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Technical Paper

Detailed Chemistry CFD Engine Combustion Solution with Ignition Progress Variable Library Approach

2009-06-15
2009-01-1898
This paper explains the principle and advantages of the Ignition Progress Variable Library (IPV-Library) approach and its use in predicting engine related premixed, non-premixed and compression ignited combustion events. The implementation of IPV-Library model in the engine-focused CFD code VECTIS is described. To demonstrate the application of the model in predicting various types of combustion, computational results from a 2-stroke HCCI engine, a premixed spark ignition engine and an HSDI diesel engine are presented, together with some comparisons with engine test data.
Technical Paper

Potential Levels of Soot, NOx, HC and CO for Methanol Combustion

2016-04-05
2016-01-0887
Methanol is today considered a viable green fuel for combustion engines because of its low soot emissions and the possibility of it being produced in a CO2-neutral manner. Methanol as a fuel for combustion engines have attracted interest throughout history and much research was conducted during the oil crisis in the seventies. In the beginning of the eighties the oil prices began to decrease and interest in methanol declined. This paper presents the emission potential of methanol. T-Φ maps were constructed using a 0-D reactor with constant pressure, temperature and equivalence ratio to show the emission characteristics of methanol. These maps were compared with equivalent maps for diesel fuel. The maps were then complemented with engine simulations using a stochastic reactor model (SRM), which predicts end-gas emissions. The SRM was validated using experimental results from a truck engine running in Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) mode at medium loads.
Technical Paper

Development of Methodology for Predictive Diesel Combustion Simulation Using 0D Stochastic Reactor Model

2016-04-05
2016-01-0566
Stringent exhaust emission limits and new vehicle test cycles require sophisticated operating strategies for future diesel engines. Therefore, a methodology for predictive combustion simulation, focused on multiple injection operating points is proposed in this paper. The model is designated for engine performance map simulations, to improve prediction of NOx, CO and HC emissions. The combustion process is calculated using a zero dimensional direct injection stochastic reactor model based on a probability density function approach. Further, the formation of exhaust emissions is described using a detailed reaction mechanism for n-heptane, which involves 56 Species and 206 reactions. The model includes the interaction between turbulence and chemistry effects by using a variable mixing time profile. Thus, one is able to capture the effects of mixture inhomogeneities on NOx, CO and HC emission formation.
Technical Paper

Phase Optimized Skeletal Mechanisms in a Stochastic Reactor Model for Engine Simulation

2005-10-24
2005-01-3813
By dividing the combustion process into several phases with phase optimized skeletal mechanisms (POSM), gains in calculation speed were realized with virtually no loss in accuracy. A skeletal mechanism is a reduced mechanism where only the significant species, determined through a set of parameters (one for each species), remain with respect to a detailed mechanism. The parameter is based on a combination of sensitivity and flow analysis. Within the POSM method machine learning algorithms are used to automatically determine and recognize the major phases. Reduction is achieved by keeping only the significant species with respect to each phase. Each phase has a different mechanism, derived from the original and each is smaller than the original.
Technical Paper

A PDF-Based Model for Full Cycle Simulation of Direct Injected Engines

2008-06-23
2008-01-1606
In one-dimensional engine simulation programs the simulation of engine performance is mostly done by parameter fitting in order to match simulations with experimental data. The extensive fitting procedure is especially needed for emissions formation - CO, HC, NO, soot - simulations. An alternative to this approach is, to calculate the emissions based on detailed kinetic models. This however demands that the in-cylinder combustion-flow interaction can be modeled accurately, and that the CPU time needed for the model is still acceptable. PDF based stochastic reactor models offer one possible solution. They usually introduce only one (time dependent) parameter - the mixing time - to model the influence of flow on the chemistry. They offer the prediction of the heat release, together with all emission formation, if the optimum mixing time is given.
Technical Paper

