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Technical Paper

PROGRESS OF PASSIVE SAFETY IN CAR-TO-CAR FRONTAL COLLISIONS: RESULTS FROM REAL-LIFE CRASH ANALYSES AND FROM CRASH TESTS

2001-06-04
2001-06-0198
The progress of passive safety in car-to-car frontal collisions can be seen very clearly from the results of crash tests with old and new car models. The published federal accident statistics show an overall effort in passive safety, which is obvious by decreasing figures of killed and severely injured car occupants per year on German roads. But it is not possible to exclusively focus on car crashes with frontal collisions because the characteristics investigated in official statistics are not detailed enough. Therefore additional in-depth studies are necessary. The paper shows results of car-to-car and car-to-barrier frontal impacts for old and new car models. Some results of evaluations using the federal German statistics show historical trends in a more general view. Interdisciplinary real-life crash studies are focused on car-to-car frontal collisions.
Technical Paper

Comparison of PMHS, WorldSID, and THOR-NT Responses in Simulated Far Side Impact

2007-10-29
2007-22-0014
Injury to the far side occupant has been demonstrated as a significant portion of the total trauma in side impacts. The objective of the study was to determine the response of PMHS in far side impact configurations, with and without generic countermeasures, and compare responses to the WorldSID and THOR dummies. A far side impact buck was designed for a sled test system that included a center console and three-point belt system. The buck allowed for additional options of generic countermeasures including shoulder or thorax plates or an inboard shoulder belt. The entire buck could be mounted on the sled in either a 90-degree (3-o'clock PDOF) or a 60-degree (2-o'clock PDOF) orientation. A total of 18 tests on six PMHS were done to characterize the far side impact environment at both low (11 km/h) and high (30 km/h) velocities. WorldSID and THOR-NT tests were completed in the same configurations to conduct matched-pair comparisons.
Technical Paper

Biomechanics of Inertial Head-Neck Trauma: Role of Cervical Components

2002-03-19
2002-01-1445
Inertial loading of the head-neck complex occurs in rear impacts wherein the head and neck of the occupant are initially subjected to rearward forces. Epidemiological evidence exists to demonstrate the significance and societal impact of these injuries [4]. From a clinical perspective, trauma secondary to inertial loads belongs to the lower end of the Abbreviated Injury Scale, and no specific diagnostic techniques are available to quantitatively document the injury. Furthermore, identification of the mechanisms of injury and derivation of injury thresholds are limited. In fact, there is a paucity of literature focusing on the reproduction of rear impact-induced neck injuries due to a single-event rear impact. Because the impact acceleration is transmitted to the head from the torso via the cervical column, the components of the human neck play a role in the mechanics of trauma.
Technical Paper

Response Corridors of Human Surrogates in Lateral Impacts

2002-11-11
2002-22-0017
Thirty-six lateral PMHS sled tests were performed at 6.7 or 8.9 m/s, under rigid or padded loading conditions and with a variety of impact surface geometries. Forces between the simulated vehicle environment and the thorax, abdomen, and pelvis, as well as torso deflections and various accelerations were measured and scaled to the average male. Mean ± one standard deviation corridors were calculated. PMHS response corridors for force, torso deflection and acceleration were developed. The offset test condition, when partnered with the flat wall condition, forms the basis of a robust battery of tests that can be used to evaluate how an ATD interacts with its environment, and how body regions within the ATD interact with each other.
Technical Paper

Experimental Determination of Adult and Pediatric Neck Scale Factors

2002-11-11
2002-22-0020
The purpose of this study was to determine scale factors for small, mid-size and large adults using a caprine model. In a previous study conducted in our lab, scaling relationships were developed to define cervical spine tolerance values of children using caprine specimens. In that study, tolerances were normalized with respect to an average adult. Because airbag-related injuries are associated with out-of-position children and small adult females, additional experimental data are needed to better estimate human tolerance. In the present study, cervical spine radiographs from the 5th, 50th and 95th percentile human adults were used to determine vertebral body heights for small, mid-size and large anthropometries. Mean human vertebral body heights were computed for each anthropometry and were normalized with respect to mid-size anthropometry.
Technical Paper

