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Technical Paper

Driving Fatigue Detection based on Blink Frequency and Eyes Movement

2017-03-28
2017-01-1443
The development of the vehicle quantity and the transportation system accompanies the rise of traffic accidents. Statistics shows that nearly 35-45% traffic accidents are due to drivers’ fatigue. If the driver’s fatigue status could be judged in advance and reminded accurately, the driving safety could be further improved. In this research, the blink frequency and eyes movement information are monitored and the statistical method was used to assess the status of the driving fatigue. The main tasks include locating the edge of the human eyes, obtaining the distance between the upper and lower eyelids for calculating the frequency of the driver's blink. The velocity and position of eyes movement are calculated by detecting the pupils’ movement. The normal eyes movement model is established and the corresponding database is updated constantly by monitoring the driver blink frequency and eyes movement during a certain period of time.
Technical Paper

Effects of Different Oil Inlet and Outlet Distribution on Hydraulic Retarder

2014-09-28
2014-01-2498
The paper studies on the basis of VOITH R133-2 hydraulic retarder, the inlet and outlet structures of the oil passage on the stator are rearranged, which are made a more uniform structure distribution. In order to find out the characteristics of this kind of structure arrangement. The flow passage models for two different structures are established, and the internal flow field characteristics are studied by using the CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) method. The flow rules of the internal oil, the distribution of pressure field and velocity field as well as output braking torque are obtained. The results show that rearranged structure retarder has a more uniform pressure distribution and a lower output braking torque than original structure retarder. And the simulation verifies the effectiveness of simulating true flow by CFD in hydraulic retarder flow field and conduct retarder design and structure optimization.
Technical Paper

Simulation Research of a Hydraulic Interconnected Suspension Based on a Hydraulic Energy Regenerative Shock Absorber

2018-04-03
2018-01-0582
The current paper proposes a hydraulic interconnected suspension system (HIS) based on a hydraulic energy-regenerative shock absorber (HESA) comparatively with the passive suspensions. The structure and working principles of the HIS system are introduced in order to investigate the damping performance and energy regeneration characteristics of the proposed system. Then, the dynamic characteristics of the HIS-HESA system have been investigated based on a 4-DOF longitudinal half vehicle model. In the simulation, two different road inputs were used in the dynamic characterization of the HIS-HESA; the warp sinusoidal excitation, and the random road signal. In addition, a comparative analysis was provided for the dynamic responses of the half vehicle model for both the HIS-HESA and the conventional suspension. Furthermore, a parametric analysis of the HIS-HESA has been carried out highlining the key parameters that have a remarkable effect on the HIS-HESA performance.
Technical Paper

Co-simulation Based Hydraulic Retarder Braking Control System

2009-10-06
2009-01-2907
Hydraulic retarder has been widely applied on military vehicles and heavy commercial vehicles because of it could provide great brake torque and has lasting working time [1]. In order to reduce driver's frequent actions in braking process and prevent hydraulic retarder system from overheating, it is need to apply constant braking torque control, this control target has a strict requirement to hydraulic control system design. Many parameters often require repeated test to determine, which increases the R&D cost and extends the research cycle. This paper tries to find a time-efficient research method of hydraulic retarder control system through studying on a heavy military vehicle hydraulic retarder system. Hydraulic retarder model is set up through test data. The hydraulic control system is built based on AMESim. Controller model is set up based on PID control. The whole vehicle brake model is built based on MATLAB/Simulink.
Technical Paper

Research on Road Simulator with Iterative Learning Control

2009-10-06
2009-01-2908
Road simulation experiment in laboratory is a most important method to enhance the design quality of vehicle products. Presently, two main control techniques for road simulation—remote parameter control (RPC) and minimum variance adaptive control—are both defective: the former becomes an open-loop control after generating the drive signals, however the latter is essentially a kind of gradual control. To realize the closed-loop control and increase the control quality, this article brings forward a PID open-closed loop control method. Firstly taking the original road simulator as a group to identify, a nonlinear autoregressive moving average (NARMA) model was built with the dynamic neural network. Subsequently, this plant model was used to build the open-closed loop control system mentioned above. In the closed-loop a discrete PID controller was introduced to stabilize the system, while a P-type iterative learning control (ILC) was adopted to increase the control quality.
Technical Paper

