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Technical Paper

An Investigation of Thermal Effects on the Hybrid III Thorax Utilizing Finite Element Method

The advent of the Hybrid III crash test dummy marked the beginning of biofidelic anthropomorphic test devices. During the development of its critical components, notably the head, neck, knee, and thorax, biomechanical cadaver test results were incorporated into the design. The result was a dummy that represented the 50th percentile male during idealized impacts. In order to achieve a more biofidelic response from the components, many exotic materials and unique designs were utilized. The thorax, for instance, incorporates a spring steel rib design laminated with a viscoelastic polymeric composite material to damp the response. This combination results in the proper hysteretic losses necessary to model the human thorax under impact loading conditions. The disadvantage of this design is that the damping material properties are highly sensitive to temperature. A variation of more than 5 degrees Fahrenheit dramatically affects the response of the thorax.
Technical Paper

Inertia Measurements of Large Military Vehicles

This paper describes the design and operation of a facility for measuring vehicle center-of-gravity height; roll, pitch, and yaw moments of inertia; and roll/yaw cross product of inertia for a broad range of test specimens. The facility is configurable such that it is capable of measuring these properties for light, single axle trailers; long, heavy vehicles; and tank turrets. The design was driven by the need for accurate, repeatable measurement results and the desire to have a single facility capable of making measurements on a broad range of vehicle sizes.
Technical Paper

Model Validation of the 1998 Chevrolet Malibu for the National Advanced Driving Simulator

This paper presents an evaluation of a complete vehicle dynamics model for a 1998 Chevrolet Malibu to be used for the National Advanced Driving Simulator. Vehicle handling, braking and powertrain dynamics are evaluated and simulation results are compared with experimental field-testing. NADSdyna, the National Advanced Driving Simulator vehicle dynamics software, is used. The Malibu evaluation covers vehicle directional dynamics that include steady state, transient frequency response, and vehicle longitudinal dynamics composed of acceleration and braking. Also, analyses of the effects of modified tire parameters on vehicle dynamics response is performed. The effects of wind gusts generated by a tractor-trailer and a bus on the Malibu vehicle directional dynamics are analyzed. For the steering system feel, we compare the handwheel torque feedback with the measured data during both high-speed dynamics and in the very low speed tire stick-slip regime.
Technical Paper

Parameter Determination and Vehicle Dynamics Modeling for the NADS of the 1998 Chevrolet Malibu

The paper discusses the development of a model for a 1998 Chevrolet Malibu for the National Advanced Driving Simulator’s (NADS) vehicle dynamics simulation, NADSdyna. The Malibu is the third vehicle modeled for the NADS, and this is the third paper dealing with model development. SAE Paper 970564 contains details of the model for the 1994 Ford Taurus and SAE Paper 1999–01-0121 contains details of the model for the 1997 Jeep Cherokee. The front and rear suspensions are independent strut and link type suspensions modeled using recursive rigid body dynamics formulations. The suspension springs and shock absorbers are modeled as elements in the rigid body formulation. To complement the vehicle dynamics for the NADS application, subsystem models that include tire forces, braking, powertrain, aerodynamics, and steering are added to the rigid body dynamics model. The models provide state-of-the-art high fidelity vehicle handling dynamics for real-time simulation.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of the Ignition Hazard Posed by Onboard Refueling Vapor Recovery Canisters

ORVR (Onboard Refueling Vapor Recovery) canisters trap vapors during normal operations of a vehicle's engine, and during refueling. This study evaluates the relative risks involved should a canister rupture in a crash. A canister impactor was developed to simulate real-world impacts and to evaluate the canisters' rupture characteristics. Numerous performance aspects of canisters were evaluated: the energy required to rupture a canister; the spread of carbon particles following rupture; the ease of ignition of vapor-laden particles; the vapor concentration in the area of ruptured, vapor-laden canisters; and the potential of crashes to rupture and ignite canisters. Results from these five items were combined into a risk analysis.
Technical Paper

Heavy Tractor-Trailer Vehicle Dynamics Modeling for the National Advanced Driving Simulator

This paper presents the development of a real-time vehicle dynamics model of the heavy tractor-trailer combination used in the National Advanced Driving Simulator. The model includes multi-body dynamics of the tractor and trailer chassis, suspension, and steering mechanisms. The rigid body model is formulated using recursive multi-body dynamics code. This model is augmented with subsystem models that include tires, leaf springs, brakes, steering system, and aerodynamic drag. This paper also presents parameter measurement and estimations used to set up the model. Also included are models for brake fade, steering torque resistance, and defective tires.
Technical Paper

Improving Steering Feel for the National Advanced Driving Simulator

The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's Vehicle Research and Test Center (VRTC) plans to evolve the state-of-the-art of steering system modeling for driving simulators with the ultimate goal being the development of a high fidelity steering feel model for the National Advanced Driving Simulator (NADS). The VRTC plans on developing reliable research tools that can be used to determine the necessary features for a steering model that will provide good objective and subjective steering feel. This paper reviews past and continuing work conducted at the VRTC and provides a plan for future work that will achieve this goal.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of VDANL and VDM RoAD for Predicting the Vehicle Dynamics of a 1994 Ford Taurus

