruments including a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS), Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalance (TEOM) as well as traditional filter-based gravimetric measurements. Chemical composition was determined through the use of the Thermal/Optical Transmittance (TOT) Method, Ion Chromatography (IC) and Inductively Coupled Plasma - Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP/OES). Particulate mass emissions were shown to be on the order of 0.05 g/bhp-hr for the light load engine operating condition selected.
Technical Paper

Fuel Composition and Molecular Structure Effects on Soot Formation in Direct-Injection Flames Under Diesel Engine Conditions

2005-04-11
2005-01-0381
Numerous investigations have been conducted to determine the effect of fuel composition and molecular structure on particulate emissions using exhaust gas analysis, but relatively few measurements have been obtained in-cylinder or under conditions where fuel effects can be isolated from other variables. Recent work has shown that the amount of air entrained upstream of the lift-off length is critical to soot formation and therefore must be controlled when making relative comparisons of soot formed from various fuels. In this work, dimethoxymethane was used as the base fuel to produce a non-sooting flame with relatively constant lift-off length in a constant volume combustion vessel at 1000 K, and a density of 16.6 kg/m3. A second fuel was then mixed into the dimethoxymethane (DMM) to determine a point at which soot formation begins.
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