Relationship between Braking Force and Pedal Force of a Pedal Controlled Parallelized Energy-Recuperation Retarder System

2014-04-01
2014-01-1783
Focusing the vehicle riding safety and global environmental problems, plenty of solutions on vehicle braking systems appeals during the recent period. Criteria and standards set up for commercial vehicles which should have equipped assisted braking systems were established by amounts of governments. Since eddy current retarders plays an important role in the area of assisted braking system, this article presents an energy-recuperation retarder, which is parallel connected with the driveline through a planet gear system. This paper offers a particular Energy-Recuperation Eddy Current Retarder (ERECR) system with a pedal control system and its characteristics is presented, either. Initially, the constitution of the energy-recuperation eddy current retarder system is established whereas the working principle of the energy-recuperation eddy current retarder is presented by modeling the system and simulation.
Technical Paper

The Organic Medium Physical State Analysis for Engine Exhaust Thermal Recovery

2015-04-14
2015-01-1610
The Organic Rankine Cycle System is an effective approach for recovering the engine exhaust thermal energy. The physical characteristic of the Rankine fluid is the key factor for the capacity and the stability of the expander power output. In the research, the influences of the evaporator organic medium state and flow rate on the expander power output are fully analyzed for the sufficient utilization of the waste thermal energy. Firstly, the exhaust characteristics of the diesel engine were processed by the data of the bench test. Then, the integral mathematical model of the Organic Rankine Cycle was built. Based on the comparison for the 2-zone and 3-zone evaporator, the influence for expander output are analyzed especially emphasis on the factors of engine working condition, the flow rate, temperature and state of Rankine fluid.
Technical Paper

Thermoelectric Module Temperature Stability Control for the Vehicle Engine Exhaust Heat Recovery

2015-04-14
2015-01-0350
The vehicle engine exhaust wastes heat. For the conventional scheme, the hot-end of the thermoelectric module is connected with the exhaust pipe, while the cold-end is cooled through the vehicle engine cooling cycle. The variation of vehicle engine operating conditions brings the instability of the hot-end temperature, which affects the power generation performance of thermoelectric materials and increases the damage risk to the thermoelectric materials caused by the high temperature. This research adopts the heat transfer oil circulation as the intermediate fluid to absorb the dynamic heat flux of the vehicle engine exhaust so as to release the heat steadily to the hot-end of the thermoelectric module. The thermal characteristics of the target diesel vehicle engine exhaust gas are evaluated based on the experimental data firstly.
Technical Paper

The Finite Element Analysis and Optimization on a Special Vehicle

2015-04-14
2015-01-0473
According to the resonant pavement crusher's work principle, its front frame mounted with the resonance system must meet the needs of the structural requirements. To satisfy the strength and stiffness requirement and avoid the resonance, the natural frequency of the front frame should be designed away from the crusher's working frequency. In this paper, the author builds a finite element model of the front frame and analyses its modal. According to the modal analysis results, the fourth modal frequency is close to the working frequency of the crusher. So the front frame should be optimized. In the finite element model, the front frame has been divided into a number of components of shell elements. Through optimal Latin hypercube experimental design, the author analyses the different component thickness's relationship of the frequencies of the front frame. The components with higher correlation coefficient have been chosen as the variables of optimization.
Technical Paper

Microwave-Steam Based Road Deicing Vehicle Focused on Thin Ice Layers

2015-04-14
2015-01-0502
For the thin ice on the road in winter, the traditional road deicing vehicle relies on mechanical and chemical methods for melting ice, which is inclined to damage the pavement and has insidious influence on environment. The thermal deicing vehicle has been adopted in recent years. Although the deicing method is available, the deicing efficiency is unacceptable while the energy consumption is huge. The study adopts the new idea of “bottom-to-top” for melting the intersection area between the road surface and the bottom ice layer by the microwave heating firstly and then cleaning them out using high pres. vapor cutting so as to save the cost of energy and enhance the traffic safety. First of all, the mathematical model of the melting process of the intersection of the pavement and the ice layer was established according to the microwave heating characteristics.
Technical Paper