Characterizing Occipital Condyle Loads Under High-Speed Head Rotation

2005-11-09
2005-22-0002
Because of the need to evaluate anthropomorphic test device (ATD) biofidelity under high-head angular accelerations, the purpose of the present investigation was to develop appropriate instrumentation for intact post mortem human subject (PMHS) testing, validate the instrumentation, and obtain information to characterize the response of the head-neck complex under this loading scenario. A series of rigid-arm pendulum, inertially loaded ATD tests was conducted. Head and neck ATD hydraulic piston chin pull tests were conducted. Subsequently, a series of PMHS tests was conducted to derive the response of the human head-neck under high-rate chin loading. Finally, Hybrid III and THOR-NT ATD head-neck systems were evaluated under the same scenario as the PMHS. A parametric analysis for center of gravity (CG) location and accelerometer orientation determined that even small errors (± 3 mm or 2 degrees), produced errors in the force and moment calculations by as much as 17%.
Technical Paper

Region-Specific Deflection Responses of WorldSID and ES2-re Devices in Pure Lateral and Oblique Side Impacts

2011-11-07
2011-22-0013
The objective of this study was to determine region-specific deflection responses of the WorldSID and ES2-re devices under pure lateral and oblique side impact loading. A modular, anthropometry-specific load wall was used. It consisted of the Shoulder, Thorax, Abdomen, superior Pelvis, and inferior Pelvis plates, termed the STAPP load wall design. The two devices were positioned upright on the platform of a bench seat, and sled tests were conducted at 3.4, 6.7, and 7.5 m/s. Two chestbands were used on each dummy at the thoracic and abdominal regions. Internal sensors were also used. Effective peak deflections were obtained from the chestband contours. Based on the preselected lateral-most point/location on the pretest contour, “internal sensor-type” peak deflections were also obtained using chestband contours. In addition, peak deflection data were obtained from internal sensor records.
Technical Paper

Thoraco-Abdominal Deflection Responses of Post Mortem Human Surrogates in Side Impacts

2012-10-29
2012-22-0002
The objective of the present study was to determine the thorax and abdomen deflections sustained by post mortem human surrogate (PMHS) in oblique side impact sled tests and compare the responses and injuries with pure lateral tests. Oblique impact tests were conducted using modular and non-modular load-wall designs, with the former capable of accommodating varying anthropometry. Tests were conducted at 6.7 m/s velocity. Deflection responses from chestbands were analyzed from 15 PMHS tests: five each from modular load-wall oblique, non-modular load-wall oblique and non-modular load-wall pure lateral impacts. The thorax and abdomen peak deflections were greater in non-modular load-wall oblique than pure lateral tests. Peak abdomen deflections were statistically significantly different while the upper thorax deflections demonstrated a trend towards significance.
Technical Paper

Injury Risk Curves for the Human Cervical Spine from Inferior-to-Superior Loading

2018-11-12
2018-22-0006
Cervical spine injuries can occur in military scenarios from events such as underbody blast events. Such scenarios impart inferior-to-superior loads to the spine. The objective of this study is to develop human injury risk curves (IRCs) under this loading mode using Post Mortem Human Surrogates (PMHS). Twenty-five PMHS head-neck complexes were obtained, screened for pre-existing trauma, bone densities were determined, pre-tests radiological images were taken, fixed in polymethylmethacrylate at the T2-T3 level, a load cell was attached to the distal end of the preparation, positioned end on custom vertical accelerator device based on the military-seating posture, donned with a combat helmet, and impacted at the base. Posttest images were obtained, and gross dissection was done to confirm injuries to all specimens. Axial and resultant forces at the cervico-thoracic joint was used to develop the IRCs using survival analysis.
Technical Paper

Biomechanics of Lumbar Motion-Segments in Dynamic Compression

2017-11-13
2017-22-0001
Recent epidemiology studies have reported increase in lumbar spine injuries in frontal crashes. Whole human body finite element models (FEHBM) are frequently used to delineate mechanisms of such injuries. However, the accuracy of these models in mimicking the response of human spine relies on the characterization data of the spine model. The current study set out to generate characterization data that can be input to FEHBM lumbar spine, to obtain biofidelic responses from the models. Twenty-five lumbar functional spinal units were tested under compressive loading. A hydraulic testing machine was used to load the superior ends of the specimens. A 75N load was placed on the superior PMMA to remove the laxity in the joint and mimic the physiological load. There were three loading sequences, namely, preconditioning, 0.5 m/s (non-injurious) and 1.0 m/s (failure). Forces and displacements were collected using six-axis load cell and VICON targets.
Technical Paper

Biomechanical Response of Military Booted and Unbooted Foot-Ankle-Tibia from Vertical Loading

