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Technical Paper

Effects of Combustion on In-Cylinder Mixing of Gaseous and Liquid Jets

1995-02-01
950467
In a previous study, the authors compared the fuel-air mixing characteristics of gas jets and sprays in Diesel engine environments in the absence of combustion. A three-dimensional model for flows and sprays was used. It was shown that mixing was slower in gas jets relative to fast-evaporating sprays. In this study, which is an extension of the previous one, the direct-injection of gasesous methane, gaseous tetradecane and liquid tetradecane are studied using the same three-dimensional model. This study concentrates on combustion. It is shown that the fuel-air mixing rate and hence the burning rate are initially slower with gas injection.
Technical Paper

Fuel Distribution Effects on the Combustion of a Direct-injection Stratified-Charge Engine

1995-02-01
950460
Simultaneous fuel distribution images (by shadowgraph and laser-induced fluorescence) and cylinder pressure measurements are reported for a combusting stratified-charge engine with a square cup in the head at 800 RPM and light load for two spark locations with and without swirl. Air-assisted direct-injection occurred from 130°-150° after bottom dead center (ABDC) and ignition was at 148° ABDC. The engine is ported and injection and combustion take place every 6th cycle. The complicated interaction of the squish, fuel/air jet, square cup, spark plug geometry and weak tumble gives rise to a weak crossflow toward the intake side of the engine with no swirl, but toward the exhaust side in the presence of strong swirl, skewing the spray slightly to that side.
Technical Paper

Additive Effects on Atomization and Evaporation of Diesel Fuel Under Engine Conditions

1997-02-24
970795
The objective of this work was to establish whether two detergent-type additives(A and B) influence the drop size and evaporation of two Diesel fuels (1 and 2) under Diesel engine conditions. Two experiments were performed: visualization of liquid and vapor fuel by the exciplex technique in a motored single-cylinder engine and measurement of the Sauter mean diameter, total drop cross sectional area and total drop volume by laser diffraction in a spray chamber. The same Diesel injector and pump system were used in the two experiments. The engine tests were carried out using a high aromatic content fuel (1) particularly suited for the exciplex studies. These studies showed that additive A yielded a lower vapor signal than additive B, which in turn gave a lower vapor signal than untreated fuel. Spray chamber results were obtained for both fuel 1 and 2. Additive A reduced the evaporation of fuel 1 whereas additive B gave a smaller and less consistent affect.
Technical Paper

3-D Computations of Premixed-Charge Natural Gas Combustion in Rotary Engines

1991-02-01
910625
A three-dimensional model for premixed- charge naturally-aspirated rotary engine combustion is used to identify combustion chamber geometries that could lead to increased indicated efficiency for a lean (equivalence ratio =0.75) natural gas/air mixture. Computations were made at two rpms (1800 and 3600) and two loads (approximately 345 Kpa and 620 Kpa indicated mean effective pressure). Six configurations were studied. The configuration that gave the highest indicated efficiency has a leading pocket with a leading deep recess, two spark plugs located circumferentially on the symmetry plane (one after the minor axis and the other before), a compression ratio of 9.5, and an anti-quench feature on the trailing flank.
Technical Paper

A Study of Velocities and Turbulence Intensities Measured in Firing and Motored Engines

1987-02-01
870453
Laser Doppler velocimetry was used to make cycle-resolved velocity and turbulence measurements under motoring and firing conditions in a ported homogeneous charge S.I. engine. The engine had a flat pancake chamber with a compression ratio of 7.5. In one study, the effect of the intake velocity on TDC turbulence intensity was measured at 600, 1200, and 1800 rpm with three different intake flow rates at each speed. The TDC swirl ratio ranged from 2 to 6. The TDC turbulence intensities were found to be relatively insensitive to the intake velocity, and tended to scale more strongly with engine speed. For the combustion measurements, the engine was operated at 600, 1200, and 2400 rpm on stoichiometric and lean propane-air mixtures. Velocity measurements were made in swirling and non-swirling flows at several spatial locations on the midplane of the clearance height. The TDC swirl ratio was about 4. The measurements were made ahead, through, and behind the flame.
Technical Paper

