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Technical Paper

The Performance Study of Air-Friction Reduction System for Hydraulic Retarder

2014-09-30
2014-01-2283
The hydraulic retarder, which is an auxiliary brake device for enhancing traffic safety, has been widely used in kinds of heavy commercial vehicles. When the vehicle equipped with the retarder is traveling in non-braking state, the transmission loss would be caused because of the stirring air between working wheels of the rotor and the stator no matter if the retarder connects in parallel or in series with the transmission [1]. This paper introduces an elaborate hydraulic retarder air-friction reduction system (AFRS) which consists of a vacuum generating module and pneumatic control module. AFRS works to reduce the air friction by decreasing the gas density between working wheels when the retarder is in non-braking state. The pneumatic control model of hydraulic retarder is built first. Then various driving conditions are considered to verify the performance of the AFRS. The stability of the AFRS is analyzed based on the complete driveline model.
Journal Article

The Energy Management for Solar Powered Vehicle Parking Ventilation System

2015-04-14
2015-01-0149
In summer, when vehicle parks in direct sunlight, the closed cabin temperature would rise sharply, which affects the occupants step-in-car comfort Solar powered vehicle parking ventilation system adopts the solar energy to drive the original ventilator. Thus, the cabin temperature could be dramatically decreased and the riding comfort could be also improved. This research analyzed the modified crew cabin thermal transfer model. Then the performance of the solar powered ventilation system is analyzed and optimized combined with the power supply characteristics of the photovoltaic element. The storage and reuse of the solar power is achieved on condition that the cabin temperature could be steadily controlled. The research shows that, the internal temperature is mainly affected by the solar radiation intensity and the environment temperature.
Technical Paper

Solar Powered Vehicle Parking Ventilation System Pre-Cooling Analysis

2015-04-14
2015-01-0367
The cabin air temperature increases quickly and can reach 80°C when the vehicle parks in the summer sunlight which has the bad influence on the occupants entering comfort. Some luxury vehicles, like Audi A8[1], reduce the internal temperature through operating air-condition in advance or using on-board battery to drive the cabin ventilator, which requires relatively complex control system and limits the system's operating time because of energy consumption. This research adopts the solar wing as the ventilation power supply and accomplishes the cabin real-time heat rejection by achieving the steady air circulation for both inside and outside environment. First, the static thermal transfer model of the crew cabin is established. Then, on the basis of the parameters of the prototype ventilation pipe, the ventilation model for the outside circulation is built.
Technical Paper

A Two-Stage Pressure Boost Device for Relieving Turbocharger Delay Effect by Means of Utilizing Engine Waste Heat

2015-09-29
2015-01-2790
Turbochargers can improve vehicle dynamic performance and fuel economy and are applied widely nowadays. Due to the existence of turbocharger delay effect, acceleration delay and insufficient combustion are its disadvantages. By collecting high pressure gas which generates from the inertia of the turbine in the intake passage when the vehicle slows down, the gas can be supplied for the shortage while the vehicle is accelerating, which can reduce turbocharger delay effect directly. However, turbocharger delay effect changes a little at high speed and low speed which is subjected to the air inflation and short air-release time. This paper adds a set of pressure booster device on the existing inflating-deflating device, whose thermal energy comes from the compressed air and lubricating oil, to facilitate pressure increasing in inflating-deflating device and help the chamber change sooner, which avails to relieve the delay effect.
Technical Paper

Energy Consumption of Passenger Compartment Auxiliary Cooling System Based on Peltier Effect

2017-03-28
2017-01-0155
The closed cabin temperature is anticipated to be cooled down when it is a bit hot inside the driving car. The traditional air-condition lowers the cabin temperature by frequently switching the status of the compressor, which increases the engine’s parasitic power and shortens the compressor’s service-life. The semiconductor auxiliary cooling system with the properties of no moving parts, high control precision and quick response has the potential to assist the on-board air-condition in modulating the cabin temperature with relative small ranges. Little temperature differences between the cabin and the outside environment means that the system energy consumption to ensure the occupant comfort is relatively low and the inefficiency could be made up by the renewable energy source.
Technical Paper

