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Technical Paper

Stabilizations of High Temperature Heat Release CA50 and Combustion Period against Engine Load with the Dosage of Toluene in Fuel

An HCCI combustion has a low temperature heat release (LTHR) and a high temperature heat release (HTHR). During the LTHR period, fuel chemicals break down into radicals and small hydrocarbons, and they assist an initial reaction of HTHR. This is an important role of LTHR. On the contrary, LTHR has a negative aspect. In general, a heating value of LTHR changes depending on HCCI engine load due to the difference of the injected fuel quantity. The heating value of LTHR is low under low load condition, and the heating value of LTHR is high under high load condition. This leads to the changes of the starting crank angle of HTHR against engine load and it is a nuisance problem for the control of HCCI engine operation. Therefore, a fuel which exhibits the constant LTHR phasing against engine load would be preferable.
Journal Article

Combustion Characteristics of Emulsified Blends of Water and Diesel Fuel in a Diesel Engine with Cooled EGR and Pilot Injection

Water and diesel fuel emulsions containing 13% and 26% water by volume were investigated in a modern diesel engine with relatively early pilot injection, supercharging, and cooled EGR. The heat release from the pilot injection with water emulsions is retarded toward the top dead center due to the poor ignitability, which enables larger pilot and smaller main injection quantities. This characteristic results in improvements in the thermal efficiency due to the larger heat release near the top dead center and the smaller afterburning. With the 26% water emulsion, mild, smokeless, and very low NOx operation is possible at an optimum pilot injection quantity and 15% intake oxygen with EGR at or below 0.9 MPa IMEP, a condition where large smoke emissions are unavoidable with regular unblended diesel fuel. Heat transfer analysis with Woschni's equation did not show the decrease in cooling loss with the water emulsion fuels.
Technical Paper

Semi-Premixed Diesel Combustion with Twin Peak Shaped Heat Release Using Two-Stage Fuel Injection

Characteristics of semi-premixed diesel combustion with a twin peak shaped heat release (twin combustion) were investigated under several in-cylinder gas conditions in a 0.55 L single cylinder diesel engine with common-rail fuel injection, super-charged, and with low pressure loop cooled EGR. The first-stage combustion fraction, the second injection timing, the intake oxygen concentration, and the intake gas pressure influence on thermal efficiency related parameters, the engine noise, and the exhaust gas emissions was systematically examined at a middle engine speed and load condition (2000 rpm, 0.7 MPa IMEP). The twin peak shaped heat release was realized with the first-stage premixed combustion with a sufficient premixing duration from the first fuel injection and with the second fuel injection taking place just after the end of the first-stage combustion.
Journal Article

Chemical Reaction Processes of Fuel Reformation by Diesel Engine Piston Compression of Rich Homogeneous Air-Fuel Mixture

To extend the operational range of premixed diesel combustion, fuel reformation by piston induced compression of rich homogeneous air-fuel mixtures was conducted in this study. Reformed gas compositions and chemical processes were first simulated with the chemistry dynamics simulation, CHEMKIN Pro, by changing the intake oxygen content, intake air temperature, and compression ratio. A single cylinder diesel engine was utilized to verify the simulation results. With the simulation and experiments, the characteristics of the reformed gas with respect to the reformer cylinder operating condition were obtained. Further, the thermal decomposition and partial oxidation reaction mechanisms of the fuel in extremely low oxygen concentrations were obtained with the characteristics of the gas production at the various reaction temperatures.
Technical Paper

The Interaction Between Fuel Chemicals and HCCI Combustion Characteristics Under Heated Intake Air Conditions

To evaluate the relation between the intake air temperature (Tair-in), low temperature heat release (LTHR) and high temperature heat release (HTHR), a supercharged 4-cylinder engine with intake air heating, high compression pistons and a pressure transducer in each cylinder was introduced Eleven pure hydrocarbon components were blended into 23 different model fuels, labeled BASE MC01-MC11, and K01-K11. BASE is a mixture of equal proportion of each of the 11 pure hydrocarbons. The difference between MC series and K series fuels is in the amount of pure hydrocarbon added to the BASE: 6.5vol% for MC series fuels and 17.5vol% for K series fuels. Engine tests were performed with BASE and MC01-MC11 fuels at Tair-in=50°C (IMEP 530kPa), 80°C (IMEP 420kPa), and 100°C (IMEP 380kPa).
Technical Paper