2-D Visualization of a Hollow-Cone Spray in a Cup-in-Head, Ported, I.C. Engine

1989-02-01
890315
Two dimensional visualization of a pulsating, hollow-cone spray was performed in a motored, ported, high swirl, cup-in-head I.C. engine, using exciplex-forming dopants in the fuel, which produced spectrally separated fluorescence from the liquid and vapor phases. Illumination was by a laser sheet approximately 200 µm thick from a frequency tripled Nd:YAG laser, and image acquisition was by a 100 × 100 pixel diode array camera interfaced to a personal computer. Liquid and vapor phase fuel distributions are reported for engine speeds of 800 rpm and 1600 rpm, over a crankangle range spanning the injection event and subsequent evaporation and mixing. The beginning of injection was at 33° BTDC at 800 rpm and 47° BTDC at 1600 rpm. At 800 rpm, the spray angle is narrower than the 60° poppet angle, as expected from previous observations in a near-quiescent spray chamber.
Technical Paper

2-D Visualization of Liquid Fuel injection in an Internal Combustion Engine

1987-11-01
872074
A sheet of laser light from a frequency-doubled Nd-YAG laser (λ = 532 nm) approximately 150 μm thick is shone through the cylinder of a single cylinder internal combustion engine. The light scattered by the fuel spray is collected through a quartz window in the cylinder and is imaged on a 100 × 100 diode array camera. The signal from the diode array is then sent to a microcomputer for background subtraction and image enhancement. The laser pulse is synchronized with the crank shaft of the engine so that a picture of the spray distribution within the engine at different times during injection and the penetration and development of the spray may be observed. The extent of the spray at different positions within the chamber is determined by varying the position and angle of the laser sheet with respect to the piston and the injector.
Technical Paper

Three-Dimensional Visualization of Premixed-Charge Engine Flames: Islands of Reactants and Products; Fractal Dimensions; and Homogeneity

1988-02-01
881635
The structure of turbulent flames was examined in a premixed-charge, spark-ignition ported engine using a three-dimensional visualization technique with 10 ns time resolution and 350 µm best spatial resolution. The engine had a pancake chamber, a compression ratio of 8, a TDC swirl number of 4 and was operated at 300, 1200 and 2400 rpm with stoichiometric and lean propane/air mixtures. The second and third harmonic beams of an Nd-YAG laser (532 nm and 355 nm), along with the two strongest beams (first Stokes (683 nm) and first anti-Stokes (436 nm)) from a hydrogen Raman shifter pumped by the second harmonic were used to create four parallel laser sheets each of less than 300 microns thickness. The laser sheets were passed through a transparent quartz ring in the cylinder head parallel to the piston top with vertical separations between successive sheets ranging from 1.5 to 0.9 mm.
Technical Paper

3-D Computations to Improve Combustion in a Stratified-Charge Rotary Engine Part IV: Modified Geometries

1993-03-01
930679
A three-dimensional model for a direct injection stratified-charge rotary engine has been employed to study two modifications to the pocket geometry of the engine. In one modification, a pocket is located towards the leading edge of the rotor and is shown to produce recirculation within the pocket and faster burning. In the second modification, a two pocket rotor with two injectors and two spark plugs is studied. It appears that this should result in better utilization of the chamber air. It also appears that both modifications rhould result in higher efficiency of the direct-injected stratifiedcharge rotary engine. However extensive computations are required before a final conclusion is reached and before specific recommendations can be made.
Technical Paper

Combustion Optimization Computations-Part I: Swirl and Squish Effects in Air-Assist Injection Engines

1992-10-01
922240
Results are presented of two-dimensional computations of air-assist fuel injection into engines with bowl-in-piston and bowl-in-head, with and without swirl and for early and late injection but without combustion. The general finding is that swirl tends to destroy the head vortex of the air/fuel jet and results in a faster collapse of the spray cone toward its axis. Faster collapse is also promoted by high density of the chamber gas (e.g. late injection) and bowl-in-head design (limited availability of chamber gas around the spray, presence of walls and delayed influence of squish by the injector). With enhanced collapse, fuel-rich regions are formed around the axis and away from the injector. With reduced collapse, the radial distribution of the fuel is more uniform. Thus swirl tends to lead to both slower vaporization and richer vapor mixtures. Also, with strong swirl the rich mixtures tend to end up by the injector; without swirl, by the piston.
Technical Paper

