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Technical Paper

The Modular Engine Concept: a Cost Effective Way to Reduce Pollutant Emissions and Fuel Consuption

A promising technique to enhance fuel efficiency of large capacity S.I. engines is the de-activation of some cylinders at partial load, through the cut-out of fuel metering and a specific control of the airflow. Thanks to the ensuing reduction of throttling losses (the active cylinders operate at a much higher load), fuel consumption can be reduced, without any negative perception from the driver. Such a technique has been already applied successfully on some production engines, at the cost of some additional complication on the valve-train system. The application analyzed in this study is a little bit different, being aimed to reduce both fuel consumption and emissions, with a minimum impact on engine design. Larger fuel savings may be obtained by coupling the cylinder de-activation with VVT.
Technical Paper

Combustion Optimization of a Marine DI Diesel Engine

Enhanced calibration strategies and innovative engine combustion technologies are required to meet the new limits on exhaust gas emissions enforced in the field of marine propulsion and on-board energy production. The goal of the paper is to optimize the control parameters of a 4.2 dm3 unit displacement marine DI Diesel engine, in order to enhance the efficiency of the combustion system and reduce engine out emissions. The investigation is carried out by means of experimental tests and CFD simulations. For a better control of the testing conditions, the experimental activity is performed on a single cylinder prototype, while the engine test bench is specifically designed to simulate different levels of boosting. The numerical investigations are carried out using a set of different CFD tools: GT-Power for the engine cycle analysis, STAR-CD for the study of the in-cylinder flow, and a customized version of the KIVA-3V code for combustion.
Technical Paper

Comparison between a Diesel and a New 2-Stroke GDI Engine on a Series Hybrid Passenger Car

The internal combustion engine (ICE) for a series hybrid vehicle must be very compact, fuel efficient reliable and clean; furthermore it should possess excellent NVH features; finally, the cost should be as low as possible. An unconventional but not exotic solution, potentially ideal to fulfill all the above mentioned requirements, is represented by a 2-Stroke externally scavenged GDI engine, without poppet valves. BRC (Cherasco, Italy) and PRIMAVIS (Turin, Italy) are currently developing an engine of this type, incorporating a patented rotary valve for the control of the charge induced to cylinder. The development is supported by extensive CFD simulations, which are able to predict all the main engine performance characteristics. The paper analyzes, from a theoretical point of view, the installation of the engine on an electric vehicle, previously optimized for a small Diesel engine (Smart 0.8 l CDi).
Journal Article

CFD Analyses on 2-Stroke High Speed Diesel Engines

In recent years, interest has been growing in the 2-Stroke Diesel cycle, coupled to high speed engines. One of the most promising applications is on light aircraft piston engines, typically designed to provide a top brake power of 100-200 HP with a relatively low weight. The main advantage yielded by the 2-Stroke cycle is the possibility to achieve high power density at low crankshaft speed, allowing the propeller to be directly coupled to the engine, without a reduction drive. Furthermore, Diesel combustion is a good match for supercharging and it is expected to provide a superior fuel efficiency, in comparison to S.I. engines. However, the coupling of 2-Stroke cycle and Diesel combustion on small bore, high speed engines is quite complex, requiring a suitable support from CFD simulation.
Technical Paper

Development of a Hybrid Power Unit for Formula SAE Application: ICE CFD-1D Optimization and Vehicle Lap Simulation

The paper reviews the CFD optimization of a motorcycle engine, modified for the development of a hybrid powertrain of a Formula SAE car. In a parallel paper, the choice of the donor engine (Ducati 959 Panigale: 2-cylinder, V90, 955 cc, peak power 150 HP at 10500 rpm, peak torque 102 Nm at 9000 rpm) is thoroughly discussed, along with all the hardware modifications oriented to minimize the new powertrain dimensions, weight and cost, and guarantee full reliability in racing conditions. In the current paper, the attention is focused on two main topics: 1) CFD-1D tuning of the modified Internal Combustion Engine (ICE), in order to comply with the Formula SAE regulations, as well as to maximize the power output; 2) simulation of the vehicle in racing conditions, comparison with a conventional combustion car and a full electric vehicle.
Technical Paper