2016-11-07
2016-22-0010
A new anthropomorphic test device (ATD) is being developed by the US Army to be responsive to vertical loading during a vehicle underbody blast event. To obtain design parameters for the new ATD, a series of non-injurious tests were conducted to derive biofidelity response corridors for the foot-ankle complex under vertical loading. Isolated post mortem human surrogate (PMHS) lower leg specimens were tested with and without military boot and in different initial foot-ankle positions. Instrumentation included a six-axis load cell at the proximal end, three-axis accelerometers at proximal and distal tibia, and calcaneus, and strain gages. Average proximal tibia axial forces for a neutral-positioned foot were about 2 kN for a 4 m/s test, 4 kN for 6 m/s test and 6 kN for an 8 m/s test. The force time-to-peak values were from 3 to 5 msec and calcaneus acceleration rise times were 2 to 8 msec.
Technical Paper

Responses and Injuries to PMHS in Side-Facing and Oblique Seats in Horizontal Longitudinal Sled Tests per FAA Emergency Landing Conditions

2016-11-07
2016-22-0006
The objective of the present exploratory study is to understand occupant responses in oblique and side-facing seats in the aviation environment, which are increasingly installed in modern aircrafts. Sled tests were conducted using intact Post Mortem Human Surrogates (PMHS) seated in custom seats approximating standard aircraft geometry. End conditions were selected to represent candidate aviation seat and restraint configurations. Three-dimensional head center-of-gravity linear accelerations, head angular velocities, and linear accelerations of the T1, T6, and T12 spinous processes, and sacrum were obtained. Three-dimensional kinematics relative to the seat were obtained from retroreflective targets attached to the head, T1, T6, T12, and sacrum. All specimens sustained spinal injuries, although variations existed by vertebral level.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Responses of Intact Post Mortem Human Surrogates from Inferior-to-Superior Loading at the Pelvis

2014-11-10
2014-22-0005
During certain events such as underbody blasts due to improvised explosive devices, occupants in military vehicles are exposed to inferior-to-superior loading from the pelvis. Injuries to the pelvis-sacrum-lumbar spine complex have been reported from these events. The mechanism of load transmission and potential variables defining the migration of injuries between pelvis and or spinal structures are not defined. This study applied inferior-to-superior impacts to the tuberosities of the ischium of supine-positioned five post mortem human subjects (PMHS) using different acceleration profiles, defined using shape, magnitude and duration parameters. Seventeen tests were conducted. Overlay temporal plots were presented for normalized (impulse momentum approach) forces and accelerations of the sacrum and spine.
Technical Paper

Development of Side Impact Thoracic Injury Criteria and Their Application to the Modified ES-2 Dummy with Rib Extensions (ES-2re)

2003-10-27
2003-22-0010
Forty-two side impact cadaver sled tests were conducted at 24 and 32 km/h impact speeds into rigid and padded walls. The post-mortem human subjects were instrumented with accelerometers on the ribs and spine and chest bands around the thorax and abdomen to characterize their mechanical response during the impact. Load cells at the wall measured the impact force at the level of the thorax, abdomen, pelvis, and lower extremities. The resulting injuries were determined through detailed autopsy and radiography. Rib fractures with or without associated hemo/pneumo thorax or flail chest were the most common injury with severity ranging from AIS=0 to 5. Full and half thorax deflections were computed from the chest band data. The cadaver test data was analyzed using ANOVA and logistic regression. The age of the subject at the time of death had influence on injury outcome while gender and mass of the subject had little or no influence on injury outcome.
Technical Paper

Oblique Loading in Post Mortem Human Surrogates from Vehicle Lateral ImpactTests Using Chestbands

2015-11-09
2015-22-0001
While numerous studies have been conducted to determine side impact responses of Post Mortem Human Surrogates (PMHS) using sled and other equipment, experiments using the biological surrogate in modern full-scale vehicles are not available. The present study investigated the presence of oblique loading in moving deformable barrier and pole tests. Three-point belt restrained PMHS were positioned in the left front and left rear seats in the former and left front seat in the latter condition and tested according to consumer testing protocols. Three chestbands were used in each specimen (upper, middle and lower thorax). Accelerometers were secured to the skull, shoulder, upper, middle and lower thoracic vertebrae, sternum, and sacrum. Chestband signals were processed to determine magnitudes and angulations of peak deflections. The magnitude and timing of various signal peaks are given. Vehicle accelerations, door velocities, and seat belt loads are also given.
Technical Paper

Biomechanical and Injury Response to Posterolateral Loading From Torso Side Airbags

