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Technical Paper

The Influence of an Oil Recycler on Emissions with Oil Age for a Refuse Truck Using in Service Testing

2001-03-05
2001-01-0623
A method of cleaning lubricating oil on line was investigated using a fine bypass particulate filter followed by an infra red heater. Two bypass filter sizes of 6 and 1 micron were investigated, both filter sizes were effective but the one micron filter had the greatest benefit. This was tested on two nominally identical EURO 1 emissions compliance refuse trucks, fitted with Perkins Phazer 210Ti 6 litre turbocharged intercooled engines and coded as RT320 and RT321. These vehicles had emissions characteristics that were significantly different, in spite of their similar age and total mileage. RT321 showed an apparent heavier black smoke than RT320. Comparison was made with the emissions on the same vehicles and engines with and without the on-line bypass oil recycler. Engine exhaust emissions were measured about every 400 miles. Both vehicles started the test with an oil drain and fresh lubricating oil.
Technical Paper

Improvements in Lubricating Oil Quality by an On Line Oil Recycler for a Refuse Truck Using in Service Testing

2001-03-05
2001-01-0699
A method of cleaning lubricating oil on line was investigated using a fine bypass particulate filter followed by an infra red heater. Two bypass filter sizes of 6 and 1 micron were investigated, both filter sizes were effective but the one micron filter had the greatest benefit. This was tested on two nominally identical EURO 1 emissions compliance refuse trucks, fitted with Perkins Phazer 210Ti 6 litre turbocharged intercooled engines and coded as RT320 and RT321. These vehicles had lubricating oil deterioration and emissions characteristics that were significantly different, in spite of their similar age and total mileage. RT321 showed an apparent heavier black smoke than RT320. Comparison was made with the oil quality and fuel and lubricating oil consumption on the same vehicles and engines with and without the on-line bypass oil recycler. Engine oils were sampled and analysed about every 400 miles. Both vehicles started the test with an oil drain and fresh lubricating oil.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Exhaust Pipe, Dilution Tunnel and Roadside Diesel Particulate SOF and Gaseous Hydrocarbon Emissions

1988-02-01
880351
The solvent organic fraction (SOF) of particulates from the exhaust pipe of a diesel engine, a dilution tunnel and a roadside sample are compared. Three different techniques of SOF analysis are also compared, vacuum oven, solvent extraction and pyroprobe/GC. Gaseous hydrocarbons and the methane contribution were measured in the exhaust pipe throughout the speed and load range of the engine at 185 C and 2 C. The unburnt hydrocarbons decreased with air/fuel ratio for all speeds and there was an overall decrease in emissions with increasing speed. The differential temperature technique showed the maximum mass of hydrocarbon which could condense from the gas phase onto the particulate as the SOF. The method compared well with the actual SOF of the tunnel particulate.
Technical Paper

The Role of Lubricating Oil in Diesel Particulate and Particulate PAH Emissions

1987-11-01
872084
The role of lubricating oil in total particulate emmissions and in terms of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAC) associated with the solvent organic fraction (SOF) of the particulate are investigated. Analysis of unused lubricating oil shows negligible concentrations of PAC. Used lubricating oil from a modified Perkins 4.236 Diesel engine, showed significant concentrations of PAC had accumulated in the oil in the form of PAC from unburnt fuel. Analysis of the oil was by gas chromatography using simultaneous parallel triple detection, allowing analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), nitrogen containing PAH (PANH) and sulphur containing PAH (PASH). Motoring the engine in the absence of fuel enabled the contribution of lubricating oil to the exhaust particulate and particulate PAC emission to be determined.
Technical Paper

The Aging of Lubricating Oil, The Influence of Unburnt Fuel and Particulate SOF Contamination

1987-11-01
872085
The role of lubricating oil as a sink for polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAC) and alkanes derived from unburnt fuel is described for two different oils used in two different DI diesel engines. The diesel engines used were, an older technology Petter AV1 single cylinder mine pumping engine and a Perkins 4.236 current technology engine. Analysis of the oil was by gas chromatography using simultaneous parallel triple detection, allowing analysis of hydrocarbons and nitrogen and sulphur containing compounds. Analysis of unused lubricating oil showed negligible concentrations of PAC and low molecular weight alkanes (< C20). The oil from each engine was analysed periodically during use and showed a rapid and significant accumulation of hydrocarbons which reached significant concentrations after only 10 hours use. The older technology engine showed a much higher accumulation rate.
Technical Paper

