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Technical Paper

Gas Temperature Measurement in a DME-HCCI Engine using Heterodyne Interferometry with Spark-Plug-in Fiber-Optic Sensor

2007-07-23
2007-01-1848
Non-intrusive measurement of transient unburned gas temperatures was developed with a fiber-optic heterodyne interferometry system. Using the value of the Gladstone-Dale constant for DME gas and combustion pressure we can calculate the in-cylinder temperature inside unburned and burned region. In this experimental study, it was performed to set up a fiber-optic heterodyne interferometry technique to measure the temperature before and behind the combustion region in a DME-HCCI engine. At first, measured temperature was almost the same as the temperature history assuming that the process that changes of the unburned and the burned are polytropic. In addition, we measured the temperature after combustion which of condition was burned gas with DME-HCCI combustion. The developed heterodyne interferometry used the spark-plug-in fiber-optic sensor has a good feasibility to measure the unburned and burned temperature history.
Technical Paper

Transient Temperature Measurement of Gas Using Fiber Optic Heterodyne Interferometry

2001-05-07
2001-01-1922
A fiber optical heterodyne interferometry system was developed to obtain high temporal resolution temperature histories of unburned and burned gases non-intrusively. The effective optical path length of the test beam changes with the gas density and corresponding changes of the refractive index. Therefore, the temperature history of the gas can be determined from the pressure and phase shift of the interference signal. The resolution of the temperature measurement is approximately 0.5 K, and is dependent upon both the sampling clock speed of the A/D converter and the length of the test section. A polarization-preserving fiber is used to deliver the test beam to and from the test section, to improve the feasibility of the system as a sensor probe. This optical heterodyne interferometry system may also be used for other applications that require gas density and pressure measurements with a fast response time, or a transient temperature record.
Technical Paper

Ion Current in a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engine

2007-10-29
2007-01-4052
Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI), has the potential to improve the fuel economy and to reduce NOx emission significantly. Spark plug in SI engine and fuel injector in diesel engine can be used directly to control the start of combustion and the combustion period. However, the combustion of HCCI engine is controlled by the chemical kinetic mainly due to the temperature histories in the cylinder. Therefore the combustion process of HCCI engine cannot be directly controlled. Ion sensors such as a spark plug or a gasket are useful to detect the combustion information in production engines. In this study, the ion current was measured in an HCCI engine with the heated charge mixture of fuel and air without EGR when the charge temperature, equivalence ratio and fuel were varied. Simultaneously in-cylinder pressure was measured and the rate of heat release was calculated. The relationship between the rate of heat release and the ion current is mainly discussed.
Technical Paper

Cellular Neural Network and Its Application in the Diagnosis of Abnormal Automobile Sound

2002-10-21
2002-01-2810
In this paper, a new diagnostic method for abnormal automobile sound using CNN is proposed. The procedure of the method consists of 1) calculating the autoregressive model (AR model) coefficients from the abnormal sound by using the maximum entropy method; 2) constructing the CNN whose memory patterns become standard abnormal sound patterns; 3) making the coefficients obtained as an initial pattern and recalling one from the memory patterns, and then obtaining a diagnosis result. By using the method, the influence of the noise occurring from other normal parts can be avoided and the automobile abnormal sound can be diagnosed. The results obtained demonstrate the advantages of our approach.
Technical Paper

Hydrogen Combustion and Exhaust Emissions Ignited with Diesel Oil in a Dual Fuel Engine

2001-09-24
2001-01-3503
Hydrogen is expected to be one of the most prominent fuels in the near future for solving greenhouse problem, protecting environment and saving petroleum. In this study, a dual fuel engine of hydrogen and diesel oil was investigated. Hydrogen was inducted in a intake port with air and diesel oil was injected into the cylinder. The injection timing was changed over extremely wide range. When the injection timing of diesel fuel into the cylinder is advanced, the diesel oil is well mixed with hydrogen-air mixture and the initial combustion becomes mild. NOx emissions decrease because of lean premixed combustion without the region of high temperature of burned gas. When hydrogen is mixed with inlet air, emissions of HC, CO and CO2 decrease without exhausting smoke while brake thermal efficiency is slightly smaller than that in ordinary diesel combustion.
Technical Paper

Diagnostic of Knocking by Wavelet Transform Method Utilizing Real Signal as Mother Wavelet

