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Technical Paper

Turbocharger Matching for a 4-Cylinder Gasoline HCCI Engine Using a 1D Engine Simulation

2010-10-25
2010-01-2143
Naturally aspirated HCCI operation is typically limited to medium load operation (∼ 5 bar net IMEP) by excessive pressure rise rate. Boosting can provide the means to extend the HCCI range to higher loads. Recently, it has been shown that HCCI can achieve loads of up to 16.3 bar of gross IMEP by boosting the intake pressure to more than 3 bar, using externally driven compressors. However, investigating HCCI performance over the entire speed-load range with real turbocharger systems still remains an open topic for research. A 1 - D simulation of a 4 - cylinder 2.0 liter engine model operated in HCCI mode was used to match it with off-the-shelf turbocharger systems. The engine and turbocharger system was simulated to identify maximum load limits over a range of engine speeds. Low exhaust enthalpy due to the low temperatures that are characteristic of HCCI combustion caused increased back-pressure and high pumping losses and demanded the use of a small and more efficient turbocharger.
Journal Article

Comparison of Different Boosting Strategies for Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engines - A Modeling Study

2010-04-12
2010-01-0571
Boosted Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) has been modeled and has demonstrated the potential to extend the engine's upper load limit. A commercially available engine simulation software (GT-PowerÖ) coupled to the University of Michigan HCCI combustion and heat transfer correlations was used to model a 4-cylinder boosted HCCI engine with three different boosting configurations: turbocharging, supercharging and series turbocharging. The scope of this study is to identify the best boosting approach in order to extend the HCCI engine's operating range. The results of this study are consistent with the literature: Boosting helps increase the HCCI upper load limit, but matching of turbochargers is a problem. In addition, the low exhaust gas enthalpy resulting from HCCI combustion leads to high pressures in the exhaust manifold increasing pumping work. The series turbocharging strategy appears to provide the largest load range extension.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Diesel Combustion and NO Emissions Based on a Modified Eddy Dissipation Concept

2004-03-08
2004-01-0107
This paper reports the development of a model of diesel combustion and NO emissions, based on a modified eddy dissipation concept (EDC), and its implementation into the KIVA-3V multidimensional simulation. The EDC model allows for more realistic representation of the thin sub-grid scale reaction zone as well as the small-scale molecular mixing processes. Realistic chemical kinetic mechanisms for n-heptane combustion and NOx formation processes are fully incorporated. A model based on the normalized fuel mass fraction is implemented to transition between ignition and combustion. The modeling approach has been validated by comparison with experimental data for a range of operating conditions. Predicted cylinder pressure and heat release rates agree well with measurements. The predictions for NO concentration show a consistent trend with experiments. Overall, the results demonstrate the improved capability of the model for predictions of the combustion process.
Technical Paper

Control of a Multi-Cylinder HCCI Engine During Transient Operation by Modulating Residual Gas Fraction to Compensate for Wall Temperature Effects

2007-04-16
2007-01-0204
The thermal conditions of an engine structure, in particular the wall temperatures, have been shown to have a great effect on the HCCI engine combustion timing and burn rates through wall heat transfer, especially during transient operations. This study addresses the effects of thermal inertia on combustion in an HCCI engine. In this study, the control of combustion timing in an HCCI engine is achieved by modulating the residual gas fraction (RGF) while considering the wall temperatures. A multi-cylinder engine simulation with detailed geometry is carried out using a 1-D system model (GT-Power®) that is linked with Simulink®. The model includes a finite element wall temperature solver and is enhanced with original HCCI combustion and heat transfer models. Initially, the required residual gas fraction for optimal BSFC is determined for steady-state operation. The model is then used to derive a map of the sensitivity of optimal residual gas fraction to wall temperature excursions.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Diesel Oxidation Catalyst Performance on an Engine and a Gas Flow Reactor

2007-04-16
2007-01-0231
This paper analyzes and compares reactor and engine behavior of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) in the presence of conventional diesel exhaust and low temperature premixed compression ignition (PCI) diesel exhaust. Surrogate exhaust mixtures of n-undecane (C11H24), ethene (C2H4), CO, O2, H2O, NO and N2 are defined for conventional and PCI combustion and used in the gas flow reactor tests. Both engine and reactor tests use a DOC containing platinum, palladium and a hydrocarbon storage component (zeolite). On both the engine and reactor, the composition of PCI exhaust increases light-off temperature relative to conventional combustion. However, while nominal conditions are similar, the catalyst behaves differently on the two experimental setups. The engine DOC shows higher initial apparent HC conversion efficiencies because the engine exhaust contains a higher fraction of trappable (i.e., high boiling point) HC.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Ceramic Coatings on Diesel Engine Performance and Exhaust Emissions

