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Technical Paper

The NVH Behavior of Internal Combustion Engines used in Range Extended Electric Vehicles

2013-05-13
2013-01-2002
The electrification of vehicle propulsion has changed the landscape of vehicle NVH. Pure electric vehicles (EV) are almost always quieter than those powered by internal combustion engines. However, one of the key challenges with the development of range extended electric vehicles (ReEV) is the NVH behavior of the vehicle. Specifically, the transition from the EV mode to one where the range extender engine is operational can cause significant NVH issues. In addition, the operation of the range extender engine relative to various driving conditions can also pose significant NVH concerns. In this paper internal combustion engines are examined in terms of their acoustic behavior when used as range extenders. This is done by simulating the vibrations at the engine mounting positions as well as the intake and exhaust orifice noise. By using a transfer path synthesis, interior noise components of the range extenders are calculated from these excitations.
Technical Paper

Transient Drive Cycle Modeling of Supercharged Powertrains for Medium and Heavy Duty On-Highway Diesel Applications

2012-09-24
2012-01-1962
The problem with traditional drive cycle fuel economy analysis is that kinematic (backward looking) models do not account for transient differences in charge air handling systems. Therefore, dynamic (forward looking) 1D performance simulation models were created to predict drive cycle fuel economy which encompass all the transient elements of fully detailed engine and vehicle models. The transient-capable technology of primary interest was mechanical supercharging which has the benefit of improved boost response and "time to torque." The benefits of a supercharger clutch have also been evaluated. The current US class 6-8 commercial vehicle market exclusively uses turbocharged diesel engines. Three vehicles and baseline powertrains were selected based on a high-level review of vehicle sales and the used truck marketplace. Fuel economy over drive cycles was the principal output of the simulation work. All powertrains are based on EPA 2010 emission regulations.
Technical Paper

A Low NVH Range-Extender Application with a Small V-2 Engine - Based on a New Vibration Compensation System

2012-10-23
2012-32-0081
The interest in electric propulsion of vehicles has increased in recent years and is being discussed extensively by experts as well as the public. Up to now the driving range and the utilization of pure electric vehicles are still limited in comparison to conventional vehicles due to the limited capacity and the long charging times of today's batteries. This is a challenge to customer acceptance of a pure electric vehicle, even for a city car application. A Range Extender concept could achieve the desired customer acceptance, but should not impact the “electric driving” experience, and should not cause further significant increases in the manufacturing and purchasing cost. The V2 engine concept presented in this paper is particularly suited to a low cost, modular vehicle concept. Advantages regarding packaging can be realized with the use of two generators in combination with the V2 engine.
Technical Paper

A Multi-Cylinder Airflow & Residual Gas Estimation Tool Applied to a Vehicle Demonstrator

2010-04-12
2010-01-0169
In a gasoline engine, the cycle-by-cycle fresh trapped charge, and corresponding unswept residual gas fraction (RGF) are critical parameters of interest for maintaining the desired air-fuel ratio (AFR). Accurate fueling is a key precursor to improved engine fuel economy, and reduced engine out emissions. Asymmetric flow paths to cylinders in certain engines can cause differences in the gas exchange process, which in turn cause imbalances in trapped fresh charge and RGF. Variable cam timing (VCT) can make the gas exchange process even more complex. Due to the reasons stated above, simplified models can result in significant estimation errors for fresh trapped charge and RGF if they are not gas dynamics-based or detailed enough to handle features such as variable valve timing, duration, or lift. In this paper, a new air flow and RGF measurement tool is introduced.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the Impact of Production Lubricant Composition and Fuel Dilution on Stochastic Pre-Ignition in Turbocharged, Direct-Injection Gasoline Engines

2019-04-02
2019-01-0256
The occurrence of abnormal combustion events leading to high peak pressures and severe knock can be considered to be one of the main challenges for modern turbocharged, direct-injected gasoline engines. These abnormal combustion events have been referred to as Stochastic Pre-Ignition (SPI) or Low-Speed Pre-Ignition (LSPI). The events are characterized by an undesired, early start of combustion of the cylinder charge which occurs before or in parallel to the intended flame kernel development from the spark plug. Early SPI events can subsequently lead to violent auto-ignitions that are often referred to as Mega- or Super-Knock. These heavy knock events lead to strong pressure oscillations which can destroy production engines within a few occurrences. SPI occurs mainly at low engine speed and high engine load, thus limiting the engine operating area that is in particular important to achieve good drivability in downsized engines.
Technical Paper