The Influence Of Diesel Fuel Composition On Particulate PAH Emissions

1989-09-01
892079
The objective was to investigate PAH emissions in diesel particulates using two diesel fuels with different PAH content. Class A2 diesel from two different refinery sources were analysed for PAH and there were significant difference in the concentration of the 3 and 4 ring PAH of importance in particulate PAH emissions. One fuel had at least 20 times the benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) of the other. A mass balance between the fuel PAH input to the engine and the particulate PAH emissions was carried out. A similar mass balance was also carried out between the equivalent boiling point n-alkane fuel and particulate SOF, which determined how that distillation fraction of the fuel behaved in the engine. One of the fuels had a higher survivability of high MW n-alkanes and this was also reflected in the PAH emissions. The fuel with high BaP had BaP emissions entirely consistent with an unburned fuel source.
Technical Paper

Diesel Fuel Dilution and Particulate Absorption Contamination in Used Lubricating Oil

1989-09-01
892080
Lubricating oil taken from the sump of a direct injection diesel engine has been analysed for the concentration of hydrocarbon contamination over a period of time. The oil was filtered and the sediment SOF analysed together with the filtrate. The results showed that there was an increase in the contamination in the used oil for both the filtrate and sediment hydrocarbon contamination. The carbon number distribution of the filtrate and sediment SOF were different. The filtrate representing contamination of the oil by fuel dilution and the sediment SOF contamination by particulates adsorbed into the oil in the combustion chamber. The highest contribution to the hydrocarbon contamination of the oil was from the filtrate in the early ageing period with an increasing contribution from the SOF of the sediment.
Technical Paper

The influence of PAH contamination of Lubricating Oil on Diesel Particulate PAH Emissions

1989-02-01
890825
The influence of contamination of lubricating oil on the emissions of total particulate, particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and unburnt fuel and gaseous emissions have been investigated for a modified Perkins 4.236 D.I. diesel engine. The emissions during fuel firing and motoring in the absence of fuel are compared. The results showed that the exhaust particulate during both firing and motoring were not affected by lubricating oil contamination. Emission of PAH during fuel firing and motoring increase with oil contamination which in turn reflects the build up of PAH with oil age. Some of the particulate PAH are biologically active. The contribution of oil derived PAH increase with age. Comparison of the gaseous emissions during fuel firing and during motoring also showed an increase in UHC with age of lubricating oil.
Technical Paper

Driver Variability Influences on Real World Emissions at a Road Junction using a PEMS

2010-04-12
2010-01-1072
A Euro 2 SI (Spark Ignition) Mondeo was investigated for a fully warmed-up vehicle on a simple urban driving loop. Emissions were monitored using an on-board Horiba OBS (On-Board emission measurement System) 1300. 10 laps of a 0.6 km loop were driven by each driver and this involved 4 junctions per lap. Statistical analysis of 20 drivers was made over 27 repeat junction events for each driver. The statistical analysis of the data showed that for all drivers the CO₂, speed and throttle position were more typical Gaussian in their distribution. NOx and CO on the other hand were lognormal in their distribution. Acceleration, positive and negative throttle jerks (rate of change of throttle angle) were borderline Gaussian. HC (Hydrocarbon) emissions were not Gaussian and there was some evidence for a gamma distribution and for a lognormal distribution. Comparison of mean HC emissions between the drivers was therefore not reliable.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Real World Emissions in Urban Driving for Euro 1-4 Vehicles Using a PEMS

2009-04-20
2009-01-0941
An on-board emission measurement system (PEMS), the Horiba OBS 1300, was installed in Euro 1-4 SI cars of the same model to investigate the impact of vehicle technology on exhaust emissions, under urban driving conditions with a fully warmed-up catalyst. A typical urban driving loop cycle was used with no traffic loading so that driver behavior without the influence of other traffic could be investigated. The results showed that under real world driving conditions the NOx emissions exceeded the legislated values and only at cruise was the NOx emissions below the legislated value. The higher NOx emissions during real-world driving have implications for higher urban Ozone formation. With the exception of the old EURO1 vehicle, HC and CO emissions were under control for all the vehicles, as these are dominated by cold start issues, which were not included in this investigation.
Technical Paper

Impact of Ambient Temperatures on VOC Emissions and OFP during Cold Start for SI Car Real World Urban Driving