The paper presents an evaluation of two vehicle dynamics simulations: “Vehicle Dynamics Analysis, Non-Linear” (VDANL) from Systems Technology, Inc. and “Vehicle Dynamics Models for Roadway Analysis and Design” (VDM RoAD) from the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute. The versions of these simulations are being developed for the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). Working in cooperation with the FHWA, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's (NHTSA) Vehicle Research and Test Center (VRTC) in East Liberty, Ohio, has evaluated these simulations. An extensive vehicle parameter measurement and field testing program has been performed using a 1994 Ford Taurus to provide simulation parameters and to “benchmark” data for the simulation evaluation.
Technical Paper

Validation Results from Using NADSdyna Vehicle Dynamics Simulation

This paper presents an evaluation of a vehicle dynamics model intended to be used for the National Advanced Driving Simulator (NADS). Dynamic validation for high performance simulation is not merely a comparison between experimental and simulation plots. It involves strong insight of vehicle's subsystems mechanics, limitations of the mathematical formulations, and experimental predictions. Lateral, longitudinal, and ride dynamics are evaluated using field test data, and analytical diagnostics. The evaluation includes linear and non-linear range of vehicle dynamics response.
Technical Paper

Methodology for Validating the National Advanced Driving Simulator's Vehicle Dynamics (NADSdyna)

This paper presents an overview of work performed by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's (NHTSA) Vehicle Research and Test Center (VRTC) to test, validate, and improve the planned National Advanced Driving Simulator's (NADS) vehicle dynamics simulation. This vehicle dynamics simulation, called NADSdyna, was developed by the University of Iowa's Center for Computer-Aided Design (CCAD) NADSdyna is based upon CCAD's general purpose, real-time, multi-body dynamics software, referred to as the Real-Time Recursive Dynamics (RTRD), supplemented by vehicle dynamics specific submodules VRTC has “beta tested” NADSdyna, making certain that the software both works as computer code and that it correctly models vehicle dynamics. This paper gives an overview of VRTC's beta test work with NADSdyna. The paper explains the methodology used by VRTC to validate NADSdyna.
Technical Paper

Powertrain and Brake Modeling of the 1994 Ford Taurus for the National Advanced Driving Simulator

This paper introduces the quasi-static powertrain model for eventual use in the National Advanced Driving Simulator. The 1994 Ford Taurus model is illustrated along with experimental validations; a one-dimensional torque formulation that includes the torque and angular velocity transmitted through the engine, torque converter, automatic transmission gear box, differential, and final drive. A model of the cruise control based on the proportional integrator controller is introduced. The model is able to mimic all basic functions of the speed controller. The load sensitive brake system is modeled with a generic Anti-lock Brake System.
Technical Paper

The Design of a Vehicle Inertia Measurement Facility

This paper describes the design of a vehicle inertia measurement facility (VIMF): a facility used to measure vehicle center of gravity position; vehicle roll, pitch, and yaw mass moments of inertia; and vehicle roll/yaw mass product of inertia. The rationale for general design decisions and the methods used to arrive at the decisions are discussed. The design is inspired by the desire to have minimal measurement error and short test time. The design was guided by analytical error analyses of the contributions of individual system errors to the overall measurement error. A National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) database of center of gravity position and mass moment of inertia data for over 300 vehicles was used in conjunction with the error analyses to design various VIMF components, such as the roll and yaw spring sizes.
Technical Paper

A Study of Vehicle Class Segregation Using Linear Handling Models

The handling, stability, and rollover resistance of vehicles is presently being studied by both the automotive industry and the National Highway and Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). However, to study the handling and rollover behavior of each vehicle on the road is not feasible. The ability to categorize and compare the rollover and handling behavior of various vehicles is a subject of considerable research interest. This paper examines the possibility of characterizing vehicle classes through the use of a three degree-of-freedom linear model. Initially, segregation is studied by evaluating the eigenvalue location in the complex domain for vehicle sideslip velocity, yaw rate, and roll angle. Then the influence of numerator dynamics on vehicle behavior is studied and vehicle class segregation is attempted through evaluation of the amplitude ratio of the frequency responses for sideslip velocity, yaw rate, and roll angle.
Technical Paper

The Application of Pulse Input Techniques to the Study of Tire Lateral Force and Self-Aligning Moment Dynamics in the Frequency Domain