Development of a Diesel Passenger Car Meeting Tier 2 Emissions Levels

2004-03-08
2004-01-0581
Increasing fuel costs, the need to reduce dependence on foreign oil as well as the high efficiency and the desire for superior durability have caused the diesel engine to again become a prime target for light-duty vehicle applications in the United States. In support of this the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has engaged in a test project under the Advanced Petroleum Based Fuels-Diesel Emission Control (APBF-DEC) activity to develop a passenger car with the capability to demonstrate compliance with Tier 2 Bin 5 emission targets with a fresh emission control catalyst system. In order to achieve this goal, a prototype engine was installed in a passenger car and optimized to provide the lowest practical level of engine-out emissions.
Technical Paper

Developing Drivetrain Robustness for Small Engine Testing

2013-04-08
2013-01-0400
The increased demand in fuel economy and the reduction of CO₂ emissions results in continued efforts to downsize engines. The downsizing efforts result in engines with lower displacement as well as lower number of cylinders. In addition to cylinder and displacement downsizing the development community embarks on continued efforts toward down-speeding. The combination of the aforementioned factors results in engines which can have high levels of torsional vibrations. Such behavior can have detrimental effects on the drivetrain particularly during the development phase of these. Driveshafts, couplings, and dynamometers are exposed to these torsional forces and depending on their frequency costly damages in these components can occur. To account for these effects, FEV employs a multi-body-system modeling approach through which base engine information is used to determine optimized drivetrain setups. All mechanical elements in the setup are analyzed based on their torsional behavior.
Technical Paper

Development of an Emission Controls Concept for an IDI Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Meeting 2007 Phase-In Emission Standards

2007-04-16
2007-01-0235
In order to allow continued production of the AM General Optimizer 6500 during MY 2007 through 2010 this IDI engine (Indirect Injection - swirl chamber) requires sophisticated aftertreatment controls while maintaining its fuel economy and durability. The main purpose of the development program was to retain the relatively inexpensive and simple base engine with distributor pump and waste-gated turbocharger, while adding hardware and software components that allow achievement of the phase-in emission standards for 2007 through 2010. The aftertreatment system consists of Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC), NOx Adsorber Catalyst (or DeNOx Trap - DNT) and Diesel Particle Filter (DPF). In addition to the base hardware, an intake air throttle valve and an in-exhaust fuel injector were installed. The presented work will document the development process for a 2004 certified 6.5 l IDI heavy-duty diesel engine to comply with the 2007 heavy-duty emission standards.
Technical Paper

Lean NOx Trap for Heavy-Duty On-Road Applications - A Feasible Alternative?

2007-10-30
2007-01-4179
The implementation and development efforts of lean NOx trap catalysts for heavy-duty applications decreased a number of years ago. Most heavy-duty engine manufacturers realized that the system complexity as well as the durability of such a system does not allow large volume production without significant risk. The current consensus of the heavy-duty community is that for 2010 the SCR system will be the prime path to meet the 0.2 g/bHPhr NOx emission standard, although this is subject to adequate infrastructure investment and progress. As a low volume manufacturer, in order to comply with the 2007 heavy-duty phase-in emission standards, General Engine Products (a subsidiary of AM General LLC) integrated a NOx adsorber system on the Optimizer 6500 engine. This engine features split combustion chamber design, rotary fuel injection pump and operates with EGR.
Journal Article

Effects of Biodiesel Operation on Light-Duty Tier 2 Engine and Emission Control Systems

2008-04-14
2008-01-0080
Due to raising interest in diesel powered passenger cars in the U.S. in combination with a desire to reduce dependency on imported petroleum, there has been increased attention to the operation of diesel vehicles on fuels blended with biodiesel. One of several factors to be considered when operating a vehicle on biodiesel blends is understanding the impact and performance of the fuel on the emission control system. This paper documents the impact of the biodiesel blends on engine-out emissions as well as the overall system performance in terms of emission control system calibration and the overall system efficiency. The testing platform is a light-duty HSDI diesel engine with a Euro 4 base calibration in a 1700 kg sedan vehicle. It employs 2nd generation common-rail injection system with peak pressure of 1600 bar as well as cooled high-pressure EGR. The study includes 3 different fuels (U.S.
Technical Paper