Simulation of HCCI – Addressing Compression Ratio and Turbo Charging

2002-10-21
2002-01-2862
This paper focuses on the performance and efficiency of an HCCI (Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition) engine system running on natural gas or landfill gas for stationary applications. Zero dimensional modeling and simulation of the engine, turbo, inlet and exhaust manifolds and inlet air conditioner (intercooler/heater) are used to study the effect of compression ratio and exhaust turbine size on maximum mean effective pressure and efficiency. The extended Zeldovich mechanism is used to estimate NO-formation in order to determine operation limits. Detailed chemical kinetics is used to predict ignition timing. Simulation of the in-cylinder process gives a minimum λ-value of 2.4 for natural gas, regardless of compression ratio. This is restricted by the NO formation for richer mixtures. Lower compression ratios allow higher inlet pressure and hence higher load, but it also reduces indicated efficiency.
Technical Paper

Heat Release in the End-Gas Prior to Knock in Lean, Rich and Stoichiometric Mixtures With and Without EGR

2002-03-04
2002-01-0239
SI Engine knock is caused by autoignition in the unburnt part of the mixture (end-gas) ahead of the propagating flame. Autoignition of the end-gas occurs when the temperature and pressure exceeds a critical limit when comparatively slow reactions-releasing moderate amounts of heat-transform into ignition and rapid heat release. In this paper the difference in the heat released in the end-gas-by low temperature chemistry-between lean, rich, stochiometric, and stoichiometric mixtures diluted with cooled EGR was examined by measuring the temperature in the end-gas with Dual Broadband Rotational CARS. The measured temperature history was compared with an isentropic temperature calculated from the cylinder pressure trace. The experimentally obtained values for knock onset were compared with results from a two-zone thermodynamic model including detailed chemistry modeling of the end-gas reactions.
Technical Paper

0D/3D Simulations of Combustion in Gasoline Engines Operated with Multiple Spark Plug Technology

2015-04-14
2015-01-1243
A simulation method is presented for the analysis of combustion in spark ignition (SI) engines operated at elevated exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) level and employing multiple spark plug technology. The modeling is based on a zero-dimensional (0D) stochastic reactor model for SI engines (SI-SRM). The model is built on a probability density function (PDF) approach for turbulent reactive flows that enables for detailed chemistry consideration. Calculations were carried out for one, two, and three spark plugs. Capability of the SI-SRM to simulate engines with multiple spark plug (multiple ignitions) systems has been verified by comparison to the results from a three-dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. Numerical simulations were carried for part load operating points with 12.5%, 20%, and 25% of EGR. At high load, the engine was operated at knock limit with 0%, and 20% of EGR and different inlet valve closure timing.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Investigation of Exothermic Centers in HCCI Combustion

2009-04-20
2009-01-0131
The formation of exothermic centers was modeled with a Stochastic Reactor Model (SRM) to investigate their impact on HCCI combustion. By varying the exhaust valve temperature, and thus assigning more realistic wall temperatures, the formation of exothermic centers and the ignition timing was shifted in time. To be able to study the exothermic centers, their formation and their distribution, Scatter plots, standard deviation plots and Probability Density Function (PDF) plots were constructed on the basis of the data the SRM calculations provided. The standard deviation for the particle temperatures was found to be an useful indicator of the degree of homogeneity within the combustion chamber, and thus of how efficient the combustion process was. It was observed that when the standard deviation of the temperature was higher, the emissions of CO and of hydrocarbons present at the end of the closed cycle were higher.
Technical Paper

Modeling Diesel Engine Combustion With Detailed Chemistry Using a Progress Variable Approach

2005-10-24
2005-01-3855
In this work, we present an unsteady flamelet progress variable approach for diesel engine CFD combustion modeling. The progress variable is based on sensible enthalpy integrated over the flamelet and describes the transient flamelet ignition process. By using an unsteady flamelet library for the progress variable, the impact of local effects, for example variations in the turbulence field, effects of wall heat transfer etc. on the autoignition chemistry can be considered on a cell level. The coupling between the unsteady flamelet library and the transport equation for total enthalpy follows the ideas of the representative interactive flamelet approach. Since the progress variable gives a direct description of the state in the flamelet, the method can be compared to having a flamelet in each computational cell in the CFD grid.
Technical Paper