The Effects of Oxygenate and Gasoline-Diesel Fuel Blends on Diesel Engine Emissions

A study was performed in which the effects on the regulated emissions from a commercial small DI diesel engine were measured for different refinery-derived fuel blends. Seven different fuel blends were tested, of which two were deemed to merit more detailed evaluation. To investigate the effects of fuel properties on the combustion processes with these fuel blends, two-color pyrometry was used via optically accessible cylinderheads. Additional data were obtained with one of the fuel blends with a heavy-duty DI diesel engine. California diesel fuel was used as a baseline. The fuel blends were made by mixing the components typically found in gasoline, such as methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) and whole fluid catalytic cracking gasoline (WH-FCC). The mixing was performed on a volume basis. Cetane improver (CI) was added to maintain the same cetane number (CN) of the fuel blends as that of the baseline fuel.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Combustion and Emissions in a Dual Fuel Compression Ignition Engine with Natural Gas as the Main Fuel

Dual fuel combustion with premixed natural gas as the main fuel and diesel fuel as the ignition source was investigated in a 0.83 L, single cylinder, DI diesel engine. At low loads, increasing the equivalence ratio of natural gas to around 0.5 with intake throttling makes it possible to reduce the THC and CO emissions as well as to improve the thermal efficiency. At high loads, increasing the boost pressure moderates the combustion, but increases the THC and CO emissions, resulting in deterioration of the thermal efficiency. The EGR is essential to suppress the rapid combustion. As misfiring occurs with a compression ratio of 14.5 and there is excessively rapid combustion with 18.5 compression ratio, 16.5 is a suitable compression ratio.
Technical Paper

The Development of Driveability Index and the Effects of Gasoline Volatility on Engine Performance

To reduce engine exhaust emissions, we have had to deal with this global environmental problem from the fuel side by introducing oxygenated fuels, reducing the RVP and using low aromatics. But when we change the fuel components and distillation, we must take note about how these affect the engine driveability. We have used T50, T90, RVP and so on as the fuel index up to the present. It is possible to characterize the fuel from one aspect, but these indexes don't always represent the real feature of the fuel. In this paper we propose a New Driveability Index (here in after referred to as NDI) that is more realistic and accurate than the other fuel indexes. We used a 1600cc DOHC L4 MPI type engine. We used Model Gasolines and Market Gasolines, see Appendix(1), (2) and (3), and tested them according to the Excess Air Ratio Response Test Method (here in after referred to as λ-R Test) that was suggested in SAE paper #930375, and we calculated the NDI statistically.
Journal Article

Realization of Dual Phase High Temperature Heat Release Combustion of Base Gasoline Blends from Oil Refineries and a Study of HCCI Combustion Processes

It was reported that n-heptane and toluene blended fuels (NTL series fuels) showed the dual phase high temperature heat release (DP-HTHR) combustion in a previous SAE paper [1]. DP-HTHR has the potential to enlarge the engine operational range to high load conditions and lower the engine combustion noise. Further research has been reported in this paper. Initial interests were in the combustion characteristics of a second “bump” in the high temperature heat release (2nd HTHR) in DP-HTHR, since this kind of two-stage combustion appears, when CO oxidation radically occurs over the 1450K temperature range.
Journal Article

Combustion and Emissions with Bio-alcohol and Nonesterified Vegetable Oil Blend Fuels in a Small Diesel Engine

Combustion and exhaust gas emissions of alcohol and vegetable oil blends including a 20% ethanol + 40% 1-butanol + 40% vegetable oil blend and a 50% 1-butanol + 50% vegetable oil blend were examined in a single cylinder, four-stroke cycle, 0.83L direct injection diesel engine, with a supercharger and a common rail fuel injection system. A 50% diesel oil + 50% vegetable oil blend and regular unblended diesel fuel were used as reference fuels. The boost pressure was kept constant at 160 kPa (absolute pressure), and the cooled low pressure loop EGR was realized by mixing with a part of the exhaust gas. Pilot injection is effective to suppress rapid combustion due to the lower ignitability of the alcohol and vegetable oil blends. The effects of reductions in the intake oxygen concentration with cooled EGR and changes in the fuel injection pressure were investigated for the blended fuels.
Technical Paper

Visualization and Heat Release Analysis of Premixed Diesel Combustion with Various Fuel Ignitabilities and Oxygen Concentrations in a Constant Volume Combustion Vessel

