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Technical Paper

Framework for the Assessment of Capacity and Throughput Techologies

2000-10-10
2000-01-5612
The demand for air travel is expanding beyond the capacity of existing airports and air traffic control. This excess traffic often results in delays and compromised safety. Therefore, a number of initiatives to improve airport capacity and throughput have been proposed. However, in order to assess the impact of these technologies on commercial air traffic one must move beyond the vehicle to a system-of-systems point of view. This top-level point of view must include consideration of the aircraft, airports, air traffic management and airlines that make up the airspace system. In addition to the analyses of each of these components and their interactions, a thorough investigation of capacity and throughput technologies requires due consideration of other pressures such as economics, safety and government regulations. Furthermore, the air traffic system is inherently variable with constant changes in everything from fuel prices to the weather.
Technical Paper

New Approaches to Multidisciplinary Synthesis: An Aero-Structures-Control Application Using Statistical Techniques

1996-10-01
965501
An evolving aircraft synthesis simulation environment which offers improvements to existing methods at multiple levels of a design process is described in this paper. As design databases become obsolete due to the introduction of new technologies and classes of vehicles and as sophisticated analysis codes are often too computationally expensive for iterative applications, the design engineer may find a lack of usable information needed for decision making. Within the environment developed in this paper, rapid sensitivity analysis is possible through a unique representation of the relationship between fundamental design variables and system objectives. The combined use of the Design of Experiments and Response Surface techniques provides the ability to form this design relationship among system variables and target values, which is termed design-oriented in nature.
Technical Paper

Preliminary Assessment of the Economic Viability of a Family of Very Large Transport Configurations

1996-10-01
965516
A family of Very Large Transport (VLT) concepts were studied as an implementation of the affordability aspects of the Robust Design Simulation (RDS) methodology which is based on the Integrated Product and Process Development (IPPD) initiative that is sweeping through industry. The VLT is envisioned to be a high capacity (600 to 1000 passengers), long range (∼7500 nm), subsonic transport. Various configurations with different levels of technology were compared, based on affordability issues, to a Boeing 747-400 which is a current high capacity, long range transport. The varying technology levels prompted a need for an integration of a sizing/synthesis (FLOPS) code with an economics package (ALCCA). The integration enables a direct evaluation of the added technology on a configuration economic viability.
Technical Paper

Impact of Configuration and Requirements on the Sonic Boom of a Quiet Supersonic Jet

2002-11-05
2002-01-2930
Market forecasts predict a potentially large market for a Quiet Supersonic Business Jet provided that several technical hurdles are overcome prior to fielding such a vehicle. In order to be economically viable, the QSJ must be able to fly at supersonic speeds overland and operate from regional airports in addition to meeting government noise and emission requirements. As a result of these conflicting constraints on the design, the process of selecting a configuration for low sonic boom is a difficult one. Response Surface Methodology along with physics-based analysis tools were used to create an environment in which the sonic boom can be studied as a function of design and mission parameters. Ten disciplinary codes were linked with a sizing and synthesis code by using a commercial wrapper in order to calculate the required responses with the desired level of fidelity.
Technical Paper

Quiet Supersonic Jet Engine Performance Tradeoff Analysis Using a Response Surface Methodology Approach

2002-11-05
2002-01-2929
Recent market studies indicate a renewed interest for a quiet Supersonic Business Jet (SBJ). The success of such a program will be strongly dependent upon the achievement of stringent engine noise, emissions and fuel consumption goals. This paper demonstrates the use of advanced design methods to develop a parametric design space exploration environment which will be ultimately used for the identification of an engine concept capable of satisfying acoustic levels imposed by FAR part 36 (stage IV) and NOx and CO2 standards as stated in the 1996 ICAO. The engine performance is modeled through the use of Response Surface and Design of Experiments Techniques, enabling the designer/decision-maker to change initial engine parameter values to detect the effects of the responses in a time efficient manner. Engine performance and engine weight results are obtained through physics-based engine analysis codes developed by NASA.
Technical Paper

A Bayesian Approach to Non-Deterministic Hypersonic Vehicle Design

2001-09-11
2001-01-3033
Affordable, reliable endo- and exoatmospheric transportation, for both the military and commercial sectors, grows in importance as the world grows smaller and space exploration and exploitation increasingly impact our daily lives. However, the impact of disciplinary, operational, and technological uncertainties inhibit the design of the requisite hypersonic vehicles, an inherently multidisciplinary and non-deterministic process. Without investigation, these components of design uncertainty undermine the designers’ decision-making confidence. In this paper, the authors propose a new probabilistic design method, using Bayesian Statistics techniques, which allows assessment of the impact of disciplinary uncertainty on the confidence in the design solution. The proposed development of a two-stage reusable launch vehicle configuration highlights the means to first quantify the fidelity of the disciplinary analysis tools utilized, then propagate such to the vehicle system level.
Technical Paper

An Improved Procedure for Prediction of Drag Polars of a Joined Wing Concept Using Physics-Based Response Surface Methodology

2001-09-11
2001-01-3015
Creation and utilization of accurate drag polars is essential in the aircraft sizing and synthesis process. Existing sizing and synthesis codes are based on historical data and cannot capture the aerodynamics of a non-conventional aircraft at the conceptual design phase. The fidelity of the aerodynamic analysis should be enhanced to increase the designer’s confidence in the results. Hence, there is need for a physics-based approach to generate the drag polars of an aircraft lying outside the conventional realm. The deficiencies of the legacy codes should be removed and replaced with higher fidelity meta-model representations. This is facilitated with response surface methodology (RSM), which is a mathematical and statistical technique that is suited for the modeling and analysis of problems in which the responses, the drag coefficients in this case, are influenced by several variables. The geometric input variables are chosen so that they represent a multitude of configurations.
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