2001-09-24
2001-01-3546
It is well known that the wavelet transform is a useful time-frequency analysis method for an unsteady signal and major attention has been focused on the selection of the mother wavelet (MW) because the MW plays an important role in the wavelet transform. In this study, we analyze the pressure signal in a spark-ignition engine and the vibration of the engine block measured by a knock sensor under the knocking conditions when knocking is caused. We then propose a new method of the knocking detection that utilizes the knocking signal measured with a knock sensor as a MW. We call this method the Instantaneous Correlation Method (ICM). The degree of similarity between the MW and the vibration of the engine block was judged and only the knocking signal from the vibration of the engine block was extracted. The results obtained here show that the method proposed in this study is useful for knocking detection even if the engine speed is very high of 6000rpm.
Technical Paper

A Study of Air-Fuel Mixture Formation in Direct-Injection SI Engines

2004-06-08
2004-01-1946
An investigation was made into two approaches to air-fuel mixture formation in direct injection SI engines in which charge stratification is controlled by swirl or tumble gas motions, respectively. Particle image velocimetry (PIV), laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) and air-fuel ratio measurement by infrared absorption were used to analyze fuel transport from the fuel injector to the spark plug and the fuel vaporization process. The results obtained were then compared with measured data as to combustion stability. As a result, the reason why the effects of injection timing on combustion stability were different between the two approaches was made clear from the standpoint of the mixture formation process.
Technical Paper

Detection of Flame Propagation Pattern in a Spark Ignition Engine Using Gasket Ion Sensor

2004-06-08
2004-01-1919
In order to reduce the exhaust emission and the fuel consumption in a spark ignition engine, the combustion diagnostics had been developed. However, there are few sensors which can detect the combustion quality for the individual cycle and cylinder in production engines. In previous study, the new technique using a gasket ion sensor for measuring the combustion quality has been proposed. In present study, the flame propagation pattern in a spark ignition engine was detected by using a gasket ion sensor with a circular electrode. The waveforms of ion current obtained from a circular ion sensor were compared with the flame propagation pattern obtained from multiple ion sensors. When the mixture was ignited in offset center of the cylinder, the flame propagation pattern was distorted from the spherical pattern. Then the waveforms of ion current from the circular ion sensor were varied from the waveform for a center ignition.
Technical Paper

In-spark-plug Sensor for Analyzing the Initial Flame and Its Structure in an SI Engine

2005-04-11
2005-01-0644
An in-spark-plug flame sensor was developed to measure local chemiluminescence near the spark gap in a practical spark-ignition (SI) engine in order to study the development of the initial flame kernel, flame front structure, transient phenomena, and the correlation between the initial flame kernel structure and cyclic variation in the flame front structure, which influences engine performance directly. The sensor consists of a commercial instrumented spark plug with small Cassegrain optics and an optical fiber. The small Cassegrain optics were developed to measure the local chemiluminescence intensity profile and temporal history of OH*, CH*, and C2* at the flame front formed in a turbulent premixed flame in an SI engine. A highresolution monochromator with an intensified chargecoupled device (ICCD) and spectroscopy using optical filters and photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) were used to measure the time-series of the three radicals, as well as the in-cylinder pressure.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Flame Propagation Characteristics in an SI Engine Using Micro-Local Chemiluminescence Technique

2005-04-11
2005-01-0645
A small Cassegrain optics sensor was developed to measure local chemiluminescence spectra and the local chemiluminescence intensities of OH*, CH*, and C2* in a four-stroke spark-ignition (SI) engine in order to investigate the propagation characteristics of the turbulent premixed flame. The small Cassegrain optics sensor was an M5 type that could be installed in place of a pressure transducer. The measurements could be used to estimate the flame propagation speed, burning zone thickness, and local air/fuel (A/F) ratio for each cycle. The specifications of the small Cassegrain optics sensor were the same as those used for previous engine measurements. In this paper, measurements were made of several A/F ratios using gasoline to fuel the model engine. The performances of two Cassegrain optics sensors were compared to demonstrate the advantages of the new small sensor by measuring the local chemiluminescence intensities of a turbulent premixed flame in the model engine.
Technical Paper

Effect of EGR on Combustion and Exhaust Emissions in Supercharged Dual-Fuel Natural Gas Engine Ignited with Diesel Fuel