The Combined Braking Energy Management Strategy to Maximize Energy Recovery

2016-04-05
2016-01-0453
Eddy current retarder (ECR) shares a large market of auxiliary brakes in China, but shortcomings of the short continuous braking time and the high additional energy consumption are also obvious. The propose of combined braking partakes the braking torque of ECR. However, the existed serial-parallel braking strategy could hardly balance well the relationship between the braking stability and the energy recovery efficiency. This research puts forward an energy management strategy of combined braking system which aims to maximize energy recovery while ensure the brake stability. The motor speed, the braking request and the state of charge (SoC) of the storage module are analyzed synthetically to calculate the reasonable braking torque distribution proportion. And the recovered energy is priority for using in the braking unit to reduce the additional energy consumption in this strategy.
Technical Paper

Design and Simulation Analysis for an Integrated Energy-Recuperation Retarder

2016-04-05
2016-01-0458
Vehicle auxiliary braking system is very significant to the brake safety. The eddy current retarder (ECR) has a good braking performance, but the braking torque would fade under high speed domain. In the contrary, the regenerative brake (RGB) could provide a satisfied braking performance in high speed domain. However, the braking torque in low speed domain is insufficient. This paper proposed a novel concept of the integrated energy-recuperation retarder (IEER), which would take advantage of the merits of both the ECR and the RGB to have a steady braking performance in all-speed domain. The IEER integrates the structures of rotary eddy current retarder (RECR) and the RGB, both of which share a stator. Braking torque of the IEER produced by stator core and armature-windings can stack together, and therefore the IEER can provide greater braking torque than the RECR. Besides, the IEER can recover electric energy from armature-windings.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Analyzing for Hydraulic-Driven Cooling System of Heavy Duty Truck

2016-04-05
2016-01-0222
The heavy duty trucks have large engine power and drive continuously in mountainous area, so the heat dissipation of engine is very important. In the traditional cooling system with fixed transmission ratio fan, the cooling capacity is insufficient and the engine is easy to be over-heated when the engine is working in low speed and heavy load conditions. Owning to the bigger size of electric motor compared to the hydraulic motor, it is not suitably applied to the heavy duty trucks. Contrasted with the electric motor, the hydraulic drive cooling system is widely applied in heavy duty trucks due to smaller size, larger power, continuous speed modulation and flexible installation location. However, the low transmission efficiency of the pump-motor system results in high power consumption of the cooling system. In this paper, the mathematical and simulation model of hydraulic-driven fan cooling system is established for the specific engine.
Technical Paper

Experiment Study and Design of Self-excited Eddy Current Retarder

2013-11-27
2013-01-2825
Good braking performance is an important guarantee for the vehicle driving. In the condition of frequent or prolonged braking, the overheating problem for the traditional mechanical braking device causes the recession of the braking performance, which is a prominent problem especially for the commercial vehicle perennial traveling in the mountains. Eddy current retarder can reduce the mechanical brake load as a kind of auxiliary braking device. Thus, the temperature of the mechanical braking device would not be too high, and the traveling safety of the vehicle can be ensured. But eddy current retarder would cause an enormous impact for automobile battery when it starts up and huge electricity energy would be consumed which means that more automotive batteries are needed. Considering above, a kind of self-excited eddy current retarder is developed in the paper.
Technical Paper

Evaporator Boiling Heat Transfer Analysis for Engine Exhaust Heat Recovery

2014-09-30
2014-01-2345
In the Rankine cycle, the pressure differential generated by the phase change of the working fluid produces turbine output power, which enables the recovery of waste heat from the internal combustion engine. The heat transfer ability of the evaporator is the key factor that determines the quality of turbine's mechanical work. In this paper, the performance of the evaporator with two-phase zone and preheated zone is studied. After obtaining the thermal characteristics of diesel engine exhaust from the experimental data, the mathematical model of the evaporator is built according to the specific working conditions of ORC and geometrical parameters of the evaporator. Three typical engine operating conditions are used to estimate the heat transfer characteristics of the evaporator. The result shows that, in the evaporator, the heat transfer coefficient of the Rankine working fluid is much greater than the exhaust side of the engine.
Technical Paper