An Artificial Neural Network-based Approach for Virtual NOx Sensing

2008-04-14
2008-01-0753
With the advent of advanced diesel after-treatment technologies, sophisticated sensors are becoming a critical cost challenge to OEMs. This paper describes an approach for replacing the engine out NOx sensor with an artificial neural network (ANN) based virtual sensor. The technique centers around inferring NOx concentration from readily available engine operating parameters, eliminating the need for physical sensing and the cost associated with it. A multi-layer perceptron network was trained to estimate NOx concentration from engine speed, load, exhaust gas recirculation, and air-fuel ratio information. This supervised learning was conducted with measured engine data. The network was validated against measured data that was excluded from the training data set. The paper details application of this technique to both a heavy duty and light duty diesel engine. Results show good agreement between predictions and measured data under the steady state conditions studied.
Technical Paper

Potential of the Spray-guided Combustion System in Combination with Turbocharging

2008-04-14
2008-01-0139
Based on the TurboDISI engine presented earlier [1], [2], a new Spray Guided Turbo (SGT) concept with enhanced engine performance was developed. The turbocharged engine was modified towards utilizing a spray-guided combustion system with a central piezo injector location. Higher specific power and torque levels were achieved by applying specific design and cooling solutions. The engine was developed utilizing a state-of-the-art newly developed charge motion design (CMD) process in combination with single cylinder investigations. The engine control unit has a modular basis and is realized using rapid prototyping hardware. Additional fuel consumption potentials can be achieved with high load EGR, use of alternative fuels and a hybrid powertrain. The CO2 targets of the EU (120 g/km by 2012 in the NEDC) can be obtained with a mid-size vehicle applying the technologies presented within this paper.
Technical Paper

A Model for On-Line Monitoring of In-Cylinder Residual Gas Fraction (RGF) and Mass Flowrate in Gasoline Engines

2006-04-03
2006-01-0656
In a gasoline engine, the unswept in-cylinder residual gas and introduction of external EGR is one of the important means of controlling engine raw NOx emissions and improving part load fuel economy via reduction of pumping losses. Since the trapped in-cylinder Residual Gas Fraction (RGF, comprised of both internal, and external) significantly affects the combustion process, on-line diagnosis and monitoring of in-cylinder RGF is very important to the understanding of the in-cylinder dilution condition. This is critical during the combustion system development testing and calibration processes. However, on-line measurement of in-cylinder RGF is difficult and requires an expensive exhaust gas analyzer, making it impractical for every application. Other existing methods, based on measured intake and exhaust pressures (steady state or dynamic traces) to calculate gas mass flowrate across the cylinder ports, provide a fast and economical solution to this problem.
Technical Paper

Desulfurization Effects on a Light-Duty Diesel Vehicle NOx Adsorber Exhaust Emission Control System

2006-04-03
2006-01-0423
The U.S. Tier 2 emission regulations require sophisticated exhaust aftertreatment technologies for diesel engines. One of the projects under the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Advanced Petroleum Based Fuels - Diesel Emission Controls (APBF-DEC) activity focused on the development of a light-duty passenger car with an integrated NOx (oxides of nitrogen) adsorber catalyst (NAC) and diesel particle filter (DPF) technology. Vehicle emissions tests on this platform showed the great potential of the system, achieving the Tier 2 Bin 5 emission standards with new, but degreened emission control systems. The platform development and control strategies for this project were presented in 2004-01-0581 [1]. The main disadvantage of the NOx adsorber technology is its susceptibility to sulfur poisoning. The fuel- and lubrication oil-borne sulfur is converted into sulfur dioxide (SO2) in the combustion process and is adsorbed by the active sites of the NAC.
Technical Paper

Gas Exchange Optimization and the Impact on Emission Reduction for HSDI Diesel Engines

2009-04-20
2009-01-0653
The main tasks for all future powertrain developments are: regulated emissions, CO2-values, comfort, good drivability, high reliability and affordable costs. One widely discussed approach for fuel consumption improvement within passenger car applications, is to incorporate the downsizing effect. To attain constant engine performance an increase of boost pressure and/or rated speed is mandatory. In both cases, the mass flow rate through the intake and exhaust ports and valves will rise. In this context, the impact of the port layout on the system has to be reassessed. In this paper, the impact of the port layout on a modern diesel combustion system will be discussed and a promising concept shall be described in detail. The investigations shown include flow measurements, PIV measurements of intake flow, CFD simulations of the flow field during intake and results from the thermodynamic test bench. One of the important topics is to prove the impact of the flow quality on the combustion.
Technical Paper