1991-02-01
910460
An experimental investigation of the effects of ceramic coatings on diesel engine performance and exhaust emissions was conducted. Tests were carried out over a range of engine speeds at full load for a standard metal piston and two pistons insulated with 0.5 mm and 1.0 mm thick ceramic coatings. The thinner (0.5 mm) ceramic coating resulted in improved performance over the baseline engine, with the gains being especially pronounced with decreasing engine speed. At 1000 rpm, the 0.5 mm ceramic coated piston produced 10% higher thermal efficiency than the metal piston. In contrast, the relatively thicker coating (1 mm), resulted in as much as 6% lower thermal efficiency compared to baseline. On the other hand, the insulated engines consistently presented an attractive picture in terms of their emissions characteristics. Due to the more complete combustion in the insulated configurations, exhaust CO levels were between 30% and 60% lower than baseline levels.
Technical Paper

Quasi-Dimensional Computer Simulation of the Turbocharged Spark-Ignition Engine and its Use for 2- and 4-Valve Engine Matching Studies

1991-02-01
910075
A quasi-dimensional computer simulation of the turbocharged spark-ignition engine has been developed in order to study system performance as various design parameters and operating conditions are varied. The simulation is of the “filling and emptying” type. Quasi-steady flow models of the compressor, intercooler, manifolds, turbine, wastegate, and ducting are coupled with a multi-cylinder engine model where each cylinder undergoes the same thermodynamic cycle. A turbulent entrainment model of the combustion process is used, thus allowing for studies of the effects of various combustion chamber shapes and turbulence parameters on cylinder pressure, temperature, NOx emissions and overall engine performance. Valve open areas are determined either based on user supplied valve lift data or using polydyne-generated cam profiles which allow for variable valve timing studies.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Alternative Thermocouple Designs for Transient Heat Transfer Measurements in Metal and Ceramic Engines

1989-02-01
890571
Finite element models of various fast-response thermocouple designs have been developed. Due to the small differences in thermal properties between thermoelements and metal engine components, standard co-axial thermocouples can measure transient temperatures of metal components within an accuracy of 98%. However, these relatively small errors in total temperature measurement translate into as high as 30% errors in indicated peak-to-peak-temperature swings for iron surfaces. The transient swing errors result in up to 30% errors in peak heat flux rates to iron surfaces. These peak heat flux errors can be substantially larger if coaxial thermocouples are used for heat flux measurements in aluminum or ceramic surfaces. Increasing the thin film thickness is a compromise solution to reduce the discrepancy in peak heat flux measured with coaxial designs in metal engines. An alternative overlapping thin film thermocouple design has also been evaluated.
Technical Paper

A Four-Stroke Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engine Simulation for Combustion and Performance Studies

2000-03-06
2000-01-0332
A computer simulation of the Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) four-stroke engine has been developed for combustion and performance studies. The simulation couples models for mass, species, and energy within a zero-dimensional framework. The combustion process is described via a user-defined chemical kinetic mechanism. The CHEMKIN libraries have been used to formulate a stiff chemical kinetic solver suitable for integration within a complete engine cycle simulation, featuring models of gas exchange, turbulence and wall heat transfer. For illustration, two chemical kinetics schemes describing hydrogen and natural gas chemistry have been implemented in the code. The hydrogen scheme is a reduced one, consisting of 11 species and 23 reactions. The natural gas chemistry is described via the GRI-mechanism 3.0 that considers 53 species and 325 reactions, including NOx chemistry.
Technical Paper

An Approach for Modeling the Effects of Gas Exchange Processes on HCCI Combustion and Its Application in Evaluating Variable Valve Timing Control Strategies

2002-10-21
2002-01-2829
The present study introduces a modeling approach for investigating the effects of valve events and gas exchange processes in the framework of a full-cycle HCCI engine simulation. A multi-dimensional fluid mechanics code, KIVA-3V, is used to simulate exhaust, intake and compression up to a transition point, before which chemical reactions become important. The results are then used to initialize the zones of a multi-zone, thermo-kinetic code, which computes the combustion event and part of the expansion. After the description and the validation of the model against experimental data, the application of the method is illustrated in the context of variable valve actuation. It has been shown that early exhaust valve closing, accompanied by late intake valve opening, has the potential to provide effective control of HCCI combustion.
Technical Paper

