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Technical Paper

Integrated, Feed-Forward Hybrid Electric Vehicle Simulation in SIMULINK and its Use for Power Management Studies

2001-03-05
2001-01-1334
A hybrid electric vehicle simulation tool (HE-VESIM) has been developed at the Automotive Research Center of the University of Michigan to study the fuel economy potential of hybrid military/civilian trucks. In this paper, the fundamental architecture of the feed-forward parallel hybrid-electric vehicle system is described, together with dynamic equations and basic features of sub-system modules. Two vehicle-level power management control algorithms are assessed, a rule-based algorithm, which mainly explores engine efficiency in an intuitive manner, and a dynamic-programming optimization algorithm. Simulation results over the urban driving cycle demonstrate the potential of the selected hybrid system to significantly improve vehicle fuel economy, the improvement being greater when the dynamic-programming power management algorithm is applied.
Technical Paper

The Reverse Engineering of a Turbocharged Diesel Engine through a Unified Systems Approach

2001-03-05
2001-01-1244
The need for a rigorous systems engineering approach to automotive powertrains has been addressed in this work from the perspective of the diesel engine. A high-fidelity engine simulation has been integrated with a total vehicle model for the purpose of reverse engineering the optimal powerplant for a given vehicle mission. Engine parameters have been coordinated between the simulations to develop a framework for total vehicle design. The design strategies discussed in this paper allow engine researchers to set targets for individual system components and to analyze the tradeoffs associated with different vehicle mission objectives. A detailed case study employing these techniques is presented for a conventional vehicle where the most fuel-efficient engine is found that simultaneously conforms to the desired performance criteria.
Technical Paper

Effect of Variable Geometry Turbine (VGT) on Diesel Engine and Vehicle System Transient Response

2001-03-05
2001-01-1247
Variable geometry turbines (VGT) are of particular interest to advanced diesel powertrains for future conventional trucks, since they can dramatically improve system transient response to sudden changes in speed and load, characteristic of automotive applications. VGT systems are also viewed as the key enabler for the application of the EGR system for reduction of heavy-duty diesel emissions. This paper applies an artificial neural network methodology to VGT modeling in order to enable representation of the VGT characteristics for any blade (nozzle) position. Following validation of the ANN model of the baseline, fixed geometry turbine, the VGT model is integrated with the diesel engine system. The latter is linked to the driveline and the vehicle dynamics module to form a complete, high-fidelity vehicle simulation.
Technical Paper

Multi-Zone DI Diesel Spray Combustion Model for Cycle Simulation Studies of Engine Performance and Emissions

2001-03-05
2001-01-1246
A quasi-dimensional, multi-zone, direct injection (DI) diesel combustion model has been developed and implemented in a full cycle simulation of a turbocharged engine. The combustion model accounts for transient fuel spray evolution, fuel-air mixing, ignition, combustion and NO and soot pollutant formation. In the model, the fuel spray is divided into a number of zones, which are treated as open systems. While mass and energy equations are solved for each zone, a simplified momentum conservation equation is used to calculate the amount of air entrained into each zone. Details of the DI spray, combustion model and its implementation into the cycle simulation of Assanis and Heywood [1] are described in this paper. The model is validated with experimental data obtained in a constant volume chamber and engines. First, predictions of spray penetration and spray angle are validated against measurements in a pressurized constant volume chamber.
Technical Paper

Development of a Two-Zone HCCI Combustion Model Accounting for Boundary Layer Effects

2001-03-05
2001-01-1028
The Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion concept is currently under widespread investigation due to its potential to increase thermal efficiency while greatly decreasing harmful exhaust pollutants. Simulation tools have been developed to explore the implications of initial mixture thermodynamic state on engine performance and emissions. In most cases these modeling efforts have coupled a detailed fuel chemistry mechanism with empirical descriptions of the in-cylinder heat transfer processes. The primary objective of this paper is to present a fundamentally based boundary layer heat transfer model. The two-zone combustion model couples an adiabatic core zone with a boundary layer heat transfer model. The model predicts film coefficient, with approximately the same universal shape and magnitudes as an existing global model.
Technical Paper

The Impact of Exhaust Gas Recirculation on Performance and Emissions of a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