Study on Commercial Vehicle ECR Thermal Management System

2016-09-18
2016-01-1935
With the continuous increasing requirements of commercial vehicle weight and speed on highway transportation, conventional friction brake is difficult to meet the braking performance. To ensure the driving safety of the vehicle in the hilly region, the eddy current retarder (ECR) has been widely used due to its fast response, lower prices and convenient installation. ECR brakes the vehicle through the electromagnetic force generated by the current, and converted vehicle mechanical energy into heat through magnetic field. Air cooling structure is often used in the traditional ECR and cooling performance is limited, which causes low braking torque, thermal recession, and low reliability and so on. The water jacket has been equipped outside the eddy current region in this study, and the electric ECR is cooled through the water circulating in the circuit, which prolongs its working time.
Technical Paper

Energy Saving Analysis of Vehicle Hydraulic Retarder Thermal Management System Based on Rankine Cycle

2016-09-18
2016-01-1941
Vehicle hydraulic retarders are applied in heavy-duty trucks and buses as an auxiliary braking device. In traditional cooling systems of hydraulic retarders, the working fluid is introduced into the heat exchanger to transfer heat to the cooling liquid in circulation, whose heat is then dissipated by the engine cooling system. This prevents the waste heat of the working fluid from being used effectively. In hydraulic retarder cooling system based on the Organic Rankine Cycle, the organic working fluid first transfers heat with the hydraulic retarder working fluid in Rankine cycle, and then outputs power through expansion machine. It can both reduce heat load of the engine cooling system, and enhance thermal stability of the hydraulic retarder while recovering and utilizing braking energy. First of all, according to the target vehicle model, hydraulic retarder cooling system model based on Rankine cycle is established.
Technical Paper

Fuel-Efficient Driving for Motor Vehicles Based on Slope Recognition

2017-03-28
2017-01-0037
The drivers' hysteretic perception to surrounding environment will affect vehicular fuel economy, especially for the heavy-duty vehicles driving under complex conditions and long distance in mountainous areas. Unreasonable acceleration or deceleration on the slope will increase the fuel consumption. Improving the performance of the engine and the transmission system has limited energy saving potential, and most fuel-efficient driving assistant systems don't consider the road conditions. The main purpose of this research is to introduce an economic driving scheme with consideration of the prestored slope information in which the vehicle speed in mountainous slopes is reasonably planned to guide the driver's behavior for reduction of the fuel consumption. Economic driving optimization algorithm with low space dimension and fast computation speed is established to plan accurate and real-time economic driving scheme.
Technical Paper

The Research of the Adaptive Front Lighting System Based on GIS and GPS

2017-03-28
2017-01-0041
Automotive Front Lighting System(AFS) can receive the steering signal and the vehicular speed signal to adjust the position of headlamps automatically. AFS will provide drivers more information of front road to protect drivers safe when driving at night. AFS works when there is a steering signal input. However, drivers often need the front road's information before they turn the steering wheel when vehicles are going to go through a sharp corner, AFS will not work in such a situation. This paper studied how to optimize the working time of AFS based on GIS (Geographic Information System) and GPS(Geographic Information System) to solve the problem. This paper analyzed the process of the vehicle is about to go through a corner. Low beams and high beams were discussed respectively.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study of Hydraulic Retarder Waste Heat Recovery Based on the Organic Rankine Cycle

2016-09-27
2016-01-8079
The hydraulic retarder is an important auxiliary braking device. With merits such as its high braking torque, smooth braking, low noise, long service life and small size, it is widely used on modern commercial vehicles. Transmission fluid of traditional hydraulic retarder is cooled by engine cooling system, which exhausts the heat directly and need additional energy consumption for the thermal management component. On account of the working characteristics of hydraulic retarder, this study designs a set of waste heat recovery system based on the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC). Under the premise of ensuring stable performance of hydraulic retarder, waste heat energy in transmission fluid is recycled to supplement energy requirements for cooling system. First of all, a principle model, which is scaled down according to D300 retarder`s thermal power generation ration of 1:100, is established. Then through theoretical calculations, components' structural parameters of the ORC are determined.
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