On the Quantitative Application of Exciplex Fluorescence to Engine Sprays

1993-03-01
930870
The exciplex fluorescence technique has been used to separately visualize liquid and vapor phase fuel in engines since its development by Melton. However, as a fluorescence technique it has the potential to be quantitative and the underlying assumptions have been outlined by Melton. An initial quantitative application of the TMPD/naphthalene system, based on these assumptions, applied to a hollow-cone spray in a two-stroke engine, indicated that it substantially over-estimates the concentration of fuel vapor about TDC. The reasons for the discrepancy were investigated and it was concluded that a major factor is the effect of temperature on the photophysics of the species involved. Thus the absorption spectra of the exciplex dopants were determined at temperatures up to 700 K. These experiments showed that the increase in absorption with temperature above 500 K is responsible for the failure of the earlier calibration.
Technical Paper

Simple Modeling of Autoignition in Diesel Engines for 3-D Computations

1993-10-01
932656
For practical, extensive 3-D computations for engine improvements, each physical submodel needs to be the simplest that is compatible with the accuracy of all other physical submodels and of the numerics. The addition of one progress variable controlled by one Arrhenius term is shown to be adequate to reproduce Diesel ignition delay in 2-D and 3-D computations. The rest of the model is that used for years by the authors to optimize combustion in reciprocating and rotary engines with premixed and non-premixed charges, including all of its model constants. This minimal Diesel autoignition submodel reproduces well trends and magnitudes of ignition delay versus chamber temperature and pressure. As in experiments, it is found that multiple ignition sources develop in rapid succession at various locations around the fuel spray after the first ignition event.
Technical Paper

Two-Dimensional Visualization of Premixed-Charge Flame Structure in an IC Engine - SP-715

1987-02-01
870454
Flame fronts were examined in a premixed-charge, spark-ignition, ported engine using a two-dimensional visualization technique with 10 nanoseconds time resolution and 200 microns best spatial resolution. The engine had a pancake chamber, a compression ratio of 8, a TDC swirl number of 4 and was operated at 300 to 3000 rpm with stoichiometric and lean propane/air mixtures. The measurements were made far from, and near to, the cylinder wall. A pulsed laser sheet was passed through the engine and the light scattered by sub-micron TiO2 or ZrO2 seeding particles was collected by a 100 x 100 diode array with fields of view of 1 cm x 1 cm, 2 cm x 2 cm, and 9 cm x 9 cm. The thickness of the flame front is as small as, or smaller than, the 200 micron best resolution of the measurements thus confirming that premixed-charge engine turbulent flames generally appear to be wrinkled laminar flames.
Technical Paper

The Use of Intake and Exhaust Measurements with Computer Simulations to Investigate the Evolution of the Internal Flow Field in a Ported Engine

1991-02-01
910262
Recent measurements by of gas intake flows and exhaust pressure in a motored, ported, single-cylinder engine with strong swirl and roll have been used as boundary conditions to a three-dimensional, transient computer simulation of the flow within the cylinder. For each condition, the calculation is continued over several engine cycles until the periodic solution is obtained. The computed TDC tangential velocity and turbulence intensity are then compared with measured ones. A technique is described to evaluate scavenging efficiency, the fraction of charge that remains in the cylinder over later cycles and the degree of mixedness of fresh and residual charge. For this motored ported engine, it is found that the scavenging efficiency is very low (19.4% at 1200 RPM) and the inflow from the exhaust ports is very significant. For practical ported engines with combustion, the scavenging efficiency is much higher but the inflows from exhaust ports are still expected to be significant.
Technical Paper

Comparisons of Computed and Measured Pressure in a Premixed-Charge Natural-Gas-Fueled Rotary Engine

1989-02-01
890671
The combustion chamber pressure computed with a three-dimensional model is compared with the measured one in a rotary engine fueled with mixtures of natural gas and air. The rotary engine has a rotor displacement of 654 cm3, a compression ratio of 9.4 and uses 2 ignition sparks. The model incorporates a k-ϵ submodel for turbulence, wall function submodels for turbulent wall boundary layer transport, and a hybrid laminar/mixing controlled submodel for species conversion and energy release. Nine cases are considered that cover a wide range of engine operating conditions: rpm of 2503-5798, volumetric efficiency of 35.7-100.5% and equivalence ratio of 0.59-1.15. In all cases the computed and measured pressures agree within 12%.
Technical Paper