2003-03-03
2003-01-1068
This work studies the complex interactions resulting from the application and control of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) on a production heavy-duty diesel engine system, and its effectiveness in reducing NOx emissions. The coupling between EGR, the Variable Geometry Turbocharger (VGT) and the EGR cooler critically affects boost pressure, air/fuel ratio (A/F), combustion efficiency and pumping work. It is shown that EGR provides an effective means for reducing flame temperatures and NOx emissions, particularly under low A/F ratio conditions. However, engine thermal efficiency tends to decrease with EGR as a result of decreasing indicated work and increasing pumping work. Combustion deterioration is predominant at higher load, low speed and low boost conditions, due to a significant decrease of A/F ratio with increasing EGR.
Technical Paper

Assessment of Alternative Strategies for Reducing Hydrocarbon and Carbon Monoxide Emissions from Small Two-Stroke Engines

1996-02-01
960743
Five small two-stroke engine designs were tested at different air/fuel ratios, under steady state and transient cycles. The effects of combustion chamber design, carburetor design, lean burning, and fuel composition on performance, hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions were studied. All tested engines had been designed to run richer than stoichiometric in order to obtain satisfactory cooling and higher power. While hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions could be greatly reduced with lean burning, engine durability would be worsened. However, it was shown that the use of a catalytic converter with acceptably lean combustion was an effective method of reducing emissions. Replacing carburetion with in-cylinder fuel injection in one of the engines resulted in a significant reduction of hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions.
Technical Paper

An Early-Design Methodology for Predicting Transient Fuel Economy and Catalyst-Out Exhaust Emissions

1997-05-19
971838
An early-design methodology for predicting both expected fuel economy and catalyst-out CO, HC and NOx concentrations during arbitrarily-defined transient cycles is presented. The methodology is based on utilizing a vehicle-powertrain model with embedded maps of fully warmed up engine-out performance and emissions, and appropriate temperature-dependent correction factors to account for not fully warmed up conditions during transients. Similarly, engine-out emissions are converted to catalyst-out emissions using conversion efficiencies based on the catalyst brick temperature. A crucial element of the methodology is hence the ability to predict heat flows and component temperatures in the engine and the exhaust system during transients, consistent with the data available during concept definition and early design phases.
Technical Paper

A Coupled Methodology for Modeling the Transient Thermal Response of SI Engines Subject to Time-Varying Operating Conditions

1997-05-19
971859
A comprehensive methodology for predicting the transient thermal response of spark-ignition engines subject to time-varying boundary conditions is presented. The approach is based on coupling a cycle-resolved quasi-dimensional simulation of in-cylinder thermodynamic events with a resistor-capacitor (R-C) thermal network of the various component and fluid interactions throughout the engine and exhaust system. The dynamic time step of the thermal solution is limited by either the frequency of the prescribed time-dependent boundary conditions or by the minimum thermal time constant of the R-C network. To demonstrate the need for fully-coupled, transient thermodynamic and heat transfer solutions, model behavior is first explored for step-change and staircase variations of engine operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Cam/Roller Follower Friction and Slippage in Valve Train Systems

1995-02-01
951039
In order to predict and understand the slippage between the cam and roller follower, the Cummins L-10 engine valve train was modeled. A mixed lubrication model was developed to investigate the friction and oil film thickness since the valve train is operated in very severe conditions. First, the roller follower pin friction was studied because it is a significant friction source for a valve train with a roller follower.(13) Using similarity analysis of the roller pin friction from the experimental data, the correlation between the friction coefficient and the Sommerfeld variable was obtained. Second, the interface friction between the cam and roller follower was studied. Oil film thickness and the asperity load were obtained based on the mixed lubrication model. Finally, the total friction force at each cam angle was calculated and roller slippage was predicted by comparing the tractive force and the friction force.
Technical Paper