The Research of the Adaptive Front Lighting System Based on GIS and GPS

2017-03-28
2017-01-0041
Automotive Front Lighting System(AFS) can receive the steering signal and the vehicular speed signal to adjust the position of headlamps automatically. AFS will provide drivers more information of front road to protect drivers safe when driving at night. AFS works when there is a steering signal input. However, drivers often need the front road's information before they turn the steering wheel when vehicles are going to go through a sharp corner, AFS will not work in such a situation. This paper studied how to optimize the working time of AFS based on GIS (Geographic Information System) and GPS(Geographic Information System) to solve the problem. This paper analyzed the process of the vehicle is about to go through a corner. Low beams and high beams were discussed respectively.
Technical Paper

Driving Path Planning System under Vehicular Active Safety Constraint

2016-09-27
2016-01-8105
Path planning system, which is one of driver assistance systems, can calculate the driving paths and estimate the driving time through the road information provided by information source. Traditional path planning systems calculate the driving paths through Dijsktra's algorithm or A* algorithm but only consider the road information from electronic maps. It is not safe enough for operating vehicles because of the insufficient information of vehicle performance as well as the driver's willingness. This study is based on the Dijsktra's algorithm, which comprehensively considered vehicular active safety constraints such as road information, vehicle performance and the driver's willingness to optimize the Dijsktra's algorithm. Then the path planning system can calculate the optimal driving paths that would satisfy the safety requirement of the vehicle. This study used LabVIEW as a visual host computer and MATLAB to calculate dynamic property of the vehicle.
Technical Paper

Thermal Stability Research of Vehicle Exhaust Waste-Heat Recovery System with Intermediate Medium

2016-04-05
2016-01-0228
Vehicle exhaust waste-heat recovery with thermoelectric power generators can improve energy efficiency, as well as vehicle fuel economy. In the conventional structure, the hot-end of thermoelectric module is directly connected with the outer wall of the exhaust pipe, while the cold-end is connected with the water pipe’s outer wall of the vehicle engine cooling cycle. However, the variety of vehicle engine operating conditions leads to the instability of the hot-end temperature, which will reduce the generating efficiency of the thermoelectric modules and also shorten its service life. This research is on the basis of constructing a heat transfer oil circulation, and to study the action principles and implementation methods of it.
Technical Paper

Effect of Circumferential Magnetic Field on Braking Performance of a Direct Vane Magnetorheological Fluid Retarder

2019-04-02
2019-01-0342
The hydraulic retarder used in commercial vehicles can provide hydraulic damping to generate braking torque, reducing the pressure of the braking system on the slope section and increasing the safety. In this paper, the magnetorheological fluid with fast magnetic field reflection characteristics is used to increase the response speed of the hydraulic retarder, which can effectively reduce the response time of the hydraulic retarder. In this paper, the influence of the change of circumferential magnetic field on the braking torque of the magnetorheological fluid retarder is studied.
Technical Paper

Driving Fatigue Detection based on Blink Frequency and Eyes Movement

2017-03-28
2017-01-1443
The development of the vehicle quantity and the transportation system accompanies the rise of traffic accidents. Statistics shows that nearly 35-45% traffic accidents are due to drivers’ fatigue. If the driver’s fatigue status could be judged in advance and reminded accurately, the driving safety could be further improved. In this research, the blink frequency and eyes movement information are monitored and the statistical method was used to assess the status of the driving fatigue. The main tasks include locating the edge of the human eyes, obtaining the distance between the upper and lower eyelids for calculating the frequency of the driver's blink. The velocity and position of eyes movement are calculated by detecting the pupils’ movement. The normal eyes movement model is established and the corresponding database is updated constantly by monitoring the driver blink frequency and eyes movement during a certain period of time.
Technical Paper

Over-the-Horizon Safety Speed Warning System for Heavy-Duty Vehicle in Mountain Areas

