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Technical Paper

A Two-Stroke Engine Model Based on Advanced Simulation of Fundamental Processes

1995-09-01
952139
Research activities concerning the development and set up of a theoretical model for the analysis of spark-ignition two-stroke engines are reported. The engine system is identified by the definition of both zero-dimensional time-varying control volumes (i.e., cylinders or crankcases) and one-dimensional devices (i.e., intake or exhaust manifolds, transfer ducts, etc.). Fundamental processes such as combustion, fluid dynamics and scavenging, are modelled using up-to-date approaches. In particular, a fractal sub-model is adopted for the evaluation of flame area and burning rate; a high resolution upwind TVD scheme is utilized for the prediction of wave propagation within ducts. The overall prediction level is estimated through the comparison with experimental data measured on a small-size engine under both motored and firing conditions.
Technical Paper

Second Law Analysis of Turbocharged Engine Operation

1991-02-01
910418
In this paper the turbocharged diesel engine operation is analyzed by means of a second law based method. The instantaneous release and storage of availability inside the several components (cylinders, manifolds, compressor and turbine) are evaluated by following a theoretical-experimental methodology that has been recently proposed by the authors. Examples of availability balances are compared for different values of some parameters which influence the combustion and the exhaust process, or for several arrangements of the engine and turbomachine system. The availability analysis of the engine transient development will show the amounts of mechanical energy employed for both in-cylinder storage and turbocharger acceleration and of those available for conversion into external output. These amounts will be compared with the fuel availability and with those destroyed during the several processes (i.e. combustion, gas exchange, turbocharger operation).
Technical Paper

Theoretical and Experimental Investigation of the Matching Between an I.C.E. and a Turbocharger

1990-09-01
901601
The authors present a method for turbocharged I.C.E. analysis, based upon an unsteady non-dimensional flow-model, whose accuracy level has been improved by means of experimental investigations. Experimental activities allowed a higher prediction level to be reached for both engine cycles and turbocharger operation. The results are also compared with those of an experimental methodology recently proposed by the authors, based upon one-dimensional unsteady flow models and fast pressure data acquisition. The method is mainly utilized, in this paper, as to compare the effects of two different turbochargers on engine performance and turbomachinery operating conditions. The engine and turbocharger matching is considered under both steady and transient conditions.
Technical Paper

Steady and Unsteady Modeling of Turbocharger Compressors for Automotive Engines

2010-05-05
2010-01-1536
Turbocharging technique will play a fundamental role in the near future not only to improve automotive engine performance, but also to reduce fuel consumption and exhaust emissions both in Spark Ignition and Compression Ignition engines. To this end, one-dimensional (1D) modelling is usually employed to compute the engine-turbocharger matching, to select the boost level in different operating conditions and to estimate low end torque level and transient response. However, 1D modeling of a turbocharged engine requires the availability of the turbine and compressor characteristic maps. This leads to some typical drawbacks: performance maps of the turbocharger device are usually limited to a reduced number of rotational speeds, pressure ratios and mass flow rates.
Technical Paper

Noise Prediction of a Multi-Cylinder Engine Prototype Using Multi-Body Dynamic Simulation

2011-09-11
2011-24-0216
In the paper a coupled Multi-Body and FEM-BEM methodology used to predict the noise radiated by a turbocharged 4-cylinder diesel engine prototype is described. A Multi-Body Dynamic Simulation (MBDS) of the engine has been carried out, simulating an engine speed sweep from 1500 to 4000 rpm, in order to determine the excitation force of the powertrain, and in particular to estimate the forces acting on the cylinder block. Thanks to the Multi-Body approach, the dynamics of the engine powertrain have been described taking into account both the effects of the burnt gas pressure during the combustion process and the inertia forces of the moving parts. Moreover to assess the real engine operating behaviour, both the crank and the block have been considered as flexible bodies.
Technical Paper

Knock Detection in a Turbocharged S.I. Engine Based on ARMA Technique and Chemical Kinetics

