Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Affiliation

Search Results

Technical Paper

Multi-Dimensional Modeling of NO and Soot Emissions with Detailed Chemistry and Mixing in a Direct Injection Natural Gas Engine

2002-03-04
2002-01-1112
This work reports the development and application of multi-dimensional ignition, combustion and emissions models that account for detailed chemistry and mixing effects in a direct injection engine simulation. A detailed chemical reaction mechanism, consisting of 24 species and 104 reactions, is used for increased accuracy of emissions predictions. Turbulent combustion is represented using a modified Eddy Dissipation Concept (EDC) model to account for mixing effects. The soot model includes all aspects of soot formation and destruction. Particle transport equations are used to realistically track transport of the soot particles formed. All computational sub-models developed in this work have been implemented in a modified version of the KIVA-3V code. In order to illustrate the behavior of the new models, soot and NO emissions have been predicted at different operating conditions by varying injection timing, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and injection pressure.
Technical Paper

Effect of Variable Geometry Turbine (VGT) on Diesel Engine and Vehicle System Transient Response

2001-03-05
2001-01-1247
Variable geometry turbines (VGT) are of particular interest to advanced diesel powertrains for future conventional trucks, since they can dramatically improve system transient response to sudden changes in speed and load, characteristic of automotive applications. VGT systems are also viewed as the key enabler for the application of the EGR system for reduction of heavy-duty diesel emissions. This paper applies an artificial neural network methodology to VGT modeling in order to enable representation of the VGT characteristics for any blade (nozzle) position. Following validation of the ANN model of the baseline, fixed geometry turbine, the VGT model is integrated with the diesel engine system. The latter is linked to the driveline and the vehicle dynamics module to form a complete, high-fidelity vehicle simulation.
Technical Paper

Multi-Zone DI Diesel Spray Combustion Model for Cycle Simulation Studies of Engine Performance and Emissions

2001-03-05
2001-01-1246
A quasi-dimensional, multi-zone, direct injection (DI) diesel combustion model has been developed and implemented in a full cycle simulation of a turbocharged engine. The combustion model accounts for transient fuel spray evolution, fuel-air mixing, ignition, combustion and NO and soot pollutant formation. In the model, the fuel spray is divided into a number of zones, which are treated as open systems. While mass and energy equations are solved for each zone, a simplified momentum conservation equation is used to calculate the amount of air entrained into each zone. Details of the DI spray, combustion model and its implementation into the cycle simulation of Assanis and Heywood [1] are described in this paper. The model is validated with experimental data obtained in a constant volume chamber and engines. First, predictions of spray penetration and spray angle are validated against measurements in a pressurized constant volume chamber.
Technical Paper

Overview of Techniques for Measuring Friction Using Bench Tests and Fired Engines

2000-06-19
2000-01-1780
This paper presents an overview of techniques for measuring friction using bench tests and fired engines. The test methods discussed have been developed to provide efficient, yet realistic, assessments of new component designs, materials, and lubricants for in-cylinder and overall engine applications. A Cameron-Plint Friction and Wear Tester was modified to permit ring-in-piston-groove movement by the test specimen, and used to evaluate a number of cylinder bore coatings for friction and wear performance. In a second study, it was used to evaluate the energy conserving characteristics of several engine lubricant formulations. Results were consistent with engine and vehicle testing, and were correlated with measured fuel economy performance. The Instantaneous IMEP Method for measuring in-cylinder frictional forces was extended to higher engine speeds and to modern, low-friction engine designs.
Technical Paper

Speciated Hydrocarbon Emissions from an Automotive Diesel Engine and DOC Utilizing Conventional and PCI Combustion

2006-04-03
2006-01-0201
Premixed compression ignition low-temperature diesel combustion (PCI) can simultaneously reduce particulate matter (PM) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx). Carbon monoxide (CO) and total hydrocarbon (THC) emissions increase relative to conventional diesel combustion, however, which may necessitate the use of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC). For a better understanding of conventional and PCI combustion, and the operation of a platinum-based production DOC, engine-out and DOC-out exhaust hydrocarbons are speciated using gas chromatography. As combustion mode is changed from lean conventional to lean PCI to rich PCI, engine-out CO and THC emissions increase significantly. The relative contributions of individual species also change; increasing methane/THC, acetylene/THC and CO/THC ratios indicate a richer combustion zone and a reduction in engine-out hydrocarbon incremental reactivity.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of a Narrow Spray Cone Angle, Advanced Injection Timing Strategy to Achieve Partially Premixed Compression Ignition Combustion in a Diesel Engine