This paper presents the application of pulse input techniques to study tire dynamics in the frequency domain. Many tire researchers analyze tire dynamics by means of studying the frequency response of tire output responses to sinusoidal frequency inputs, for example, the frequency response of tire lateral force to sinusoidal slip angle input. To replace expensive and time-consuming sinusoidal frequency tests, pulse techniques are applied to obtain frequency responses. A series of slip angle pulse input tests in various conditions (several normal forces, speeds and magnitudes of slip angle inputs) are executed on a pneumatic tire. The tire output responses to the slip angle pulse inputs are transformed into the frequency domain using discrete Fourier transform. Several rules of Fourier transform related to the study of tire dynamics are detailed. The frequency responses obtained by pulse techniques are validated by comparison with the results from sinusoidal frequency tests.
Technical Paper

Effects of Loading on Vehicle Handling

This paper explores the effects of changes in vehicle loading on vehicle inertial properties (center-of-gravity location and moments of inertia values) and handling responses. The motivation for the work is to gain better understanding of the importance vehicle loading has in regard to vehicle safety. A computer simulation is used to predict the understeer changes for three different vehicles under three loading conditions. An extension of this loading study includes the effects of moving occupants, which are modeled for inclusion in the simulation. A two-mass model for occupants/cargo, with lateral translational and rotational degrees of freedom, has been developed and is included in the full vehicle model. Using the simulation, the effects that moving occupants have on vehicle dynamics are studied.
Technical Paper

Pulse Testing Techniques Applied to Vehicle Handling Dynamics

This paper presents results from recent studies on using pulse inputs to generate simulated and experimental frequency responses. The purpose of the paper is to disseminate information on the application of pulse testing methods, and to compare the results with frequency response results obtained using other methods. Frequency responses were generated from a vehicle handling dynamics simulation, from full-scale vehicle handling tests, and from dynamic tire tests. The requirements on the input pulses used to drive the systems under study are discussed, including pulse size, shape, and duration, and the corresponding pulse frequency content and power spectral densities. Pulse testing is generally faster and cheaper than the alternative test methods, and for the case of full-scale vehicle testing, requires much less test area.
Technical Paper

An Investigation, Via Simulation, of Vehicle Characteristics that Contribute to Steering Maneuver Induced Rollover

The goal of this research was to find vehicle characteristics which may contribute to steering maneuver induced rollover accidents. This work involved studying vehicle handling dynamics using the Vehicle Dynamics Analysis, Non-Linear (VDANL) computer simulation. The simulation was used to predict vehicle responses while performing 28 different steering induced maneuvers for each of 51 vehicles. Various measures of vehicle response (metrics), such as response times, percent overshoots, etc., were computed for each vehicle from simulation predictions. These vehicle directional response metrics were analyzed in an attempt to identify vehicle characteristics that might be good predictor/explanatory variables for vehicle rollover propensity. The metrics were correlated, using the Statistical Analysis System (SAS) software and logistic regression, with single vehicle accident data from the state of Michigan for the years 1986 through 1988.
Technical Paper

The Importance of Tire Lag on Simulated Transient Vehicle Response

This paper discusses the importance of having an adequate model for the dynamic response characteristics of tire lateral force to steering inputs. Computer simulation and comparison with experimental results are used to show the importance of including appropriate tire dynamics in simulation tire models to produce accurate predictions of vehicle dynamics. Improvements made to the tire dynamics model of an existing vehicle stability and control simulation, the Vehicle Dynamics Analysis, Non-Linear (VDANL) simulation, are presented. Specifically, the improvements include changing the simulation's tire dynamics from first-order system tire side force lag dynamics to second-order system tire slip angle dynamics. A second-order system representation is necessary to model underdamped characteristics of tires at high speeds. Lagging slip angle (an input to the tire model) causes all slip angle dependent tire force and moment outputs to be lagged.
Technical Paper

A Methodology for Validating Vehicle Dynamics Simulations

This paper presents a methodology for validating vehicle stability and control computer simulations. Validation is defined as showing that, within some specified operating range of the vehicle, a simulation's predictions of a vehicle's responses agree with the actual measured vehicle's responses to within some specified level of accuracy. The method uses repeated experimental runs at each test condition to generate sufficient data for statistical analyses. The acquisition and reduction of experimental data, and the processing path for simulation data, are described. The usefulness of time domain validation for steady state and slowly varying transients is discussed. The importance of frequency domain validation for thoroughly validating a simulation is shown. Both qualitative and quantitative methods for the comparison of the simulation predictions with the actual test measurements are developed.
Journal Article

Semitrailer Torsional Stiffness Data for Improved Modeling Fidelity

Vehicle dynamics models employed in heavy truck simulation often treat the semitrailer as a torsionally rigid member, assuming zero deflection along its longitudinal axis as a moment is applied to its frame. Experimental testing, however, reveals that semitrailers do twist, sometimes enough to precipitate rollover when a rigid trailer may have remained upright. Improving the model by incorporating realistic trailer roll stiffness values can improve assessment of heavy truck dynamics, as well as an increased understanding of the effectiveness of stability control systems in limit handling maneuvers. Torsional stiffness measurements were conducted by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) for eight semitrailers of different types, including different length box vans, traditional and spread axle flat beds, and a tanker.