Comparison among different 2-Stage Supercharging systems for HSDI Diesel engines

2-stage supercharging applied to HSDI Diesel engines appears a promising solution for enhancing rated power, low end torque, transient response and hence the launch characteristics of a vehicle. However, many open points still remain, in particular about the impact on emissions control and fuel economy at partial load conditions, generally requiring both high airflow and high EGR rates. The paper analyzes and compares two types of 2-stage supercharging systems: a) two turbochargers of different size; b) one turbocharger coupled to a positive displacement compressor. The goal of the paper is to assess pro and cons of the most feasible configurations for a typical automobile Diesel engine, complying with Euro V regulations and beyond. The base engine is the 2.8L, 4 cylinder in-line unit produced by VM Motori (Cento, Italy), equipped by a standard variable geometry turbocharger.
Technical Paper

Development of a High Performance Engine for a Formula SAE Racer

The paper reviews the theoretical and experimental development of the engine powering the 2011 Formula SAE single seater of the University of Modena and Reggio Emilia (UNIMORE). The general design criteria followed by the UNIMORE team are discussed and compared to those chosen by other competitors. In particular, the reasons supporting the selection of the engine type (single cylinder by Husqvarna) are explained in details. The adoption of a single cylinder, instead of the more powerful four-in-line, required a much bigger effort for getting an acceptable level of brake power. Therefore, the development was massively supported by CFD simulation (both 1D and 3D) and by experiments. It was found that the most important design areas for the single cylinder are: the intake system, including the restrictor (20 mm), the intake runner and the plenum, and the muffler.
Journal Article

Comparison between 2 and 4-Stroke Engines for a 30 kW Range Extender

The paper compares two different design concepts for a range extender engine rated at 30 kW at 4500 rpm. The first project is a conventional 4-Stroke SI engine, 2-cylinder, 2-valve, equipped with port fuel injection. The second is a new type of 2-Stroke loop scavenged SI engine, featuring a direct gasoline injection and a patented rotary valve for enhancing the induction and scavenging processes. Both power units have been virtually designed with the help of CFD simulation. Moreover, for the 2-Stroke engine, a prototype has been also built and tested at the dynamometer bench, allowing the authors to make a reliable theoretical comparison with the well assessed 4-Stroke unit.
Technical Paper

An Innovative Hybrid Powertrain for Small and Medium Boats

Hybridization is a mainstream technology for automobiles, and its application is rapidly expanding in other fields. Marine propulsion is one such field that could benefit from electrification of the powertrain. In particular, for boats to sail in enclosed waterways, such as harbors, channels, lagoons, a pure electric mode would be highly desirable. The main challenge to accomplish hybridization is the additional weight of the electric components, in particular the batteries. The goal of this project is to replace a conventional 4-stroke turbocharged Diesel engine with a hybrid powertrain, without any penalty in terms of weight, overall dimensions, fuel efficiency, and pollutant emissions. This can be achieved by developing a new generation of 2-Stroke Diesel engines, and coupling them to a state-of-the art electric system. For the thermal units, two alternative designs without active valve train are considered: opposed piston and loop scavenged engines.
Technical Paper

Design of a Hybrid Power Unit for Formula SAE Application: Packaging Optimization and Thermomechanical Design of the Electric Motor Case

This paper presents the development of a parallel hybrid power unit for Formula SAE application. In particular, the system is made up of a brand new, single-cylinder 480 cc internal combustion engine developed on the basis of the Ducati “959 Superquadro” V90 2-cylinders engine. The thermal engine is assisted by a custom electric motor (30 kW), powered by a Li-Ion battery pack. The performance of the ICE has been optimized through CFD-1D simulation (a review of this activity is reported in a parallel paper). The main design goal is to get the maximum amount of mechanical energy from the fuel, considering the car typical usage: racing on a windy track. The Ducati “959 Superquadro” engine is chosen because of its high power-to-weight ratio, as well as for its V90 2-cylinder layout.