2005-04-11
2005-01-0167
Simultaneous reduction of nitric oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions is possible in a diesel engine by employing a Partially Premixed Compression Ignition (PPCI) strategy. PPCI combustion is attainable with advanced injection timings and heavy exhaust gas recirculation rates. However, over-advanced injection timing can result in the fuel spray missing the combustion bowl, thus dramatically elevating PM emissions. The present study investigates whether the use of narrow spray cone angle injector nozzles can extend the limits of early injection timings, allowing for PPCI combustion realization. It is shown that a low flow rate, 60-degree spray cone angle injector nozzle, along with optimized EGR rate and split injection strategy, can reduce engine-out NOx by 82% and PM by 39%, at the expense of a modest increase (4.5%) in fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

Numerical Modeling and Experimental Investigations of EGR Cooler Fouling in a Diesel Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-1506
EGR coolers are mainly used on diesel engines to reduce intake charge temperature and thus reduce emissions of NOx and PM. Soot and hydrocarbon deposition in the EGR cooler reduces heat transfer efficiency of the cooler and increases emissions and pressure drop across the cooler. They may also be acidic and corrosive. Fouling has been always treated as an approximate factor in heat exchanger designs and it has not been modeled in detail. The aim of this paper is to look into fouling formation in an EGR cooler of a diesel engine. A 1-D model is developed to predict and calculate EGR cooler fouling amount and distribution across a concentric tube heat exchanger with a constant wall temperature. The model is compared to an experiment that is designed for correlation of the model. Effectiveness, mass deposition, and pressure drop are the parameters that have been compared. The results of the model are in a good agreement with the experimental data.
Technical Paper

Performance Parameter Analysis of a Biodiesel-Fuelled Medium Duty Diesel Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-0481
Biodiesel remains an alternative fuel of interest for use in diesel engines. A common characteristic of biodiesel, relative to petroleum diesel, is a lowered heating value (or energy content of the fuel). A lower heating value of the fuel would, presuming all other parameters are equal, result in decreased engine torque. Since engine torque is often user-demanded, the lower heating value of the fuel generally translates into increased brake specific fuel consumption. Several literature report this characteristic of biodiesel. In spite of the wealth of fuel consumption characteristic data available for biodiesel, it is not clear how other engine performance parameters may change with the use of biodiesel. Characterizing these parameters becomes complicated when considering the interactions of the various engine systems, such as a variable geometry turbocharger with exhaust gas recirculation.
Technical Paper

Biodiesel Imposed System Responses in a Medium-Duty Diesel Engine

2010-04-12
2010-01-0565
The often-observed differences in nitrogen oxides, or NOx, emissions between biodiesel and petroleum diesel fuels in diesel engines remain intense topics of research. In several instances, biodiesel-fuelled engines have higher NOx emissions than petroleum-fuelled engines; a situation often referred to as the "biodiesel NOx penalty." The literature is rich with investigations that reveal many fundamental mechanisms which contribute to (in varying and often inverse ways) the manifestation of differences in NOx emissions; these mechanisms include, for example, differences in ignition delay, changes to in-cylinder radiation heat transfer, and unequal heating values between the fuels. In addition to fundamental mechanisms, however, are the effects of "system-response" issues.
Technical Paper

Characterizing the Influence of EGR and Fuel Pressure on the Emissions in Low Temperature Diesel Combustion

2011-04-12
2011-01-1354
In the wake of global focus shifting towards the health and conservation of the planet, greater importance is placed upon the hazardous emissions of our fossil fuels, as well as their finite supply. These two areas remain intense topics of research in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and increase the fuel efficiency of vehicles, a sector which is a major contributor to society's global CO₂ emissions and consumer of fossil-fuel resources. A particular solution to this problem is the diesel engine, with its inherently fuel-lean combustion, which gives rise to low CO₂ production and higher efficiencies than other potential powertrain solutions. Diesel engines, however, typically exhibit higher nitrogen oxides (NOx) and soot engine-out emissions than their gasoline counterparts. NOx is an ingredient to ground-level ozone production and smoke is a possible carcinogen, both of which are facing stricter emissions regulations.
Technical Paper