2017-03-28
2017-01-0091
The mountainous roads are rugged and complex, so that the driver can not make accurate judgments on dangerous road conditions. In addition, most heavy vehicles have characteristics of large weight and high center of gravity. The two factors above have caused most of the car accidents in mountain areas. A research shows that 90% of car accidents can be avoided if drivers can respond within 2-3 seconds before the accidents happen. This paper proposes a speed warning scheme for heavy-duty vehicle over the horizon in mountainous area, which can give the drivers enough time to respond to the danger. In the early warning aspect, this system combines the front road information, the vehicle characteristics and real-time information obtained from the vehicle, calculates and forecasts the danger that may happen over the horizon ahead of time, and prompts the driver to control the vehicle speed.
Technical Paper

Color Variable Speed Limit Sign Visibility for the Freeway Exit Driving Safety

2017-03-28
2017-01-0085
Typical vehicle speed deceleration occurs at the freeway exit due to the driving direction change. Well conducting the driver to control the velocity could enhance the vehicle maneuverability and give drivers more response time when running into potential dangerous conditions. The freeway exit speed limit sign (ESLS) is an effect way to remind the driver to slow down the vehicle. The ESLS visibility is significant to guarantee the driving safety. This research focuses on the color variable ESLS system, which is placed at the same location with the traditional speed limit sign. With this system, the driver could receive the updated speed limit recommendation in advance and without distraction produced by eyes contract change over the dashboard and the front sight. First, the mathematical model of the drivetrain and the engine brake is built for typical motor vehicles. The vehicle braking characteristics with various initial speeds in the deceleration area are studied.
Technical Paper

The Tunnel Climbing Acceleration Reminder System Based on Vehicle Dynamics

2017-03-28
2017-01-0079
Road traffic congestion sometimes happens at tunnel exit even without high traffic flow. One reason is that the deceleration process is imperceptible when the vehicle is driving to the tunnel exit with gradual upgrade slopes. Nowadays regulations are more concentrated in transport sectors, and control measures are applied to vehicles through the tunnel. This process is careless of vehicles’ specific characteristics and easily distract the driver attention. In this paper, a tunnel climbing acceleration reminder system is introduced. When the speed drop is detected and the analysis show this is due to the driver's unconscious behavior, the system will remind the driver to speed up. Based on the dynamic model and the tunnel properties, the relationship between the throttle opening degrees and the duration with the speed change is studied. Then, the engine braking is considered for the variation of speeds and slopes.
Technical Paper

Safe Travelling Speed of Commercial Vehicles on Curves Based on Vehicle-Road Collaboration

2017-03-28
2017-01-0080
Mountain road winding and bumpy, traffic accidents caused by speeding frequently happened, mainly concentrated on curves. The present curve warning system research are based on Charge-coupled Device, but the existing obstacles, weather , driving at night and road conditions directly affect the accuracy and applicability. The research is of predictability to identify the curves based on the geographic information and can told the driver road information and safety speed ahead of the road according to the commercial vehicle characteristic of load, and the characteristics of the mass center to reduce the incidence of accidents. In this paper, the main research contents include: to estimate forward bend curvature through the node classification method based on the digital map.
Technical Paper

Fuel-Efficient Driving for Motor Vehicles Based on Slope Recognition

2017-03-28
2017-01-0037
The drivers' hysteretic perception to surrounding environment will affect vehicular fuel economy, especially for the heavy-duty vehicles driving under complex conditions and long distance in mountainous areas. Unreasonable acceleration or deceleration on the slope will increase the fuel consumption. Improving the performance of the engine and the transmission system has limited energy saving potential, and most fuel-efficient driving assistant systems don't consider the road conditions. The main purpose of this research is to introduce an economic driving scheme with consideration of the prestored slope information in which the vehicle speed in mountainous slopes is reasonably planned to guide the driver's behavior for reduction of the fuel consumption. Economic driving optimization algorithm with low space dimension and fast computation speed is established to plan accurate and real-time economic driving scheme.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Commercial Vehicle Head-Up Display Reminding System on Driving Safety in Mountainous Area