3-D Computations to Improve Combustion in a stratified-Charge Rotary Engine Part II: A Better Spray Pattern for the Pilot Injector

1989-09-01
892057
A three-dimensional combustion model of a direct-injection stratified-charge rotary engine is used to identify modifications that might lead to better indicated efficiency. The engine, which has a five-hole main injector and a pilot injector, is predicted to achieve better indicated efficiency if a two-hole ‘rabbit-ear’ pilot injector is used instead of its present single-hole pilot injector. This rabbit-ear arrangement is predicted to increase the surface area of the early flame (on account of better distribution of the fuel), and thereby result in an increased overall burning rate. Computations were made at high and low engine speeds and loads, encompassing the practical operating range. It is concluded that the modified pilot injector will increase indicated efficiency by about 5% within the computed operating range.
Technical Paper

Fuel-Air Mixing and Distribution in a Direct-Injection Stratified-Charge Rotary Engine

1989-02-01
890329
A three-dimensional model for flows and combustion in reciprocating and rotary engines is applied to a direct-injection stratified-charge rotary engine to identify the main parameters that control its burning rate. It is concluded that the orientation of the six sprays of the main injector with respect to the air stream is important to enhance vaporization and the production of flammable mixture. In particular, no spray should be in the wake of any other spray. It was predicted that if such a condition is respected, the indicated efficiency would increase by some 6% at higher loads and 2% at lower loads. The computations led to the design of a new injector tip that has since yielded slightly better efficiency gains than predicted.
Technical Paper

Cycle-Resolved Velocity and Turbulence Measurements Near the Cylinder Wall of a Firing S.I. Engine

1986-10-01
861530
Laser Doppler velocimetry has been used to make cycle-resolved velocity and turbulence measurements in a homogeneous-charge, spark-ignition engine. The engine had a ported intake and disc-shaped chamber with a compression ratio of 7.5 to 1. It was operated at a speed of 1200 rpm and with a TDC swirl number of 4. A stoichiometric propane-air mixture was used, and ignition was near the wall. Measurements of the tangential velocity component were made in both firing and non-firing cycles at nine spatial locations along a radius 180 degrees downstream of the spark. The radial velocity component was also measured at four of the locations. All measurements were made in the center of the clearance height. Tangential component measurements were made as close as 0.5mm from the cylinder wall, and the radial component was measured as close as 1.5mm from the wall.
Technical Paper

Cycle-Resolved Velocity and Turbulence Measurements in an IC Engine With Combustion

1986-03-01
860320
Laser Doppler velocimetry has been used to make cycle-resolved velocity and turbulence measurements in a homogeneous-charge, spark-ignition engine. The engine had a ported intake and disc-shaped chamber with a compression ratio of 8 to 1. It was operated at a speed of 1200 rpm and with a TDC swirl number of 4. A stoichiometric propane-air mixture was used, and ignition was near the wall. The velocity measurements were made at three spatial locations at the midpoint of the clearance height. Tests were made to determine whether the presence of the flame affected the accuracy of the velocity measurements. It was found that the ensemble-averaged mean velocity shows a small deviation, and the rms fluctuation intensity is significantly influenced, but the effects appear to be confined to the flame zone. Data rates were sufficiently high in the preflame and postflame regions to determine the velocity history in each cycle (cycle resolved).
Technical Paper

Modeling of Engine Sprays

1985-02-01
850394
Atomization and full-cone sprays from single cylindrical orifices are considered. The following subjects are reviewed: the structure of the breakup region; the structure of the far field; modern models that, given the outcome of the breakup process, compute the steady and transient of sprays; some comparisons with detailed measurements; and some practical applications. The following conclusions are reached: the spray breakup and the development regions are the most relevant in engine applications; the inner structure of the breakup region is still largely unknown; two- and three-dimensional spray models are available but remain mostly untested, particularly in their vaporization and combustion components, in part because of a lack of accurate measurements in controlled engine-type environments; engine applications of such models are, nonetheless, recommended for very valuable learning, interpretative, and exploratory studies, but not for predictions.
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