Heat Release Parameters to Assess Low Temperature Combustion Attainment

2011-04-12
2011-01-1350
Internal combustion engines have dealt with increasingly restricted emissions requirements. After-treatment devices are successful bringing emissions into compliance, but in-cylinder combustion control can reduce their burden by reducing engine-out emissions. For example, oxides of nitrogen (NOx) are diesel combustion exhaust species of notoriety for their difficulty in after-treatment removal. In-cylinder conditions can be controlled for low levels of NOx, but this produces high levels of soot particulate matter (PM). The simultaneous reduction of NOx and PM can be realized through a combustion process known as low temperature combustion (LTC). This paper presents an investigation into the manifestation of LTC in the calculated heat release profile. Such a study could be important since some extreme LTC conditions may exhibit a return to the soot-NOx tradeoff, rendering an emissions-based definition of LTC unhelpful.
Technical Paper

Bridging the Gap between HCCI and SI: Spark-Assisted Compression Ignition

2011-04-12
2011-01-1179
Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) has received much attention in recent years due to its ability to reduce both fuel consumption and NO emissions compared to normal spark-ignited (SI) combustion. However, due to the limited operating range of HCCI, production feasible engines will need to employ a combination of combustion strategies, such as stoichiometric SI combustion at high loads and leaner burn spark-assisted compression ignition (SACI) and HCCI at intermediate and low loads. The goal of this study was to extend the high load limit of HCCI into the SACI region while maintaining a stoichiometric equivalence ratio. Experiments were conducted on a single-cylinder research engine with fully flexible valve actuation. In-cylinder pressure rise rates and combustion stability were controlled using cooled external EGR, spark assist, and negative valve overlap. Several engine loads within the SACI regime were investigated.
Technical Paper

Thermal Characterization of Combustion Chamber Deposits on the HCCI Engine Piston and Cylinder Head Using Instantaneous Temperature Measurements

2009-04-20
2009-01-0668
Extending the operating range of the gasoline HCCI engine is essential for achieving desired fuel economy improvements at the vehicle level, and it requires deep understanding of the thermal conditions in the cylinder. Combustion chamber deposits (CCD) have been previously shown to have direct impact on near-wall phenomena and burn rates in the HCCI engine. Hence, the objectives of this work are to characterize thermal properties of deposits in a gasoline HCCI engine and provide foundation for understanding the nature of their impact on autoignition and combustion. The investigation was performed using a single-cylinder engine with re-induction of exhaust instrumented with fast-response thermocouples on the piston top and the cylinder head surface. The measured instantaneous temperature profiles changed as the deposits grew on top of the hot-junctions.
Technical Paper

Dual-Use Engine Calibration:

2005-04-11
2005-01-1549
Modern diesel engines manufactured for commercial vehicles are calibrated to meet EPA emissions regulations. Many of the technologies and strategies typically incorporated to meet emissions targets compromise engine performance and efficiency. When used in military applications, however, engine performance and efficiency are of utmost importance in combat conditions or in remote locations where fuel supplies are scarce. This motivates the study of the potential to utilize the flexibility of emissions-reduction technologies toward optimizing engine performance while still keeping the emissions within tolerable limits. The study was conducted on a modern medium-duty International V-8 diesel engine with variable geometry turbocharger (VGT) and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). The performance-emissions tradeoffs were explored using design of experiments and response surface methodology.
Technical Paper

Pressure Reactive Piston Technology Investigation and Development for Spark Ignition Engines

2005-04-11
2005-01-1648
Variable Compression Ratio (VCR) technology has long been recognized as a method of improving Spark Ignition (SI) engine fuel economy. The Pressure Reactive Piston (PRP) assembly features a two-piece piston, with a piston crown and separate piston skirt which enclose a spring set between them. The unique feature is that the upper piston reacts to the cylinder pressure, accommodating rapid engine load changes passively. This mechanism effectively limits the peak pressures at high loads without an additional control device, while allowing the engine to operate at high compression ratio during low load conditions. Dynamometer engine testing showed that Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC) improvement of the PRP over the conventional piston ranged from 8 to 18 % up to 70% load. Knock free full load operation was also achieved. The PRP equipped engine combustion is characterized by reverse motion of the piston crown near top dead center and higher thermal efficiency.
Technical Paper