2013-10-14
2013-01-2510
During the last years, a number of techniques aimed at the experimental identification of the knocking onset in Spark-Ignition (SI) Internal Combustion Engines have been proposed. Besides the traditional procedures based on the processing of in-cylinder pressure data in the frequency domain, in the present paper two innovative methods are developed and compared. The first one is based on the use of statistical analysis by applying an Auto Regressive Moving Average (ARMA) technique, coupled to a prediction algorithm. It is shown that such parametric model, applied to the instantaneous in-cylinder pressure measurements, is highly sensitive to knock occurrence and is able to identify soft or heavy knock presence in different engine operating conditions. An alternative, more expensive procedure is developed and compared to the previous one.
Technical Paper

A Knock Model for 1D Simulations Accounting for Cyclic Dispersion Phenomena

2014-10-13
2014-01-2554
Control of knock phenomenon is becoming more and more important in modern SI engine, due to the tendency to develop high boosted turbocharged engines (downsizing). To this aim, improved modeling and experimental techniques are required to precisely define the maximum allowable spark advance. On the experimental side, the knock limit is identified based on some indices derived by the analysis of the in-cylinder pressure traces or of the cylinder block vibrations. The threshold levels of the knock indices are usually defined following an heuristic approach. On the modeling side, in the 1D codes, the knock is usually described by simple correlation of the auto-ignition time of the unburned gas zone within the cylinders. In addition, the latter methodology commonly refers to ensemble-averaged pressure cycles and, for this reason, does not take into account the cycle-by-cycle variations.
Technical Paper

The Use of Vibrational Signals for On-Board Knock Diagnostics Supported by In-Cylinder Pressure Analyses

2014-11-11
2014-32-0063
In the present work, an Auto Regressive Moving Average (ARMA) model and a Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) are applied on vibrational signals, acquired by an accelerometer placed on the cylinder block of a Spark Ignition (SI) engine, for knock detection purposes. To the aim of tuning such procedures, the same analysis has been carried out by using the traditional MAPO (Maximum Amplitude of Pressure Oscillations) index and an Inverse Kinetic Model (IKM), both applied on the in-cylinder pressure signals. Vibrational and in-cylinder pressure signals have been collected on a four cylinder, four stroke engine, for different engine speeds, load conditions and spark advances. The results of the two vibrational based methods are compared and in depth discussed to the aim of highlighting the pros and cons of each methodology.
Technical Paper

Improving Acoustic Performance of an Air Filter Box. TL Analysis and Device Optimization

2016-06-15
2016-01-1813
The characteristics of the intake system affect both engine power output and gas-dynamic noise emissions. The latter is particularly true in downsized VVA engines, where a less effective attenuation of the pressure waves is realized, due to the intake line de-throttling at part-load. For this engine architecture, a refined air-box design is hence requested. In this work, the Transmission Loss (TL) of the intake air-box of a commercial VVA engine is numerically computed through a 3D FEM approach. Results are compared with experimental data, showing a very good correlation. The validated model is then coupled to an external optimizer (ModeFRONTIERTM) to increase the TL parameter in a prefixed frequency range. The improvement of the acoustic attenuation is attained through a shape deformation of the inner structure of the base device, taking into account constraints related to the device installation inside the engine bay.
Technical Paper

A Non-Linear Regression Technique to Estimate from Vibrational Engine Data the Instantaneous In-Cylinder Pressure Peak and Related Angular Position

2016-10-17
2016-01-2178
In this paper, a downsized twin-cylinder turbocharged spark-ignition engine is experimentally investigated at test-bench in order to verify the potential to estimate the peak pressure value and the related crank angle position, based on vibrational data acquired by an accelerometer sensor. Purpose of the activity is to provide the ECU of additional information to establish a closed-loop control of the spark timing, on a cycle-by-cycle basis. In this way, an optimal combustion phasing can be more properly accomplished in each engine operating condition. Engine behavior is firstly characterized in terms of average thermodynamic and performance parameters and cycle-by-cycle variations (CCVs) at high-load operation. In particular, both a spark advance and an A/F ratio sweep are actuated. In-cylinder pressure data are acquired by pressure sensors flush-mounted within the combustion chamber of both cylinders.
Journal Article