A High Temperature and High Pressure Evaporation Model for the KIVA-3 Code

1996-02-01
960629
A high pressure and high temperature evaporation model was implemented in the KIVA-3 multidimensional engine simulation. The most significant features of the new evaporation model are: the effects of Stefan flow on transfer rates are included; internal circulation is accounted using the effective conductivity model of Abramzon and Sirignano [1]; equilibrium composition is calculated at high pressures using a real gas equation of state; and properties are evaluated as functions of temperature, pressure and composition. The evaporation of a continuous spray of n-dodecane injected in a chamber pressurized with nitrogen gas was simulated using the two models. Predictions of the evaporation rate, the spray penetration and fuel vapor distribution by the two models were significantly different. The differences persisted over a range of ambient pressures and temperatures, injection velocities, initial droplet sizes and fuel volatilities.
Technical Paper

Correlation Between Knock Intensity and Heat Transfer Under Light and Heavy Knocking Conditions in a Spark Ignition Engine

1996-02-01
960495
Instantaneous piston surface temperatures and heat flux rates were measured inside and outside the end-gas zone of a single-cylinder research engine operated under light and heavy knocking conditions. The engine was run with center and rear side spark-plug configurations, thus alternating the position of the heat flux probes relative to the end gas. Heat transfer data were collected over 88 engine cycles for each of which knock intensity was determined by heat release analysis. Under light knock, the ensemble-averaged peak heat-flux at locations near the end-gas increased with spark advance towards heavier knock, showing significant departure from its trend prior to the onset of knock. Under heavy knock, the ensemble-averaged peak heat-flux increased throughout the piston crown. Despite showing significant scatter, individual cycle, peak heat-flux values near the end-gas region were found to follow an increasing trend with knock intensity under light knocking conditions.
Technical Paper

The Potential of the Variable Stroke Spark-Ignition Engine

1997-02-24
970067
A comprehensive quasi-dimensional computer simulation of the spark-ignition (SI) engine was used to explore part-load, fuel economy benefits of the Variable Stroke Engine (VSE) compared to the conventional throttled engine. First it was shown that varying stroke can replace conventional throttling to control engine load, without changing the engine characteristics. Subsequently, the effects of varying stroke on turbulence, burn rate, heat transfer, and pumping and friction losses were revealed. Finally these relationships were used to explain the behavior of the VSE as stroke is reduced. Under part load operation, it was shown that the VSE concept can improve brake specific fuel consumption by 18% to 21% for speeds ranging from 1500 to 3000 rpm. Further, at part load, NOx was reduced by up to 33%. Overall, this study provides insight into changes in processes within and outside the combustion chamber that cause the benefits and limitations of the VSE concept.
Technical Paper

One-Dimensional Transient Dynamics of Fuel Evaporation and Diffusion in Induction Systems

1997-02-24
970058
Engine performance under transients is greatly affected by the fuel behavior in the induction systems. To better understand the fuel behavior, a computer model has been developed to study the one-dimensional coupled heat and mass transfer processes occurring during the transient evaporation of liquid fuel from a heated surface into stagnant air. The energy and mass diffusion equations are solved simultaneously to yield the transient temperatures and species concentrations using a modified finite difference technique. The numerical technique is capable of solving the coupled equations while simultaneously tracking the movement of the evaporation interface. Evaporation results are presented for various initial film thicknesses representing typical puddle thicknesses for multi-point fuel injection systems using heptane, octane, and nonane pure hydrocarbon fuels.
Technical Paper

A Global Model for Steady State and Transient S.I. Engine Heat Transfer Studies

1996-02-01
960073
A global, systems-level model which characterizes the thermal behavior of internal combustion engines is described in this paper. Based on resistor-capacitor thermal networks, either steady-state or transient thermal simulations can be performed. A two-zone, quasi-dimensional spark-ignition engine simulation is used to determine in-cylinder gas temperature and convection coefficients. Engine heat fluxes and component temperatures can subsequently be predicted from specification of general engine dimensions, materials, and operating conditions. Emphasis has been placed on minimizing the number of model inputs and keeping them as simple as possible to make the model practical and useful as an early design tool. The success of the global model depends on properly scaling the general engine inputs to accurately model engine heat flow paths across families of engine designs. The development and validation of suitable, scalable submodels is described in detail in this paper.
Technical Paper

First and Second Law Analyses of a Naturally-Aspirated, Miller Cycle, SI Engine with Late Intake Valve Closure