Efficient 3-D CFD Combustion Modeling with Transient Flamelet Models

2008-04-14
2008-01-0957
A transient interactive flamelet model and a transient flamelet library based model are used to model a medium-duty diesel fueled engine operating in PCCI mode. The simulations are performed with and without the source term accounting for evaporation in the mixture fraction variance equation. Reasonable agreement is found with the experiments with both models. The effect of the evaporation source term in the mixture fraction variance equation is different for the different transient flamelet approaches. For the transient interactive flamelet model the ignition onset is delayed as a consequence of the higher mixture fraction variance, which leads to a higher scalar dissipation rate. The evaporation source term does not affect the global characteristics of the ignition event for the transient flamelet progress variable model, but locally the initial combustion is occurring differently.
Technical Paper

Investigation of End-Gas Temperature and Pressure Increases in Gasoline Engines and Relevance for Knock Occurrence

1997-05-01
971671
A detailed analysis of the end-gas temperature and pressure in gasoline engines has been performed. This analysis leads to a simplified zero-dimensional model, that considers both, the compression and the expansion of the end-gas by the piston movement, and the compression by the flame front. If autoignition occurs in the end-gas the sudden rise of the pressure and the heat release is calculated. The rate form of the first law of thermodynamics for a control volume combined with the mass conservation equation for an unsteady and a uniform-flow process are applied. The heat of formation in the end-gas due to the chemical activity has been taken into account. In addition, a chemical kinetic model has been applied in order to study the occurrence of autoignition and prediction of knock.
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Pressure Measurements Using the Spark Plug as an Ionization Sensor

1997-02-24
970857
A model based on an ionization equilibrium analysis, that can relate the ion current to the state of the gas inside the combustion volume, has been presented earlier. This paper introduces several additional models, that together with the previous model have the purpose of improving the pressure predictions. One of the models is a chemistry model that enables us to realistically consider the current contribution from the most relevant species. A second model can predict the crank angle of the peak pressure and thereby substantially increase the accuracy of the pressure predictions. Several other additions and improvements have been introduced, including support for part load engine conditions.
Technical Paper

Adaptive Polynomial Tabulation (APT): A computationally economical strategy for the HCCI engine simulation of complex fuels

2010-04-12
2010-01-1085
The solution mapping method Adaptive Polynomial Tabulation (APT) for complex chemistry is presented. The method has the potential of reducing the computational time required for stochastic reactor model simulations of the HCCI combustion process. In this method the solution of the initial value chemical rate equation system is approximated in real-time with zero, first and second order polynomial expressions. These polynomials are algebraic functions of a progress variable, pressure and total enthalpy. The chemical composition space is divided a priori into block-shaped regions (hypercubes) of the same size. Each hypercube may be divided in real-time into adaptive hypercubes of different sizes. During computations, initial conditions are stored in the adaptive hypercubes. Two concentric Ellipsoids of Accuracy (EOA) are drawn around each stored initial condition.
Technical Paper

A Computationally Efficient Progress Variable Approach for In-Cylinder Combustion and Emissions Simulations

2019-09-09
2019-24-0011
The use of complex reaction schemes is accompanied by high computational cost in 3D CFD simulations but is particularly important to predict pollutant emissions in internal combustion engine simulations. One solution to tackle this problem is to solve the chemistry prior the CFD run and store the chemistry information in look-up tables. The approach presented combines pre-tabulated progress variable-based source terms for auto-ignition as well as soot and NOx source terms for emission predictions. The method is coupled to the 3D CFD code CONVERGE v2.4 via user-coding and tested over various speed and load passenger-car Diesel engine conditions. This work includes the comparison between the combustion progress variable (CPV) model and the online chemistry solver in CONVERGE 2.4. Both models are compared by means of combustion and emission parameters. A detailed n-decane/α-methyl-naphthalene mechanism, comprising 189 species, is used for both online and tabulated chemistry simulations.
Technical Paper