Compression Ratio Influence on Maximum Load of a Natural Gas Fueled HCCI Engine

2002-03-04
2002-01-0111
This paper discusses the compression ratio influence on maximum load of a Natural Gas HCCI engine. A modified Volvo TD100 truck engine is controlled in a closed-loop fashion by enriching the Natural Gas mixture with Hydrogen. The first section of the paper illustrates and discusses the potential of using hydrogen enrichment of natural gas to control combustion timing. Cylinder pressure is used as the feedback and the 50 percent burn angle is the controlled parameter. Full-cycle simulation is compared to some of the experimental data and then used to enhance some of the experimental observations dealing with ignition timing, thermal boundary conditions, emissions and how they affect engine stability and performance. High load issues common to HCCI are discussed in light of the inherent performance and emissions tradeoff and the disappearance of feasible operating space at high engine loads.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Premixed Charge Compression Ignition Combustion With a Sequential Fluid Mechanics-Multizone Chemical Kinetics Model

2005-04-11
2005-01-0115
We have developed a methodology for analysis of Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (PCCI) engines that applies to conditions in which there is some stratification in the air-fuel distribution inside the cylinder at the time of combustion. The analysis methodology consists of two stages: first, a fluid mechanics code is used to determine temperature and equivalence ratio distributions as a function of crank angle, assuming motored conditions. The distribution information is then used for grouping the mass in the cylinder into a two-dimensional (temperature-equivalence ratio) array of zones. The zone information is then handed on to a detailed chemical kinetics model that calculates combustion, emissions and engine efficiency information. The methodology applies to situations where chemistry and fluid mechanics are weakly linked.
Technical Paper

Pressure Reactive Piston Technology Investigation and Development for Spark Ignition Engines

2005-04-11
2005-01-1648
Variable Compression Ratio (VCR) technology has long been recognized as a method of improving Spark Ignition (SI) engine fuel economy. The Pressure Reactive Piston (PRP) assembly features a two-piece piston, with a piston crown and separate piston skirt which enclose a spring set between them. The unique feature is that the upper piston reacts to the cylinder pressure, accommodating rapid engine load changes passively. This mechanism effectively limits the peak pressures at high loads without an additional control device, while allowing the engine to operate at high compression ratio during low load conditions. Dynamometer engine testing showed that Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC) improvement of the PRP over the conventional piston ranged from 8 to 18 % up to 70% load. Knock free full load operation was also achieved. The PRP equipped engine combustion is characterized by reverse motion of the piston crown near top dead center and higher thermal efficiency.
Technical Paper

New Heat Transfer Correlation for an HCCI Engine Derived from Measurements of Instantaneous Surface Heat Flux

2004-10-25
2004-01-2996
An experimental study has been carried out to provide qualitative and quantitative insight into gas to wall heat transfer in a gasoline fueled Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine. Fast response thermocouples are embedded in the piston top and cylinder head surface to measure instantaneous wall temperature and heat flux. Heat flux measurements obtained at multiple locations show small spatial variations, thus confirming relative uniformity of in-cylinder conditions in a HCCI engine operating with premixed charge. Consequently, the spatially-averaged heat flux represents well the global heat transfer from the gas to the combustion chamber walls in the premixed HCCI engine, as confirmed through the gross heat release analysis. Heat flux measurements were used for assessing several existing heat transfer correlations. One of the most popular models, the Woschni expression, was shown to be inadequate for the HCCI engine.
Technical Paper

A Prototype Thin-Film Thermocouple for Transient Heat Transfer Measurements in Ceramic-Coated Combustion Chambers

1990-02-01
900691
A prototype chromel-alumel overlapping thin-film thermocouple (TFTC) has been developed for transient heat transfer measurements in ceramic-coated combustion chambers. The TFTC has been evaluated using various metallurgical techniques such as scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray detection, and Auger electron spectroscopy. The sensor was calibrated against a standard thermocouple in ice, boiling water, and a furnace at 1000°C. The microstructural and chemical analysis of the thin-films showed the alumel film composition was very similar to the bulk material, while the chromel film varied slightly. An initial set of ceramic plug surface temperatures was taken while motoring and firing the engine at 1900 rpm to verify thermocouple operation. The data shows a 613 K mean temperature and a 55 K swing for the ceramic surface compared with a 493 K mean temperature and a 20 K swing for the metal surface at the same location.
Technical Paper