2010-11-03
2010-22-0012
This study characterized thoracoabdominal response to posterolateral loading from a seat-mounted side airbag. Seven unembalmed post-mortem human subjects were exposed to ten airbag deployments. Subjects were positioned such that the deploying airbag first contacted the posterolateral thorax between T6 and L1 while stationary (n = 3 x 2 aspects) or while subjected to left lateral sled impact at ΔV = 6.7 m/s (n = 4). Chestband contours were analyzed to quantify deformation direction in the thoracic x-y plane (zero degrees indicating anterior and 180° indicating posterior), magnitude, rate, and viscous response. Skeletal injuries were consistent with posterolateral contact; visceral injuries consisted of renal (n = 1) or splenic (n = 3) lacerations. Deformation direction was transient during sled impact, progressing from 122 ± 5° at deformation onset to 90° following maximum deflection. Angles from stationary subjects progressed from 141 ± 9° to 120°.
Technical Paper

Lower Cervical Spine Loading in Frontal Sled Tests Using Inverse Dynamics: Potential Applications for Lower Neck Injury Criteria

2010-11-03
2010-22-0008
Lower cervical spine injuries are more common in survivors of motor vehicle crashes sustaining neck trauma. Injury criteria are determined using upper neck loads in dummies although a lower neck load cell exists. Due to a paucity of lower neck data from post mortem human subject (PMHS) studies, this research was designed to determine the head-neck biomechanics with a focus on lower neck metrics and injuries. Sixteen frontal impact tests were conducted using five belted PMHS. Instrumentation consisted of a pyramid-shaped nine accelerometer package on the head, tri-axial accelerometer on T1, and uniaxial accelerometer on the sled. Three-dimensional kinematics of the head-neck complex were obtained using a 20-camera high-speed motion analysis system. Testing sequence was: low (3.6 m/s), medium (6.9 m/s), repeat low, and high (15.8 m/s) velocities. Trauma evaluations were made between tests. Testing was terminated upon confirmation of injuries.
Technical Paper

Thoracic Biomechanics with Air Bag Restraint

1993-11-01
933121
The objective of the present study was to determine the biomechanics of the human thorax in a simulated frontal impact. Fourteen unembalmed human cadavers were subjected to deceleration sled tests at velocities of nine or 13 m/s. Air bag - knee bolster, air bag - lap belt, and air bag - three-point belt restraint systems were used with the specimen positioned in the driver's seat. Two chest bands were used to derive the deformation patterns at the upper and lower thoracic levels. Lap and shoulder belt forces were recorded with seatbelt transducers. After the test, specimens were evaluated using palpation, radiography, and a detailed autopsy. Thoracic trauma was graded according to the Abbreviated Injury Scale based on autopsy findings. Peak thoracic deformations were normalized with respect to the initial chest depth to facilitate comparison between the specimens.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Characteristics of the Human Cervical Spine

1995-11-01
952722
This paper presents the experimental dynamic tolerance and the force-deformation response corridor of the human cervical spine under compression loading. Twenty human cadaver head-neck complexes were tested using a crown impact to the head at speeds from 2.5 m/s to 8 m/s. The cervical spine was evaluated for pre-alignment by using the concept of the stiffest axis. Mid cervical column (C3 to C5) vertebral body wedge, burst, and vertical fractures were produced in compression. Posterior ligament tears in the lower column occurred under flexion. Anterior longitudinal ligament tears and spinous process fractures occurred under extension. Mean values were: force at failure, 3326 N; deformation at failure, 18 mm; stiffness, 555 N/mm. The deformation at failure parameter was associated with the least variance and should describe the most accurate tolerance measure for the population as a whole.
Technical Paper

Oblique Lateral Impact Biofidelity Deflection Corridors from Post Mortem Human Surrogates

2013-11-11
2013-22-0016
The objective of the study was to determine the thorax and abdomen deflection-time corridors in oblique side impacts. Data were analyzed from Post Mortem Human Surrogate (PMHS) sled tests, certain aspects of which were previously published. A modular and scalable anthropometry-specific segmented load-wall system was fixed to the platform of the sled. Region-specific forces were recorded from load cells attached to the load-wall plates. The thorax and abdomen regions were instrumented with chestbands, and deflection contours were obtained. Biomechanical responses were processed using the impulse-momentum normalization method and scaled to the mid-size male mass, 76-kg. The individual effective masses of the thorax and abdomen were used to determine the scale factors in each sled test, thus using the response from each experiment. The maximum deflections and their times of attainments were obtained, and mean and plus minus one standard deviation corridors were derived.
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