1998-02-23
980889
A naturally-aspirated, Miller cycle, Spark-Ignition (SI) engine that controls output with variable intake valve closure is compared to a conventionally-throttled engine using computer simulation. Based on First and Second Law analyses, the two load control strategies are compared in detail through one thermodynamic cycle at light load conditions and over a wide range of loads at 2000 rpm. The Miller Cycle engine can use late intake valve closure (LIVC) to control indicated output down to 35% of the maximum, but requires supplemental throttling at lighter loads. The First Law analysis shows that the Miller cycle increases indicated thermal efficiency at light loads by as much as 6.3%, primarily due to reductions in pumping and compression work while heat transfer losses are comparable.
Technical Paper

Hydrocarbon Emission Sequence Related to Cylinder Mal-Distribution in a L-Head Engine

1994-03-01
940305
The distribution of fuel-air mixtures in many L-head engines is not homogeneous. If local mixture is too rich or lean, incomplete combustion occurs. This can play a major role in unburned hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions. Fuel-air mixture distribution depends on in-cylinder swirl and turbulence and is directly related to intake manifold configuration, fuel delivery system design and combustion chamber shape. Understanding the spatial mixture distribution may help improve the design of these aforementioned components. Consequently, a more complete combustion process may result, and emissions reduced. A method that measures the emission of CH and C2 radicals via the use of an optical fiber bundle was used in this research to map the mixture uniformity in the combustion chamber. The intensity ratio (IC2/ICH) was correlated to the fuel-air equivalence ratio. The mixture distribution measured was then correlated with the hydrocarbon emission sequence.
Technical Paper

Friction Measurement in the Valve Train with a Roller Follower

1994-03-01
940589
The valve train was instrumented to record the instantaneous roller speed, roller pin friction torque, pushrod forces, and cam speed. Results are presented for one exhaust valve of a motored Cummins L-10 engine. The instantaneous cam/roller friction force was determined from the instantaneous roller speed and the pin friction torque. The pushrod force and displacement were also measured. Friction work loss was determined for both cam and roller interface as well as the upper valve train which includes the valve pushrod, rocker arm, valve guide, and valve. Roller follower slippage on the cam was also determined. A kinematic analysis with the measured data provided the normal force and contact stress at cam/roller interface.(1) Finally, the valve train friction was found to be in the mixed lubrication regime.(2) Further efforts will address the theoretical analysis of valve train friction to predict roller slippage.
Technical Paper

Effect of Elevated Piston Temperature on Combustion Chamber Deposit Growth

1994-03-01
940948
An experimental study was conducted to investigate the effects of elevated piston temperature on deposit growth patterns in a spark-ignition (SI) engine. A series of thermocouple-instrumented, insulated piston designs was developed for controlling and in-situ monitoring of deposit growth on the piston surface. Upon stabilization of deposit growth, a physical and chemical analysis of deposits from different locations was conducted. It was shown that localized deposit growth correlated strongly with rates of change of temperature at the same locations. At the end of an accelerated 18-hour test schedule using a premium unleaded fuel without reformer bottoms, a 4 μm reduction in average deposit thickness was achieved by elevating the piston surface temperature from 215 °C to 264 °C. No measurable deposit growth was obtained when operating with a critical wall surface temperature of 320 °C and the base unleaded fuel.
Technical Paper

Multi-Dimensional Modeling of Natural Gas Ignition Under Compression Ignition Conditions Using Detailed Chemistry

1998-02-23
980136
A detailed chemical kinetic mechanism, consisting of 22 species and 104 elementary reactions, has been used in conjunction with the multi-dimensional reactive flow code KIVA-3 to study autoignition of natural gas injected under compression ignition conditions. Calculations for three different blends of natural gas are performed on a three-dimensional computational grid by modeling both the injection and ignition processes. Ignition delay predictions at pressures and temperatures typical of top-dead-center conditions in compression ignition engines compare well with the measurements of Naber et al. [1] in a combustion bomb. Two different criteria, based on pressure rise and mass of fuel burned, are used to detect the onset of ignition. Parametric studies are conducted to show the effect of additives like ethane and hydrogen peroxide in increasing the fuel consumption rate.
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