Self-Calibrating Model for Diesel Engine Simulations

2012-04-16
2012-01-1072
A self-calibrating model for Diesel engine simulations is presented. The overall model consists of a zero-dimensional direct injection stochastic reactor model (DI-SRM) for engine in-cylinder processes simulations and a package of optimization algorithms (OPAL) suitable for solving various optimization, automatization and search problems. In the DI-SRM, based on an extensive model parameters study, the mixing time history that affects the level of in-cylinder turbulence was selected as a main calibration parameter. As targets during calibration against the experimental data, in-cylinder pressure history and engine-out emissions, including nitrogen oxides and unburned hydrocarbons were chosen. The calibration task was solved using DI-SRM and OPAL working as an integrated tool. Within OPAL, genetic algorithms (GA) were used to determine model constants necessary for calibrating. Engine-out emissions in DI-SRM were calculated based on the reduced mechanism of n-heptane.
Technical Paper

A Fast Tool for Predictive IC Engine In-Cylinder Modelling with Detailed Chemistry

2012-04-16
2012-01-1074
This paper reports on a fast predictive combustion tool employing detailed chemistry. The model is a stochastic reactor based, discretised probability density function model, without spatial resolution. Employing detailed chemistry has the potential of predicting emissions, but generally results in very high CPU costs. Here it is shown that CPU times of a couple of minutes per cycle can be reached when applying detailed chemistry, and CPU times below 10 seconds per cycle can be reached when using reduced chemistry while still catching in-cylinder in-homogeneities. This makes the tool usable for efficient engine performance mapping and optimisation. To meet CPU time requirements, automatically load balancing parallelisation was included in the model. This allowed for an almost linear CPU speed-up with number of cores available.
Technical Paper

On the Performance of Biodiesel Blends - Experimental Data and Simulations Using a Stochastic Fuel Test Bench

2014-04-01
2014-01-1115
In this work are presented experimental and simulated data from a one-cylinder direct injected Diesel engine fuelled with Diesel, two different biodiesel blends and pure biodiesel at one engine operating point. The modeling approach focuses on testing and rating biodiesel surrogate fuel blends by means of combustion and emission behavior. Detailed kinetic mechanisms are adopted to evaluate the fuel-blends performances under both reactor and diesel engine conditions. In the first part of the paper, the experimental engine setup is presented. Thereafter the choice of the surrogate fuel blends, consisting of n-decane, α-methyl-naphtalene and methyl-decanoate, are verified by the help of experiments from the literature. The direct injection stochastic reactor model (DI-SRM) is employed to simulate combustion and engine exhaust emissions (NOx, HC, CO and CO2), which are compared to the experimental data.
Technical Paper

Advanced Predictive Diesel Combustion Simulation Using Turbulence Model and Stochastic Reactor Model

2017-03-28
2017-01-0516
Today numerical models are a major part of the diesel engine development. They are applied during several stages of the development process to perform extensive parameter studies and to investigate flow and combustion phenomena in detail. The models are divided by complexity and computational costs since one has to decide what the best choice for the task is. 0D models are suitable for problems with large parameter spaces and multiple operating points, e.g. engine map simulation and parameter sweeps. Therefore, it is necessary to incorporate physical models to improve the predictive capability of these models. This work focuses on turbulence and mixing modeling within a 0D direct injection stochastic reactor model. The model is based on a probability density function approach and incorporates submodels for direct fuel injection, vaporization, heat transfer, turbulent mixing and detailed chemistry.
Technical Paper

Development of a Computationally Efficient Progress Variable Approach for a Direct Injection Stochastic Reactor Model

2017-03-28
2017-01-0512
A novel 0-D Probability Density Function (PDF) based approach for the modelling of Diesel combustion using tabulated chemistry is presented. The Direct Injection Stochastic Reactor Model (DI-SRM) by Pasternak et al. has been extended with a progress variable based framework allowing the use of a pre-calculated auto-ignition table. Auto-ignition is tabulated through adiabatic constant pressure reactor calculations. The tabulated chemistry based implementation has been assessed against the previously presented DI-SRM version by Pasternak et al. where chemical reactions are solved online. The chemical mechanism used in this work for both, online chemistry run and table generation, is an extended version of the scheme presented by Nawdial et al. The main fuel species are n-decane, α-methylnaphthalene and methyl-decanoate giving a size of 463 species and 7600 reactions.
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