Development and Calibration of On-Board-Diagnostic Strategies Using a Micro-HiL Approach

2011-04-12
2011-01-0703
Beginning in 2010, implementation of on-board diagnostics (OBD) is mandatory for all the heavy-duty engine applications in the United States. The task of developing OBD strategies and calibrating them is a challenging one. The process involves a strong interdependency on base engine emissions, controls and regulations. On top of that the strategies developed as a result of the regulatory requirements need to go through a stringent and time-intensive process of software implementation and integration. The recent increasing demands to minimize the development process have been pushing the envelope on the methodologies used in developing the strategies and the calibration for robust monitoring. The goal of this paper is to provide a concise overview of a process utilized to help the development, testing and calibration of the OBD strategies on a 2010 model year heavy-duty diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Systematic Approach to Analyze and Characterize Pre-ignition Events in Turbocharged Direct-injected Gasoline Engines

2011-04-12
2011-01-0343
Downsized direct-injected boosted gasoline engines with high specific power and torque output are leading the way to reduce fuel consumption in passenger car vehicles while maintaining the same performance when compared to applications with larger naturally aspirated engines. These downsized engines reach brake mean effective pressure levels which are in excess of 20 bar. When targeting high output levels at low engine speeds, undesired combustion events called pre-ignition can occur. These pre-ignition events are typically accompanied by very high cylinder peak pressures which can lead to severe damage if the engine is not designed to withstand these high cylinder pressures. Although these pre-ignition events have been reported by numerous other authors, it seems that their occurrence is rather erratic which makes it difficult to investigate or reliably exclude them.
Journal Article

OBD Diagnostic Strategies for LEVIII Exhaust Gas Aftertreatment Concepts

2015-04-14
2015-01-1040
Upcoming motor vehicle emission regulations, such as California's LEVIII, continue to tighten emission limitations in diesel vehicles. These increasingly challenging emission requirements will be met by improving the combustion process (reducing engine-out emissions), as well as improving the exhaust gas aftertreatment efficiency. Furthermore, intricate On-Board Diagnostics (OBD) systems are required to properly diagnose and meet OBD regulation requirements for complex aftertreatment systems. Under these conditions, current monitoring strategies are unable to guarantee reliable detection of partially failed systems. Additionally, new OBD regulations require aftertreatment systems to be diagnosed as a whole. This paper covers potential OBD strategies for LEVIII aftertreatment concepts with regard to regulation compliance and robustness, while striving to use existing sensor concepts.
Technical Paper

Virtual Testing and Simulation Environment [Micro-HiL] for Engine and Aftertreatment Calibration and Development -Part 2

2012-04-16
2012-01-0928
The growing complexity of powertrain control strategies, software, and hardware is proving to be a significant challenge to the engineering community with regard to managing effective optimization to meet the desired performance. With an increased emphasis on shorter development time and the use of additional sensors and actuators becoming common, the increased dependence on physical models and use of complex interdependent control systems demands a thorough system understanding. This also encourages the use of process improvement tools to assist in an effective engineering process. In this paper, such a tool is discussed in its second phase of development. The Micro-HiL system will be discussed over a wide scope that focuses on the interests of the calibration and development community. The purpose of this paper is to provide an update on the Phase 2 activity of Micro-HiL development; Phase 1 was discussed in-depth at the 2011 SAE World Congress [2011-01-0703].
Technical Paper

Increasing Efficiency in Gasoline Powertrains with a Two-Stage Variable Compression Ratio (VCR) System

2013-04-08
2013-01-0288
Downsizing in combination with turbocharging currently represents the main technology trend for meeting CO2 emissions with gasoline engines. Besides the well-known advantages of downsizing the compression ratio has to be reduced in order to mitigate knock at higher engine loads along with increased turbocharging demand to compensate for the reduction in power. Another disadvantage occurs at part load with increasing boost pressure levels causing the part load efficiencies to deteriorate. The application of a variable compression ratio (VCR) system can help to mitigate these disadvantages. The 2-stage VCR system with variable kinetic lengths entails variable powertrain components which can be used instead of the conventional components and thus only require minor modifications for existing engine architectures. The presented variable length connecting rod system has been continuously developed over the past years.
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