Transient Diesel Emissions: Analysis of Engine Operation During a Tip-In

2006-04-03
2006-01-1151
This study investigates the impact of transient engine operation on the emissions formed during a tip-in procedure. A medium-duty production V-8 diesel engine is used to conduct experiments in which the rate of pedal position change is varied. Highly-dynamic emissions instrumentation is implemented to provide real-time measurement of NOx and particulate. Engine subsystems are analyzed to understand their role in emissions formation. As the rate of pedal position change increases, the emissions of NOx and particulates are affected dramatically. An instantaneous load increase was found to produce peak NOx values 1.8 times higher and peak particulate concentrations an order of magnitude above levels corresponding to a five-second ramp-up. The results provide insight into relationship between driver aggressiveness and diesel emissions applicable to development of drive-by-wire systems. In addition, they provide direct guidance for devising low-emission strategies for hybrid vehicles.
Technical Paper

The Development of Throttled and Unthrottled PCI Combustion in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine

2006-04-03
2006-01-0202
Present-day implementations of premixed compression ignition low temperature (PCI) combustion in diesel engines use higher levels of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) than conventional diesel combustion. Two common devices that can be used to achieve high levels of EGR are an intake throttle and a variable geometry turbocharger (VGT). Because the two techniques affect the engine air system in different ways, local combustion conditions differ between the two in spite of, in some cases, having similar burn patterns in the form of heat release. The following study has developed from this and other observations; observations which necessitate a deeper understanding of emissions formation within the PCI combustion regime. This paper explains, through the use of fundamental phenomenological observations, differences in ignition delay and emission indices of particulate matter (EI-PM) and nitric oxides (EI-NOx) from PCI combustion attained via the two different techniques to flow EGR.
Technical Paper

Characterizing Light-Off Behavior and Species-Resolved Conversion Efficiencies During In-Situ Diesel Oxidation Catalyst Degreening

2006-04-03
2006-01-0209
Degreening is crucial in obtaining a stable catalyst prior to assessing its performance characteristics. This paper characterizes the light-off behavior and conversion efficiency of a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) during the degreening process. A platinum DOC is degreened for 16 hours in the presence of actual diesel engine exhaust at 650°C and 10% water (H2O) concentration. The DOC's activity for carbon monoxide (CO) and for total hydrocarbons (THC) conversion is checked at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 16 hours of degreening. Pre-and post-catalyst hydrocarbon species are analyzed via gas chromatography at 0, 4, 8, and 16 hours of degreening. It is found that both light-off temperature and species-resolved conversion efficiencies change rapidly during the first 8 hours of degreening and then stabilize to a large degree. T50, the temperature where the catalyst is 50% active towards a particular species, increases by 14°C for CO and by 11°C for THC through the degreening process.
Technical Paper

Engine-in-the-Loop Testing for Evaluating Hybrid Propulsion Concepts and Transient Emissions - HMMWV Case Study

2006-04-03
2006-01-0443
This paper describes a test cell setup for concurrent running of a real engine and a vehicle system simulation, and its use for evaluating engine performance when integrated with a conventional and a hybrid electric driveline/vehicle. This engine-in-the-loop (EIL) system uses fast instruments and emission analyzers to investigate how critical in-vehicle transients affect engine system response and transient emissions. Main enablers of the work include the highly dynamic AC electric dynamometer with the accompanying computerized control system and the computationally efficient simulation of the driveline/vehicle system. The latter is developed through systematic energy-based proper modeling that tailors the virtual model to capture critical powertrain transients while running in real time. Coupling the real engine with the virtual driveline/vehicle offers a chance to easily modify vehicle parameters, and even study two different powertrain configurations.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Diesel Oxidation Catalyst Performance on an Engine and a Gas Flow Reactor

2007-04-16
2007-01-0231
This paper analyzes and compares reactor and engine behavior of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) in the presence of conventional diesel exhaust and low temperature premixed compression ignition (PCI) diesel exhaust. Surrogate exhaust mixtures of n-undecane (C11H24), ethene (C2H4), CO, O2, H2O, NO and N2 are defined for conventional and PCI combustion and used in the gas flow reactor tests. Both engine and reactor tests use a DOC containing platinum, palladium and a hydrocarbon storage component (zeolite). On both the engine and reactor, the composition of PCI exhaust increases light-off temperature relative to conventional combustion. However, while nominal conditions are similar, the catalyst behaves differently on the two experimental setups. The engine DOC shows higher initial apparent HC conversion efficiencies because the engine exhaust contains a higher fraction of trappable (i.e., high boiling point) HC.
X