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Technical Paper

Objective Metrics of Fuel Economy, Performance and Driveability - A Review

2004-03-08
2004-01-1338
Fuel economy, performance and driveability are three important subjects for evaluating vehicle performance. Evaluations in both simulations and real vehicles prefer objective and quantitative measures. Subjective and descriptive metrics cannot be easily implemented in simulations, and these evaluations vary with changing time or evaluators. Fuel economy is usually estimated under various city, highway and some other user-defined driving cycles. Performance criteria consist of acceleration/deceleration performance, gradeability and towing capability. Driveability measures deal with pedal responsiveness, operating smoothness and driving comfort. This includes interior noise level, jerk and acceleration parameters. Numerical references and some interpretations of the above metrics are presented in this paper, as well as how these metrics can be used to evaluate vehicle powertrain design and control strategy development.
Technical Paper

Simulation-Based Hybrid-Electric Vehicle Design Search

1999-03-01
1999-01-1150
A computer simulation has been developed that models conventional, electric, and hybrid drivetrains. The vehicle's performance is predicted for a given driving cycle, such as the Federal Urban Driving Schedule (FUDS). This computer simulation was used in a massive designspace exploration to simulate 1.8 million different vehicles, including conventional, electric, and hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs). This paper gives a description of the vehicle simulator as well as the results and implications of the large design-space exploration.
Technical Paper

Optimizing Battery Cooling System for a Range Extended Electric Truck

2019-04-02
2019-01-0158
Battery packs used in electrified automotive powertrains support heavy electrical loads resulting in significant heat generation within them. Cooling systems are used to regulate the battery pack temperatures, helping to slow down battery aging. Vehicle-level energy consumption simulations serve as a first step for determining the specifications of a battery cooling system based on the duty cycle and interactions with the rest of the powertrain. This paper presents the development of a battery model that takes into account the energy impact of heating in the battery and demonstrates its use in a vehicle-level energy consumption simulator to set the specifications of a suitable cooling system for a vehicle application. The vehicle application used in this paper is a Class 6 Pickup and Delivery commercial vehicle with a Range-Extended Electric Vehicle (REEV) powertrain configuration.
Technical Paper

An Application of Crabon Canister Modeling to Air Fuel Ratio Control and Idle By-Pass Control

1999-03-01
1999-01-1093
Due to the stringent emission regulations, On-Board Diagnostics II (OBD II) and the requirement of enhanced evaporative emissions test procedure, an aggressive canister purge control strategy is required for automotive vehicles. The enhanced evaporative emissions test procedure has forced car manufacturer to purge the carbon canister in the vehicle idle condition so that production vehicles meet the SHED and hot soak test requirements. This not only worsens the idle speed quality but also tends to increase exhaust emission levels. Using analytical models of evaporative air and fuel, feed-forward control strategy for both idle by-pass air and air to fuel ratio can be improved. This paper demonstrates an application of evaporative system modeling to the idle air and air to fuel ratio control.
Technical Paper

Model-Based Component Fault Detection and Isolation in the Air-Intake System of an SI Engine Using the Statistical Local Approach

2003-03-03
2003-01-1057
The stochastic Fault Detection and Isolation (FDI) algorithm, known as the statistical local approach, is applied in a model-based framework to the diagnosis of component faults in the air-intake system of an automotive engine. The FDI scheme is first presented as a general methodology that permits the detection of faults in complex nonlinear systems without the need for building inverse models or numerous observers. Although sensor and actuator faults can be detected by this FDI methodology, component faults are generally more difficult to diagnose. Hence, this paper focuses on the detection and isolation of component faults for which the local approach is especially suitable. The challenge is to provide robust on-board diagnostics regardless of the inherent nonlinearities in a system and the random noise present.
Technical Paper

Design Optimization of Heavy Vehicles by Dynamic Simulations

2002-11-18
2002-01-3061
Building and testing of physical prototypes for optimization purposes consume significant amount of time, manpower and financial resources. Mathematical formulation and solution of vehicle multibody dynamics equations are also not feasible because of the massive size of the problem. This paper proposes a methodology for vehicle design optimization that does not involve physical prototyping or exhaustive mathematics. The proposed method is fast, cost effective and saves considerable manpower. The methodology uses an industry acknowledged multibody dynamics simulation software (ADAMS) and a flexible architecture to explore large design spaces.
Technical Paper

Model-Based Fault Diagnosis of Spark-Ignition Direct-Injection Engine Using Nonlinear Estimations

