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Technical Paper

Improving Fuel Economy for HD Diesel Engines with WHR Rankine Cycle Driven by EGR Cooler Heat Rejection

2009-10-06
2009-01-2913
The fuel saving benefit is analyzed for a class-8 truck diesel engine equipped with a WHR system, which recovers the waste heat from the EGR. With this EGR-WHR system, the composite fuel savings over the ESC 13-mode test is up to 5%. The fuel economy benefit can be further improved if the charge air cooling is also integrated in the Rankine cycle loop. The influence of working fluid properties on the WHR efficiency is studied by operating the Rankine cycle with two different working fluids, R245fa and ethanol. The two working fluids are compared in the temperature-entropy and enthalpy-entropy diagrams for both subcritical and supercritical cycles. For R245fa, the subcritical cycle shows advantages over the supercritical cycle. For ethanol, the supercritical cycle has better performance than the subcritical cycle. The comparison indicates that ethanol can be an alternative for R245fa.
Technical Paper

Practical Applications of Opposed-Piston Engine Technology to Reduce Fuel Consumption and Emissions

2013-11-27
2013-01-2754
Opposed-piston (OP) engines have attracted the interest of the automotive industry in recent years because of their potential for significantly improved fuel economy. Opposed-piston, two-stroke (OP2S) engine technology amplifies this fuel efficiency advantage and offers lower cost and weight due to fewer parts. While OP engines can help automotive manufacturers comply with current, and future, efficiency standards, there is still work required to prepare the engines for production. This work is mainly related to packaging and durability. At Achates Power, the OP2S technology is being developed for various applications such as commercial vehicles (heavy-and medium-duty), SUVs, pick-up trucks and passenger cars (i.e. light-duty), military vehicles, large ships and stationary power (generator sets). Included in this paper is a review of the previously published OP engine efficiency advantages (thermodynamics, combustion and air system) as well as the architecture's historical challenges.
Technical Paper

Opposed-Piston 2-Stroke Multi-Cylinder Engine Dynamometer Demonstration

2015-01-14
2015-26-0038
With mounting pressure on Indian manufacturers to meet future fuel economy and emissions mandates-including the recently passed Corporate Average Fuel Consumption (CAFC) standards for light-duty vehicles-many are evaluating new technologies. However, to provide an economically sustainable solution, these technologies must increase efficiency without increasing cost. One promising solution to meet both current, and future, standards is the opposed-piston engine. Widely used in the early 20th century for on-road applications, use of the opposed-piston engine waseventually discontinued due to challenges with emissions and oil control. But advancements in computer-aided engineering tools, combined with state-of-the-art engineering practices, has enabled Achates Power to develop a modern opposed-piston diesel engine architecture that is clean, significantly more fuel efficient and less expensive to manufacture than today's four-stroke engines.
Technical Paper

Modernizing the Opposed Piston, Two Stroke Engine for Clean, Efficient Transportation

2013-01-09
2013-26-0114
Opposed-piston (OP) engines were once widely used in ground and aviation applications and continue to be used today on ships. Offering both fuel efficiency and cost benefits over conventional, four-stroke engines, the OP architecture also features size and weight advantages. Despite these advantages, however, historical OP engines have struggled with emissions and oil consumption. Using modern technology, science and engineering, Achates Power has overcome these challenges. The result: an opposed-piston, two-stroke diesel engine design that provides a step-function improvement in brake thermal efficiency compared to conventional engines while meeting the most stringent, mandated emissions requirements.
Technical Paper

Achieving High Engine Efficiency for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines by Waste Heat Recovery Using Supercritical Organic-Fluid Rankine Cycle

2006-10-31
2006-01-3522
A supercritical organic Rankine cycle (ORC) system for recovery of waste heat from heavy-duty diesel engines is proposed. In this system, an organic, medium-boiling-point fluid is selected as the working fluid, which also serves as the coolant for the charge air cooler and the EGR coolers. Because the exhaust temperature can be as high as 650 °C during the DPF regeneration, an exhaust cooler is included in the system to recover some of the high level exhaust energy. In the present ORC system, the expansion work is conducted by a uniflow reciprocating expander, which simplifies the waste-heat-recovery (WHR) system significantly. This reciprocating Rankine engine is more appropriate for on-road-vehicle applications where the condition for waste heat is variable. The energy level of waste heat from a heavy-duty diesel engine is evaluated by the analyses of the first and second law of thermodynamics.
Journal Article

Achieving Bharat Stage VI Emissions Regulations While Improving Fuel Economy with the Opposed-Piston Engine

2017-01-10
2017-26-0056
The government of India has decided to implement Bharat Stage VI (BS-VI) emissions standards from April 2020. This requires OEMs to equip their diesel engines with costly after-treatment, EGR systems and higher rail pressure fuel systems. By one estimate, BS-VI engines are expected to be 15 to 20% more expensive than BS-IV engines, while also suffering with 2 to 3 % lower fuel economy. OEMs are looking for solutions to meet the BS-VI emissions standards while still keeping the upfront and operating costs low enough for their products to attract customers; however traditional engine technologies seem to have exhausted the possibilities. Fuel economy improvement technologies applied to traditional 4-stroke engines bring small benefits with large cost penalties. One promising solution to meet both current, and future, emissions standards with much improved fuel economy at lower cost is the Opposed Piston (OP) engine.
Journal Article

The Achates Power Opposed-Piston Two-Stroke Engine: Performance and Emissions Results in a Medium-Duty Application

2011-09-13
2011-01-2221
Historically, the opposed-piston two-stroke diesel engine set combined records for fuel efficiency and power density that have yet to be met by any other engine type. In the latter half of the twentieth century, the advent of modern emissions regulations stopped the wide-spread development of two-stroke engine for on-highway use. At Achates Power, modern analytical tools, materials, and engineering methods have been applied to the development process of an opposed-piston two-stroke engine, resulting in an engine design that has demonstrated a 15.5% fuel consumption improvement compared to a state-of-the-art 2010 medium-duty diesel engine at similar engine-out emissions levels. Furthermore, oil consumption has been measured to be less than 0.1% of fuel over the majority of the operating range. Additional benefits of the opposed-piston two-stroke diesel engine over a conventional four-stroke design are a reduced parts count and lower cost.
Technical Paper

Meeting Stringent 2025 Emissions and Fuel Efficiency Regulations with an Opposed-Piston, Light-Duty Diesel Engine

2014-04-01
2014-01-1187
With current and pending regulations-including Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) 2025 and Tier 3 or LEV III-automakers are under tremendous pressure to reduce fuel consumption while meeting more stringent NOx, PM, HC and CO standards. To meet these standards, many are investing in expensive technologies-to enhance conventional, four-stroke powertrains-and in significant vehicle improvements. However, others are evaluating alternative concepts like the opposed-piston, two-stroke engine. First manufactured in the 1890s-and once widely used for ground, marine and aviation applications-the historic opposed-piston, two-stroke (OP2S) engine suffered from poor emissions and oil control. This meant that its use in on-highway applications ceased with the passage of modern emissions standards.
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