Low NOx and soot free premixed diesel combustion can be realized by increasing ignition delays in low oxygen atmospheres, as well as the combustion here also depends on fuel ignitability. In this report single intermittent spray combustion with primary reference fuels and a normal heptane-toluene blend fuel under several oxygen concentrations in a constant volume combustion vessel was analyzed with high-speed color video and pressure data. Temperature and KL factor distributions are displayed with a 2-D two-color method. The results show that premixing is promoted with a decrease in oxygen concentration, and the local high temperature regions, above 2200 K, as well as the duration of their appearance decreases with the oxygen concentration. With normal heptane, mild premixed diesel combustion can be realized at 15 vol% oxygen and there is little luminous flame.
Technical Paper

Auto-Ignition Characteristics of Hydrocarbons and Development of HCCI Fuel Index

It is known that the regular gasoline and primary reference fuel (PRF), that have the same research octane number, show the different HCCI engine performance, because of the different phasing and heating value of low temperature heat release. This means that the research octane number is not an “all-round” auto-ignition index, and another index must be developed to evaluate the HCCI combustion characteristics. In this paper, eleven pure hydrocarbon components were blended into twenty three different kinds of model fuels (surrogate fuels), labeled BASE, MC01-MC11 and K01-K11, and the HCCI engine tests were performed under five different intake air temperature conditions to change the auto-ignition characteristic of each hydrocarbon component. As HCCI combustion can be described as a lean and slow gasoline knocking phenomenon, an analysis of HCCI combustion data gives us much more important knowledge of gasoline knocking phenomenon.
Journal Article

Dual Phase High Temperature Heat Release Combustion

To allow the HCCI vehicles to enter the market in the future, it is important to investigate the combustion deviations and operational range differences between the same research octane number fuels. In this paper, eighteen kinds of two hydrocarbon blended fuels, which were composed of n-heptane and another hydrocarbon, such as iso-octane, diisobutylene, 4-methyl-1-pentene, toluene or cyclopentane, were evaluated. Those fuels were blended to have the same research octane numbers of 75, 80, 85 and 90 by changing the blending volume ratio of n-heptane and counterpart hydrocarbon. Intake air was supercharged to 155 kPa abs and its temperature was kept at 58 °C. The HCCI engine was operated at 1000 rpm. Neither hot EGR, nor any other combustion stratification system was utilized in order to investigate the purely hydrocarbon effects on HCCI combustion.
Technical Paper

Effect of Intake Valve Deposits and Gasoline Composition on S.I. Engine Performance

Valve deposits in gasoline engines increase with time, absorbing fuel during acceleration and releasing fuel during deceleration. Valve deposits insulate the heat release from the cylinder and this phenomenon is the cause of bad fuel vaporization. In this way, the deposits greatly affect the driveability and exhaust emissions. Using a 3.OL MPI(Multipoint Injection) engine, we measured the quantity of fuel that deposits at the intake port, and the throttle response (using a wall-flow meter made by Nissan Motor Co.1), 2) to study the deposits effect on driveability and exhaust emissions at a low temperature. The deposits were formed on the intake valve surface (about 8.0 on the CRC deposit rating scale) through 200 hours of laboratory engine stand operation. At low temperature, C9 and C10 hydrocarbons tend to stick to the intake port surface and intake valve as “wall-flow”; this is one cause of bad driveability.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Fuel Properties on Low and High Temperature Heat Release and Resulting Performance of an HCCI Engine

A supercharged 4-cylinder engine was introduced to evaluate how fuel properties affect engine combustion and performance in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) operation. In this study, choosing from 12 hydrocarbon constituents, model fuels were mixed to have the same distillation but different octane numbers (RON=70, 80, 92). For each fuel, RON distribution against distillation is same to keep the same octane number in cylinder vapor during the air-fuel compression process. To confirm the appropriateness of model fuels and test procedures, regular gasoline (RON=90) was also included. From the combustion analysis it was clear that the low temperature heat release depends on fuel characteristics. RON92 fuel has a small low temperature heat release, and a high temperature heat release combusts slowly.
Technical Paper

Correlation of Low Temperature Heat Release With Fuel Composition and HCCI Engine Combustion