CFD Gas-Dynamic Noise Prediction of a VVA Engine Intake System

2013-05-13
2013-01-1884
Modern VVA systems offer new potentialities in improving fuel consumption for spark-ignition engines at low and medium load, meanwhile they grant a higher volumetric efficiency and performance at high load. Recently introduced systems enhance this concept through the possibility of modifying the intake valve opening, closing and lift, leading to the development of almost ‘throttle-less’ engines. However, at low loads, the absence of throttling, while improving the fuel consumption, also produces an increased gas-dynamic noise at the intake mouth. Wave propagation inside the intake system is in fact no longer absorbed by the throttle valve and directly impact the radiated noise. In the paper, 1D and 3D simulations of the gas-dynamic noise radiated by a production VVA engine are performed at full load and in two part-load conditions. Both models are firstly validated at full load, through comparisons with experimental data.
Journal Article

Advanced Numerical and Experimental Techniques for the Extension of a Turbine Mapping

2013-09-08
2013-24-0119
1D codes are nowadays commonly used to investigate a turbocharged ICE performance, turbo-matching and transient response. The turbocharger is usually described in terms of experimentally derived characteristic maps. The latter are commonly measured using the compressor as a brake for the turbine, under steady “hot gas” tests. This approach causes some drawbacks: each iso-speed is commonly limited to a narrow pressure ratio and mass flow rate range, while a wider operating domain is experienced on the engine; the turbine thermal conditions realized on the test rig may strongly differ from the coupled-to-engine operation; a “conventional” net turbine efficiency is really measured, since it includes the effects of the heat exchange on the compressor side, together with bearing friction and windage losses.
Journal Article

Map-Based and 1D Simulation of a Turbocharger Compressor in Surging Operation

2011-09-11
2011-24-0126
One-dimensional (1D) models are commonly employed to study the performances of turbocharged engine. Manufacturers' provided steady turbomachinery maps are usually utilized, although they operate in unsteady conditions as a consequence of pressure pulses propagating into the intake and exhaust systems. This may lead to some inaccuracies in the engine-turbocharger matching calculations, which may be solved through the introduction of proper time-delays (virtual pipe corrections). These drawbacks, however, became more relevant when engine operates under low speed and high load conditions, or during a transient maneuver, because of possibilities of compressor surging.
Journal Article

Fuel Consumption Optimization and Noise Reduction in a Spark-Ignition Turbocharged VVA Engine

2013-04-08
2013-01-1625
Modern VVA systems offer new potentialities in improving the fuel consumption for spark-ignition engines at low and medium load, meanwhile they grant a higher volumetric efficiency and performance at high load. Recently introduced systems enhance this concept through the possibility of concurrently modifying the intake valve opening, closing and lift leading to the development of almost "throttle-less" engines. However, at very low loads, the control of the air-flow motion and the turbulence intensity inside the cylinder may require to select a proper combination of the butterfly throttling and the intake valve control, to get the highest BSFC (Brake Specific Fuel Consumption) reduction. Moreover, a low throttling, while improving the fuel consumption, may also produce an increased gas-dynamic noise at the intake mouth. In highly "downsized" engines, the intake valve control is also linked to the turbocharger operating point, which may be changed by acting on the waste-gate valve.
Journal Article

Advanced Numerical/Experimental Methods for the Analysis of a Waste-Gated Turbocharger Turbine

2014-04-01
2014-01-1079
In the paper the results of an experimental campaign regarding the steady characterization of a turbocharger waste-gated turbine (IHI-RHF3) for gasoline engine application are presented. The turbine behavior is analyzed in a specialized test rig operating at the University of Genoa, under different openings of the waste-gate valve. The test facility allows to measure inlet and outlet static pressures, mass flow rate and turbocharger rotational speed. The above data constitute the basis for the tuning and validation of a numerical procedure, recently developed at the University of Naples, following a 1D approach (1D turbine model - 1DTM). The model geometrically schematizes the entire turbine based on few linear and angular dimensions directly measured on the hardware. The 1D steady flow equations are then solved within the stationary and rotating channels constituting the device. All the main flow losses are properly taken into account in the model.
Journal Article