2009-06-15
2009-01-1832
The combustion and exhaust emissions characteristics of a supercharged dual-fuel natural gas engine with a single cylinder were analyzed. We focused on EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation) to achieve higher thermal efficiency and lower exhaust emissions. The combustion of diesel fuel (gas oil) as ignition sources was visualized using a high-speed video camera from the bottom of a quartz piston. The luminous intensity and flame decreased as the EGR rate increased. Furthermore, the ignition delay became longer due to the EGR. Characteristics of the combustion and exhaust emissions were investigated with changing EGR rates under supercharged conditions. The indicated mean effective pressure and thermal efficiency decreased with increasing EGR rate. In addition, NOx emissions decreased due to the EGR. In this study two-stage combustion was observed.
Technical Paper

Effect of Fuel Injection Parameters on Engine Performance and Emissions of a Supercharged Producer Gas-Diesel Dual Fuel Engine

2009-06-15
2009-01-1848
This study investigated the effect of some pilot fuel injection parameters, like injection timing, injection pressure and injection quantity on engine performance and exhaust emissions of a supercharged producer gas-diesel dual fuel engine. The engine has been tested to be used as a co-generation engine and its power output is an important matter. Experiments have been done to optimize the injection timing, injection pressure and injection quantity for the maximization of engine power. At constant injection pressures, there is an optimum amount of pilot injection quantity for that maximum engine power is developed without knocking and within the limit of maximum cylinder pressure. Above or below of that amount engine power is decreased. Higher injection pressures generally show better results than lower ones. However, good results can also be obtained with lower injection pressure, if maximum power timings can be selected.
Technical Paper

Fuel Breakup Near Nozzle Exit of High-Pressure Swirl Injector for Gasoline Direct Injection Engine

2004-03-08
2004-01-0542
Experimental investigations of fuel breakup very close to nozzle of practical high-pressure swirl injector, which is used in gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine, were carried out. In GDI engines, fuel is directly injected into cylinder therefore the spray characteristics and mixture formation are of primary importance. In this research, visualizations of primary spray formation process were demonstrated using a high-speed video camera (maximum speed: 1Mfps) with a long-distance microscope. Initial state and development of the spray were discussed under the different injection pressure condition. During the injection period, the length and thickness of the liquid sheet, which is produced from the nozzle exit, were measured using Ar-ion laser sheet and high-speed camera. Primary spray structure and behavior of liquid sheet, especially surface wave of liquid sheet, at nozzle exit were discussed using obtained images.
Technical Paper

Effects of EGR and Early Injection of Diesel Fuel on Combustion Characteristics and Exhaust Emissions in a Methane Dual Fuel Engine

2002-10-21
2002-01-2723
A dual fuel engine fueled with methane from an inlet port and ignited with diesel fuel was prepared. This study focuses on the effects of early injection and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on the characteristics of combustion and exhaust emissions. The injection timing was changed between TDC and 50 degrees before the TDC. In the early injection timing, smoke was never seen and hydrocarbons were smaller compared with those at the normal injection timing. However, the combustion becomes too early to obtain an appropriate torque when the equivalence ratio increases. Then, moderate EGR was very effective to force the combustion to retard with lower NOx, higher thermal efficiency and almost the same hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide. The engine operated even under the condition of stoichiometric mixture.
Technical Paper

Mixing Process of Direct Injection Hydrogen Jet in a Constant Volume Vessel by Using Spark-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

2013-10-14
2013-01-2526
Hydrogen spark-ignition (SI) engines based on direct-injection (DI) have been investigated because of their potential for high thermal efficiency and solving the problems related to knocking, backfiring, and pre-ignition. Wide range flammability limits in hydrogen engine enable smooth engine operation for a very lean mixture with low NOX. However, a too lean mixture may increase ignition delay and causes severe cyclic variations. There is a possibility that the turbulence occurred during injection of fuel surround the spark plug in the combustion chamber is major contributor to this phenomenon. To overcome this problem, a better understanding of the spark discharge and spark ignition during transient hydrogen jet is necessary. Therefore, it is very important to study an effect of local equivalence ratio and behavior of spark discharge in SI engine. This paper describes a mixing process of hydrogen jet using spark-induced breakdown spectroscopy (SIBS) in a constant volume vessel.
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Observations of Chemiluminescence in Turbulent Premixed Flames Using a Spark Plug Sensor with an Optical Fiber

