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Technical Paper

Biodiesel Imposed System Responses in a Medium-Duty Diesel Engine

The often-observed differences in nitrogen oxides, or NOx, emissions between biodiesel and petroleum diesel fuels in diesel engines remain intense topics of research. In several instances, biodiesel-fuelled engines have higher NOx emissions than petroleum-fuelled engines; a situation often referred to as the "biodiesel NOx penalty." The literature is rich with investigations that reveal many fundamental mechanisms which contribute to (in varying and often inverse ways) the manifestation of differences in NOx emissions; these mechanisms include, for example, differences in ignition delay, changes to in-cylinder radiation heat transfer, and unequal heating values between the fuels. In addition to fundamental mechanisms, however, are the effects of "system-response" issues.
Technical Paper

A Coupled Methodology for Modeling the Transient Thermal Response of SI Engines Subject to Time-Varying Operating Conditions

A comprehensive methodology for predicting the transient thermal response of spark-ignition engines subject to time-varying boundary conditions is presented. The approach is based on coupling a cycle-resolved quasi-dimensional simulation of in-cylinder thermodynamic events with a resistor-capacitor (R-C) thermal network of the various component and fluid interactions throughout the engine and exhaust system. The dynamic time step of the thermal solution is limited by either the frequency of the prescribed time-dependent boundary conditions or by the minimum thermal time constant of the R-C network. To demonstrate the need for fully-coupled, transient thermodynamic and heat transfer solutions, model behavior is first explored for step-change and staircase variations of engine operating conditions.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Effects of Cetane Number on the Energy Balance between Differently Sized Engines

This paper investigates the effect of the cetane number (CN) of a diesel fuel on the energy balance between a light duty (1.9L) and medium duty (4.5L) diesel engine. The two engines have a similar stroke to bore (S/B) ratio, and all other control parameters including: geometric compression ratio, cylinder number, stroke, and combustion chamber, have been kept the same, meaning that only the displacement changes between the engine platforms. Two Coordinating Research Council (CRC) diesel fuels for advanced combustion engines (FACE) were studied. The two fuels were selected to have a similar distillation profile and aromatic content, but varying CN. The effects on the energy balance of the engines were considered at two operating conditions; a “low load” condition of 1500 rev/min (RPM) and nominally 1.88 bar brake mean effective pressure (BMEP), and a “medium load” condition of 1500 RPM and 5.65 BMEP.
Technical Paper

Influencing Parameters of Brake Fuel Conversion Efficiency with Diesel / Gasoline Operation in a Medium-Duty Diesel Engine

Research on dual-fuel engine systems is regaining interest as advances in combustion reveal enabling features for attaining high efficiencies. Although this movement is manifested by development of advanced modes of combustion (e.g., reactivity controlled compression ignition combustion, or RCCI), the possibility of gasoline / diesel conventional combustion exists, which is characterized by premixed gasoline and direct-injected diesel fuel at conventional diesel injection timing. This study evaluates the effects of operating parameter on fuel conversion efficiency for gasoline / diesel conventional combustion in a medium duty diesel engine. Through adjustment of gasoline ratio (mass basis), injection timing and rail pressure (with adjustments to diesel fuel quantity to hold torque constant), the combustion, performance and emissions are studied.
Technical Paper

A Global Model for Steady State and Transient S.I. Engine Heat Transfer Studies

A global, systems-level model which characterizes the thermal behavior of internal combustion engines is described in this paper. Based on resistor-capacitor thermal networks, either steady-state or transient thermal simulations can be performed. A two-zone, quasi-dimensional spark-ignition engine simulation is used to determine in-cylinder gas temperature and convection coefficients. Engine heat fluxes and component temperatures can subsequently be predicted from specification of general engine dimensions, materials, and operating conditions. Emphasis has been placed on minimizing the number of model inputs and keeping them as simple as possible to make the model practical and useful as an early design tool. The success of the global model depends on properly scaling the general engine inputs to accurately model engine heat flow paths across families of engine designs. The development and validation of suitable, scalable submodels is described in detail in this paper.