1D Simulation and Experimental Analysis of a Turbocharger Compressor for Automotive Engines under Unsteady Flow Conditions

2011-04-12
2011-01-1147
Turbocharging technique will play a fundamental role in the near future not only to improve automotive engine performance, but also to reduce fuel consumption and exhaust emissions both in Spark Ignition and diesel automotive applications. To achieve excellent engine performance for road application, it is necessary to overcome some typical turbocharging drawbacks i.e., low end torque level and transient response. Experimental studies, developed on dedicated test facilities, can supply a lot of information to optimize the engine-turbocharger matching, especially if tests can be extended to the typical engine operating conditions (unsteady flow). Different numerical procedures have been developed at the University of Naples to predict automotive turbocharger compressor performance both under steady and unsteady flow conditions. A classical 1D approach, based on the employment of compressor characteristic maps, was firstly followed.
Journal Article

Water Injection: a Technology to Improve Performance and Emissions of Downsized Turbocharged Spark Ignited Engines

2017-09-04
2017-24-0062
Knock occurrence and fuel enrichment, which is required at high engine speed and load to limit the turbine inlet temperature, are the major obstacles to further increase performance and efficiency of down-sized turbocharged spark ignited engines. A technique that has the potential to overcome these restrictions is based on the injection of a precise amount of water within the mixture charge that can allow to achieve important benefits on knock mitigation, engine efficiency, gaseous and noise emissions. One of the main objectives of this investigation is to demonstrate that water injection (WI) could be a reliable solution to advance the spark timing and make the engine run at leaner mixture ratios with strong benefits on knock tendency and important improvement on fuel efficiency.
Journal Article

Experimental Investigation and 1D Simulation of a Turbocharger Compressor Close to Surge Operation

2015-04-14
2015-01-1720
Downsizing is widely considered one of the main path to reduce the fuel consumption of spark ignition internal combustion engines. As known, despite the reduced size, the required torque and power targets can be attained thanks to an adequate boost level provided by a turbocharger. However, some drawbacks usually arise when the engine operates at full load and low speeds. In fact, in the above conditions, the boost pressure and the engine performance is limited since the compressor experiences close-to-surge operation. This occurrence is even greater in case of extremely downsized engines with a reduced number of cylinders and a small intake circuit volume, where the compressor works under strongly unsteady flow conditions and its instantaneous operating point most likely overcomes the steady surge margin. In the paper, both experimental and numerical approaches are followed to describe the unsteady behavior of a small in-series turbocharger compressor.
Journal Article

A Comparison Between External and Internal Resonators Employment to Reduce the Gas-Dynamic Noise of a SI Engine

2014-10-13
2014-01-2864
This paper reports 1D and 3D CFD analyses aiming to improve the gas-dynamic noise emission of a downsized turbocharged VVA engine through the re-design of the intake air-box device, consisting in the introduction of external or internal resonators. Nowadays, modern spark-ignition (SI) engines show more and more complex architectures that, while improving the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC), may be responsible for the increased noise radiation at the engine intake mouth. In particular VVA systems allow for the actuation of advanced valve strategies that provide a reduction in the BSFC at part load operations thanks to the intake line de-throttling. In these conditions, due to a less effective attenuation of the pressure waves that travel along the intake system, VVA engines produce higher gas-dynamic noise levels.
Technical Paper

Refinement of a 0D Turbulence Model to Predict Tumble and Turbulent Intensity in SI Engines. Part I: 3D Analyses

2018-04-03
2018-01-0850
Recently, a growing interest in the development of more accurate phenomenological turbulence models is observed, since this is a key pre-requisite to properly describe the burn rate in quasi-dimensional combustion models. The latter are increasingly utilized to predict engine performance in very different operating conditions, also including unconventional valve control strategies, such as EIVC or LIVC. Therefore, a reliable phenomenological turbulence model should be able to physically relate the actuated valve strategy to turbulence level during the engine cycle, with particular care in the angular phase when the combustion takes place.
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