2005-04-11
2005-01-0071
In this paper, the detection and isolation of actuator faults (both measured and commanded) occurring in the engine breathing and the fueling systems of a spark-ignition direct-injection (SIDI) engine are described. The breathing system in an SIDI engine usually consists of a fresh air induction path via an electronically controlled throttle (ECT) and an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) path via an EGR valve. They are dynamically coupled through the intake manifold to form a gas mixture, which eventually enters the engine cylinders for a subsequent combustion process. Meanwhile, the fueling system is equipped with a high-pressure common-rail injection for a precise control of the fuel quantity directly injected into the engine cylinders. Since the coupled system is highly nonlinear in nature, the fault diagnosis will be performed by generating residuals based on multiple nonlinear observers.
Technical Paper

Intelligent Control of Hybrid Vehicles Using Neural Networks and Fuzzy Logic

1998-02-23
981061
This paper discusses the use of intelligent control techniques for the control of a parallel hybrid electric vehicle powertrain. Artificial neural networks and fuzzy logic are used to implement a load leveling strategy. The resulting vehicle control unit, a supervisory controller, coordinates the powertrain components. The presented controller has the ability to adapt to different drivers and driving cycles. This allows a control strategy which includes both fuel-economy and performance modes. The strategy was implemented on the Ohio State University FutureCar.
Technical Paper

A Fuzzy Decision-Making System for Automotive Application

1998-02-23
980519
Fault diagnosis for automotive systems is driven by government regulations, vehicle repairability, and customer satisfaction. Several methods have been developed to detect and isolate faults in automotive systems, subsystems and components with special emphasis on those faults that affect the exhaust gas emission levels. Limit checks, model-based, and knowledge-based methods are applied for diagnosing malfunctions in emission control systems. Incipient and partial faults may be hard to detect when using a detection scheme that implements any of the previously mentioned methods individually; the integration of model-based and knowledge-based diagnostic methods may provide a more robust approach. In the present paper, use is made of fuzzy residual evaluation and of a fuzzy expert system to improve the performance of a fault detection method based on a mathematical model of the engine.
Technical Paper

Onboard Diagnosis of Engine Misfires

1990-09-01
901768
The integrity of the exhaust emission system in a passenger vehicle can best be maintained by monitoring its performance continuously on board the vehicle. It is with the intent of monitoring emission system performance that the California Air Resources Board has proposed regulations which will require vehicles to be equipped with on-board monitoring systems. These proposed regulations are known as OBDII and will probably be followed by similar Federal EPA regulations.This paper discusses a method of monitoring engine misfire as part of the OBDII requirements for passenger vehicle on-board diagnostics. The method is relatively inexpensive in that it uses an existing sensor for measuring instantaneous crankshaft angular position, and utilizes electronic signal processing which can be implemented in relatively inexpensive custom integrated circuits.
Technical Paper

The Impact of Worn Shocks on Vehicle Handling and Stability

2006-04-03
2006-01-0563
The intent of this research is to understand the effects worn dampers have on vehicle stability and safety through dynamic model simulation. Dampers, an integral component of a vehicle's suspension system, play an important role in isolating road disturbances from the driver by controlling the motions of the sprung and unsprung masses. This paper will show that a decrease in damping leads to excessive body motions and a potentially unstable vehicle. The concept of poor damping affecting vehicle stability is well established through linear models. The next step is to extend this concept for non-linear models. This is accomplished through creating a vehicle simulation model and executing several driving maneuvers with various damper characteristics. The damper models used in this study are based on splines representing peak force versus velocity relationships.
Technical Paper

Development and Application of Military Wheeled Vehicle Driving Cycle Generator

2005-11-01
2005-01-3560
A methodology has been developed to generate military vehicle driving cycles for use in vehicle simulation models. This methodology is based upon the mission profile for a vehicle, which is typically given within a vehicle's specifications and lists the types of terrains that the vehicle is likely to encounter. A simplistic vehicle powertrain and road load model and the Bekker vehicle-soil interaction model are used to estimate the vehicle performance over each type of terrain. Two types of driving cycles are generated within a Graphical User Interface developed within MATLAB using the results of the vehicle models: Linear modes driving cycles, and Real-world driving cycles.
Technical Paper

Cleaner Diesel Using Model-Based Design and Advanced Aftertreatment in a Student Competition Vehicle

2008-04-14
2008-01-0868
Traditionally in the United States, Diesel engines have negative connotations, primarily due to their association with heavy duty trucks, which are wrongly characterized as “dirty.” Diesel engines are more energy efficient and produce less carbon dioxide than gasoline engines, but their particulate and NOx emissions are more difficult to reduce than spark ignition engines. To tackle this problem, a number of after-treatment technologies are available, such as Diesel Lean NOx Traps (LNTs)), which reduces oxides of nitrogen, and the Diesel particulate filter (DPF), which reduces particulate matter. Sophisticated control techniques are at the heart of these technologies, thus making Diesel engines run cleaner. Another potentially unattractive aspect of Diesel engines is noise.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Engine Misfire on Exhaust Emission Levels in Spark Ignition Engines