2017-09-17
2017-01-2500
Head-up Display (HUD) system can avoid drivers’ distraction on dashboard and effectively reduce collisions caused by emergency events, which is gradually being realized by researchers around the world. However, the current HUD only displays information like speed, fuel consumption, other information like acceleration and braking can’t be displayed yet. This research will use the indicator symbol‘s color and position change to remind drivers to brake or accelerate. Drivers can do driving operation timely and accurately. The system has the advantages of safety, intuition and real-time. The vehicle safe speed is calculated according to the road parameters, like adhesion coefficient and slope, and vehicle parameters, such as vehicle mass and centroid. Then, the appropriate braking operations are obtained by combining the vehicle driving state. The braking information is corresponded to the color and position change of the indicator symbol to prompt the drivers by the HUD interface.
Technical Paper

Brake Guidance System for Commercial Vehicles with Coordinated Friction and Engine Brakes

2017-09-17
2017-01-2508
Using friction brakes for long time can increase easily its temperature and lower vehicle brake performance in the downhill process. The drivers' hysteretic perception to future driving condition could mislead them to stop untimely the engine brake, and some other auxiliary braking devices are designed to increase the brake power for reduction of the friction brake torque. The decompression engine brake has complex structure and high cost, and the application of eddy current retarder or hydraulic retarder on the commercial vehicles is mainly limited to their cost and mass. In this paper, an innovative brake guidance system for commercial vehicles with coordinated friction brakes and engine brake is introduced to guide the drivers to minimize the use of the friction brakes on the downhill with consideration of future driving conditions, which is aimed at releasing the engine brake potential fully and controlling the friction brake temperature in safe range.
Technical Paper

Downhill Safety Assistant Driving System for Battery Electric Vehicles on Mountain Roads

2019-09-15
2019-01-2129
When driving in mountainous areas, vehicles often encounter downhill conditions. To ensure safe driving, it is necessary to control the speed of vehicles. For internal combustion engine vehicles, auxiliary brake such as engine brake can be used to alleviate the thermal load caused by the continuous braking of the friction brake. For battery electric vehicles (BEVs), regenerative braking can be used as auxiliary braking to improve brake safety. And through regenerative braking, energy can be partly converted into electrical energy and stored in accumulators (such as power batteries and supercapacitors), thus extending the mileage. However, the driver's line of sight in the mountains is limited, resulting in a certain degree of blindness in driving, so it is impossible to fully guarantee the safety and energy saving of downhill driving.
Technical Paper

Real-time and Accurate Estimation of Road Slope for Intelligent Speed Planning System of Commercial Vehicle

2020-04-14
2020-01-0115
In the intelligent speed planning system, real-time estimation of road slope is the key to calculate slope resistance and realize the vehicles’ active safety control. However, if the road slope is measured by the sensor while the commercial vehicle is driving, the vibration of the vehicle body will affect its measurement accuracy. Therefore, the relevant algorithm is used to estimate the real-time slope of the road when the commercial vehicle is driving. At present, many domestic and foreign scholars have analyzed and tested the estimation of road slope by the least square method or Kalman filter algorithm. Although the two methods both can achieve the estimation, the real-time performance and accuracy still need to be improved. In this paper, for traditional fuel commercial vehicle, the Kalman filter algorithm based on the kinematics and the extended Kalman filter algorithm based on the longitudinal dynamics are respectively used to estimate the road slope.
Technical Paper

Research on the Best Driving Speed of the Deceleration Bump

2020-04-14
2020-01-1088
The ride performance and stability of the vehicle will decrease while the vehicle passing a deceleration bump with relatively high speed. If the speed is too low, the road efficiency and ride comfort will be affected. It is essential to identify the proper speed taking into account all the factors. In this paper, the dynamic model of the vehicle passing through the deceleration bump is established. Three kinds of indicators vibration weighted acceleration RMS, maximum vertical vibration acceleration and wheel load impact coefficient, are used to comprehensively evaluate the ride comfort and safety. The highway model, vehicle model, and common trapezoidal cross-sections bump models are set up in Carsim. Parameters such as vertical acceleration and tire force at different vehicle speeds are obtained. Then use the spline interpolation method to fit the data, and comprehensively consider the three indicators to get the best speed.
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