Low temperature heat release (LTHR) in HCCI combustion changes according to fuel chemical composition and engine test conditions. In this study 11 pure hydrocarbon components were blended into 12 different model fuels to evaluate the effects of fuel composition on LTHR heating value, LTHR CA50 (crank angle at 50% completion of LTHR), high temperature heat release (HTHR), and engine performance. From the heat release analysis of the test data from a supercharged 4-cylinder engine, it was determined that the HTHR CA50 (crank angle at 50% completion of HTHR) was strongly indicative of combustion stability and maximum rate of pressure rise. Moreover, the functional dependence of HTHR CA50 on LTHR heating value and LTHR CA50 was quantified. Test fuels denoted MD05, Base, MC05 and MX05 were prepared by adding 5.2vol%, 9.3vol%, 15.0vol%, and 18.2vol% of n-hexane, respectively, to a blend of 10 pure hydrocarbons.
Technical Paper

Development of a Micro-Reactor HC-SCR System and the Evaluation of NOx Reduction Characteristics

To reduce NOx emissions from diesel engines, the urea-SCR (selective catalytic reduction) system has been introduced commercially. In urea-SCR, the freezing point of the urea aqueous solution, the deoxidizer, is −11°C, and the handling of the deoxidizer under cold weather conditions is a problem. Further, the ammonia escape from the catalyst and the generation of N2O emissions are also problems. To overcome these disadvantages of the urea-SCR system, the addition of a hydrocarbon deoxidizer has attracted attention. In this paper, a micro-reactor SCR system was developed and attached to the exhaust pipe of a single cylinder diesel engine. With the micro-reactor, the catalyst temperature, quantity of deoxidizer, and the space velocity can be controlled, and it is possible to use it with gas and liquid phase deoxidizers. The catalyst used in the tests reported here is Ag(1wt%)-γAl2O3.
Technical Paper

Identification of Factors Influencing Premixed Diesel Engine Noise and Mechanism of Noise Reduction by EGR and Supercharging

To determine the engine noise reduction methods, an engine noise research was conducted experimentally with a PCCI diesel engine. The engine employed in the experiments was a supercharged, single-cylinder DI diesel engine with a high pressure common rail fuel injection system. The engine noise was sampled by two microphones and the sampled engine noise was averaged and analyzed by an FFT sound analyzer. The engine was equipped with a pressure transducer and the combustion noise was calculated from the power spectrum of the FFT analysis of the in-cylinder pressure wave form and the cross power spectrum of the sound pressure of the engine noise. It is well known that the maximum pressure rise rate is the main parameter related to the engine noise. The PCCI engine was operated at a 1.0 MPa/°CA maximum pressure rise rate to eliminate the effects of the maximum pressure rise rate, and parameters which had the dominant effect on engine noise and combustion noise were determined.
Technical Paper

HCCI Combustion Control by DME-Ethanol Binary Fuel and EGR

The HCCI engine offers the potential of low NOx emissions combined with diesel engine like high efficiency, however HCCI operation is restricted to low engine speeds and torques constrained by narrow noise (HCCI knocking) and misfiring limits. Gasoline like fuel vaporizes and mixes with air, but the mixture may auto-ignite at the same time, leading to heavy HCCI knocking. Retarding the CA50 (the crank angle of the 50% burn) is well known as a method to slow the maximum pressure rise rate and reduce HCCI knocking. The CA50 can be controlled by the fuel composition, for example, di-methyl ether (DME), which is easily synthesized from natural gas, has strong low temperature heat release (LTHR) characteristics and ethanol generates strong LTHR inhibitor effects. The utilization of DME-ethanol binary blended fuels has the potential to broaden the HCCI engine load-speed range.
Technical Paper

Visualization Analysis of Diesel Combustion with Water and Diesel Fuel Emulsified Blend in a Constant Volume Chamber Vessel

Diesel-like combustion of an emulsified blend of water and diesel fuel in a constant volume chamber vessel was visualized with high speed color video, further analyzing with a 2-D two color method and shadowgraph images. When the temperature at the fuel injection is 900 K, here while the combustion with unblended diesel fuel in the vessel is similar to ordinary diesel combustion with diffusive combustion, combustion with the emulsified fuel is similar to premixed diesel combustion with a large premixed combustion and very little diffusive combustion. With the emulsified fuel the flame luminosity and temperature are lower, the luminous flame and high temperature regions are smaller, and the duration of the luminous flame is shorter than with diesel fuel. This is due to promotion of premixing with increases in the ignition delay and decreases in the combustion temperature with the water vaporization.