Thin Thermal Barrier Coatings for Engines

1989-02-01
890143
Contrary to the thick thermal barrier coating approach used in adiabatic diesel engines, the authors have investigated the merits of thin coatings. Transient heat transfer analysis indicates that the temperature swings experienced at combustion chamber surfaces depend primarily on material thermophysical properties, i.e., conductivity, density, and specific heat. Thus, cyclic temperature swings should be alike whether thick or thin (less than 0.25 mm) coatings are applied, Furthermore, thin coatings would lead to lower mean component temperatures and would be easier to apply than thick coatings. The thinly-coated engine concept offers several advantages including improved volumetric efficiency, lower cylinder liner wall temperatures, improved piston-liner tribological behavior, and improved erosion-corrosion resistance and thus greater component durability.
Technical Paper

Measurements and Predictions of Steady-State and Transient Stress Distributions in a Diesel Engine Cylinder Head

1999-03-01
1999-01-0973
A combined experimental and analytical approach was followed in this work to study stress distributions and causes of failure in diesel cylinder heads under steady-state and transient operation. Experimental studies were conducted first to measure temperatures, heat fluxes and stresses under a series of steady-state operating conditions. Furthermore, by placing high temperature strain gages within the thermal penetration depth of the cylinder head, the effect of thermal shock loading under rapid transients was studied. A comparison of our steady-state and transient measurements suggests that the steady-state temperature gradients and the level of temperatures are the primary causes of thermal fatigue in cast-iron cylinder heads. Subsequently, a finite element analysis was conducted to predict the detailed steady-state temperature and stress distributions within the cylinder head. A comparison of the predicted steady-state temperatures and stresses compared well with our measurements.
Technical Paper

Optimizing Gaseous Fuel-Air Mixing in Direct Injection Engines Using an RNG Based k-ε Model

1998-02-23
980135
Direct injection of natural gas under high pressure conditions has emerged as a promising option for improving engine fuel economy and emissions. However, since the gaseous injection technology is new, limited experience exists as to the optimum configuration of the injection system and associated combustion chamber design. The present study uses KIVA-3 based, multidimensional modeling to improve the understanding and assist the optimization of the gaseous injection process. Compared to standard k-ε models, a Renormalization Group Theory (RNG) based k-ε model [1] has been found to be in better agreement with experiments in predicting gaseous penetration histories for both free and confined jet configurations. Hence, this validated RNG model is adopted here to perform computations in realistic engine geometries.
Technical Paper

Overview of Techniques for Measuring Friction Using Bench Tests and Fired Engines

2000-06-19
2000-01-1780
This paper presents an overview of techniques for measuring friction using bench tests and fired engines. The test methods discussed have been developed to provide efficient, yet realistic, assessments of new component designs, materials, and lubricants for in-cylinder and overall engine applications. A Cameron-Plint Friction and Wear Tester was modified to permit ring-in-piston-groove movement by the test specimen, and used to evaluate a number of cylinder bore coatings for friction and wear performance. In a second study, it was used to evaluate the energy conserving characteristics of several engine lubricant formulations. Results were consistent with engine and vehicle testing, and were correlated with measured fuel economy performance. The Instantaneous IMEP Method for measuring in-cylinder frictional forces was extended to higher engine speeds and to modern, low-friction engine designs.
Technical Paper

A High Temperature and High Pressure Evaporation Model for the KIVA-3 Code

1996-02-01
960629
A high pressure and high temperature evaporation model was implemented in the KIVA-3 multidimensional engine simulation. The most significant features of the new evaporation model are: the effects of Stefan flow on transfer rates are included; internal circulation is accounted using the effective conductivity model of Abramzon and Sirignano [1]; equilibrium composition is calculated at high pressures using a real gas equation of state; and properties are evaluated as functions of temperature, pressure and composition. The evaporation of a continuous spray of n-dodecane injected in a chamber pressurized with nitrogen gas was simulated using the two models. Predictions of the evaporation rate, the spray penetration and fuel vapor distribution by the two models were significantly different. The differences persisted over a range of ambient pressures and temperatures, injection velocities, initial droplet sizes and fuel volatilities.
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