1995-02-01
950480
One of the gray areas in the implementation of regulations limiting the generation of pollutants from mobile sources is the actual effectiveness of the exhaust gas emissions control strategy in vehicles that have been in use for some time. While it is possible today to conduct limited diagnostics with the on-board engine computer by performing periodic checks to verify the validity of the signals measured by the on-board sensors, and to measure tailpipe emissions during routine inspection and maintenance, the task of correlating these measurements with each other to provide an on-line, accurate diagnosis of critical malfunctions has thus far proven to be a very challenging task, especially in the case of misfire.
Technical Paper

Improved Knock Detection by Advanced Signal Processing

1995-02-01
950845
Engine knock has been recognized as a major problem limiting the development of fuel efficient spark-ignition engines. Detection methods employed in current knock control systems for spark ignition engines use a measurement of engine block vibration tuned to one or more resonance frequencies to extract knock-related information from the engine structural vibration. A major problem in the detection of knock (especially at higher engine speed) in commercial engines is the isolation of the desired signal from the contributions of the components other than those associated with the phenomenon under investigation. This is generally referred to as background noise. It is known that the engine knock resonance frequencies vary due to changes in combustion chamber volume and temperature during the expansion phase. Therefore, we propose an improved knock detection method using joint time-frequency analysis of engine block vibration and pressure signals.
Technical Paper

Methods for Internal Combustion Engine Feedback Control During Cold-Start

1995-02-01
950842
Legislation pertaining to automobile emissions has caused an increased focus on the cold-start performance of internal combustion engines. Of particular concern is the period of time before all available sensors become active. Present engine control strategies must rely on methods other than feedback control while these sensors are not active. Without feedback control during this critical period, engine emissions performance is not optimized. These conditions cause difficulty in performing comprehensive cold-start experiments. For these reasons, we have developed several methods for feedback control during cold-start to aid in laboratory investigations of engine emissions phenomena.
Technical Paper

On-Line Estimation of Indicated Torque in IC Engines Using Nonlinear Observers

1995-02-01
950840
An approach to fault diagnosis for internal combustion engines is considered. It is based on the estimation of cylinder indicated torque by means of sliding mode observers. Instead of measuring indicated pressure in cylinders directly, crankshaft speed is measured as the input of observers, which estimate the indicated torque. Several engine models are considered with different levels of complexity. The indicated torque estimation using sliding mode observers is based on the equivalent control method. The estimation technique is validated experimently on a research engine.
Technical Paper

Detection of Partial Misfire in IC Engines Using a Measurement of Crankshaft Angular Velocity

1995-02-01
951070
In recent years considerable interest has been placed on the detection of engine misfire. As part of the California Air Resources Board on-board diagnostics regulations for 1994 model year vehicles, misfire should be monitored continuously by the engine diagnostic system. It is expected that the next generation of on-board diagnostics regulations will demand monitoring of partial misfire as well. Several solutions to the misfire detection problem have been proposed and demonstrated for the detection of complete misfires. However, the performance of these methods in the presence of partial misfire is not altogether clear. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the performance of various misfire detection indices, all based on a measurement of crankshaft angular velocity, in the presence of partial misfire. The proposed algorithms are compared to a standard based on a measurement of indicated pressure.
Technical Paper

AFR Control on a Single Cylinder Engine Using the Ionization Current

1998-02-23
980203
Over the years numerous researchers have suggested that the ionization current signal carries within it combustion relevant information. The possibility of using this signal for diagnostics and control provides motivation for continued research in this area. To be able to use the ion current signal for feedback control a reliable estimate of some combustion related parameter is necessary and therein lies the difficulty. Given the nature of the ion current signal this is not a trivial task. Fei An et al. [1] employed PCA for feature extraction and then used these feature vectors to design a neural network based classifier for the estimation of air to fuel ratio (AFR). Although the classifier predicted AFR with sufficient reliability, a major draw back was that the ion current signals used for prediction were averaged signals thus precluding a cycle to cycle estimate of AFR.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Various Engine Control System Malfunctions on Exhaust Emissions Levels During the EPA I/M 240 Cycle

1994-03-01
940448
Ensuring the reliable operation of the emissions control system is a critical factor in complying with increasingly stringent exhaust emissions standards. In spite of significant advances, the performance of available diagnostic and test equipment is still amenable to further improvement, especially as it pertains to the diagnosis of incipient and intermittent faults. This paper presents experimental results pertaining to the diagnosis of complete, partial and intermittent faults in various components of the engine emissions control system. The instrumentation used in the study permitted simultaneous and essentially continuous analysis of the exhaust gases and of engine variables. Tests were conducted using a section of the EPA urban driving cycle (I/M 240), simulated by means of a throttle/dynamometer controller.
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