2013-10-14
2013-01-2578
The purpose of this study was to characterize the air/fuel ratio (AFR) of turbulent premixed flames in a spark-ignition (SI) engine. We developed a spark plug sensor with an optical fiber to detect the chemiluminescence spectra, specifically the intensity of the spectral lines related to OH*, CH*, and C2* free radicals. The sensor was composed of a sapphire window and optical fiber and is applicable to automobile SI engines. Measurements of the chemiluminescence intensity from OH*, CH*, and C2* radicals were obtained in turbulent premixed flames with a propane-air mixture for different AFRs in a compression-expansion machine (CEM). The performance of the spark plug sensor was compared with a Cassegrain reflector using an intensified charge-coupled device. The results showed good agreement with measurements obtained using the Cassegrain reflector. The spark plug sensor was shown to be useful for measuring chemiluminescence of turbulent premixed flames in an SI engine.
Technical Paper

Chemical Kinetics and Computational Fluid-Dynamics Analysis of H2/CO/CO2/CH4 Syngas Combustion and NOx Formation in a Micro-Pilot-Ignited Supercharged Dual Fuel Engine

2017-09-04
2017-24-0027
A chemical kinetics and computational fluid-dynamics (CFD) analysis was performed to evaluate the combustion of syngas derived from biomass and coke-oven solid feedstock in a micro-pilot ignited supercharged dual-fuel engine under lean conditions. For this analysis, a reduced syngas chemical kinetics mechanism was constructed and validated by comparing the ignition delay and laminar flame speed data with those obtained from experiments and other detail chemical kinetics mechanisms available in the literature. The reaction sensitivity analysis was conducted for ignition delay at elevated pressures in order to identify important chemical reactions that govern the combustion process. We have confirmed the statements of other authors that HO2+OH=H2O+O2, H2O2+M=OH+OH+M and H2O2+H=H2+HO2 reactions showed very high sensitivity during high-pressure ignition delay times and had considerable uncertainty.
Technical Paper

Effect of Bio-Gas Contents on SI Combustion for a Co-Generation Engine

2015-09-01
2015-01-1946
Bio-gas as an internal combustion (I.C.) engine fuel has many advantages such as cheaper fuel cost, low emission levels and especially the neutral recirculation loop of carbon dioxide, which is one of the principal factors in global warming. In this study, positive potentialities of bio-gas were investigated using a micro co-generation engine. The mixing ratio of methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) was changed to simulate various types of bio-gases. Intake air and fuel flow rates were controlled to change the equivalence ratio. The engine load condition could be changed with the electric output power used. Base on the result, the higher CO2 content rate slowed down the engine speed in the same load condition and the combustion speed generally decreased under the same load condition with maintaining the engine speed. However thermal efficiency increased with lean burn conditions and NOX emission decreased with higher CO2 mixing rates.
Technical Paper

Effect of Hydrogen Concentration on Engine Performance, Exhaust Emissions and Operation Range of PREMIER Combustion in a Dual Fuel Gas Engine Using Methane-Hydrogen Mixtures

2015-09-01
2015-01-1792
A single cylinder, supercharged dual fuel gas engine with micro-pilot fuel injection is operated using methane only and methane-hydrogen mixtures. Methane only experiments were performed at various equivalence ratios and equivalence ratio of 0.56 is decided as the optimum operating condition based on engine performance, exhaust emissions and operation stability. Methane-hydrogen experiments were performed at equivalence ratio of 0.56 and 2.6 kJ/cycle energy supply rate. Results show that indicated mean effective pressure is maintained regardless of hydrogen content of the gaseous fuel while thermal efficiency is improved and presence of hydrogen reduces cyclic variations. Increasing the fraction of hydrogen in the fuel mixture replaces hydrocarbon fuels and reduces carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions.
Technical Paper

In-Situ Fuel Concentration Measurement Near Spark Plug by 3.392 μm Infrared Absorption Method-Application to a Port Injected Lean-Burn Engine

2004-03-08
2004-01-1353
In this study, a spark plug sensor for in-situ fuel concentration measurement was applied to a port injected lean-burn engine. Laser infrared absorption method was employed and a 3.392 μm He-Ne laser that coincides with the absorption line of hydrocarbons was used as a light source. In this engine, the secondary valve lift height of intake system was controlled to obtain appropriate swirl and tumble flow in order to achieve lean-burn with the characteristics of intake flow. For such in-cylinder stratified mixture distribution, the fuel concentration near the spark plug is very important factor that affects the combustion characteristics. Therefore, the mixture formation process near the spark plug was investigated with changing fuel injection timing. Under the intake stroke, the timing that fuel passed through near the spark plug depended largely on the fuel injection timing.
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