2009-06-15
2009-01-1865
New EU environmental law requires 31 ozone precursor VOCs (Volatile Organic Compounds) to be measured for urban air quality control. In this study, 23 out of the 31 ozone precursor VOCs were measured at a rate of 0.5 HZ by an in-vehicle FTIR (Fourier Transform InfraRed) emission measurement system along with 15 other VOCs. The vehicle used was a EURO2 emission compliant SI car. The test vehicle was driven under real world urban driving conditions on the same route by the same driver on different days at different ambient temperatures. All the journeys were started from cold. The VOC emissions and OFP (Ozone Formation Potential) as a function of engine warm up and ambient temperatures during cold start were investigated. The exhaust temperatures were measured along with the exhaust emissions. The temperature and duration of light off of the catalyst for VOCs was monitored.
Technical Paper

Diesel Cold Start into Congested Real World Traffic: Comparison of Diesel and B100 for Ozone Forming Potential

2013-04-08
2013-01-1145
EU environmental law requires 30 ozone precursor volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to be measured for urban air quality control. In this study, 28 ozone precursor VOCs were measured at a rate of 0.5 Hz by an in-vehicle FTIR emission measurement system along with other VOCs. The vehicle used was a Euro 3 emission compliant diesel van. The test vehicle was started from a cold ambient temperature soak and driven under real world urban driving conditions. Diesel and B100 (100% Biodiesel) were compared using the same repeat journeys. The VOC emissions and OFP (ozone formation potential) were investigated as a function of engine warm up and ambient temperatures during cold start. The exhaust temperatures were measured along with the exhaust emissions. The temperature and duration of light off of the catalyst for VOC were monitored and showed a cold start period to catalyst light off that was considerably longer than would occur on the NEDC (New European Driving Cycle).
Technical Paper

Real World Diesel Engine Greenhouse Gas Emissions for Diesel Fuel and B100

2013-04-08
2013-01-1514
The transport sector is one of the major contributors to greenhouse gas emissions. This study investigated three greenhouse gases emitted from road transport using a probe vehicle: CO₂, N₂O and CH₄ emissions as a function temperature. It should be highlighted that methane is a greenhouse gas that similarly to carbon dioxide contributes to global warming and climate change. An oxidation catalyst was used to investigate CO₂, N₂O and CH₄ GHG emissions over a real-world driving cycle that included urban congested traffic and extra-urban driving conditions. The results were determined under hot start conditions, but in congested traffic the catalyst cooled below its light-off temperature and this resulted in considerable N₂O emissions as the oxidation catalyst temperature was in the N₂O formation band. This showed higher N₂O during hot start than for diesel fuel and B100 were compared. The B100 fuel was Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME), derived from waste cooking oil, which was mainly RME.
Technical Paper

Reduction of Exhaust Emissions by a Synthetic Lubricating Oil with Higher Viscosity Grade and Optimized Additive Package for a Heavy Duty DI Diesel Engine Test

2008-10-06
2008-01-2489
A 10W-50 G4 synthetic lubricating oil (EULUBE oil) was tested on a heavy duty DI diesel engine under two steady state conditions. The exhaust emissions were measured and compared to a 10W-30 CF semi-synthetic lubricating oil. The EULUBE oil contained the friction reduction additive to improve the fuel economy. The engine used was a 6 cylinder, turbocharged, intercooled Perkins Phaser Engine, with emission compliance of EURO 2, fitted with an oxidation catalyst. The exhaust samples were taken both upstream and downstream of the catalyst. Gaseous and particulates emissions were measured. Particulate size distribution was measured using ELPI and SMPS. The particulate samples were analysed for VOF, carbon and ash. A MEXA7100 gas analysis system was used for legislated gas analysis such as CO, CO2, NOx and total hydrocarbons. The results showed a significant reduction by synthetic lubricating oil in gaseous hydrocarbon emissions, total particulate mass, particulate carbon and ash.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Lubricating Oil Age on Oil Quality and Emissions from IDI Passenger Car Diesels

1999-03-01
1999-01-1135
Two Ford IDI passenger car diesel engines, 1.6 and 1.8 litres, were tested over a 100 hour lube oil ageing period with engine out emission samples every 15 hours. The 1.6 litre engine was tested with 5% EGR and the 1.8 litre engine with 15% EGR. Comparison was also made with previous work using an older Petter AA1 engine. The three engines had different dependencies of particulate emissions on the lube oil age. The 1.6 litre engine increased the particulates from 1 to 2.5 g/kg of fuel, whereas the 1.8 litre engine first decreased the particulate emissions from 3 to 1 g/kg over 50 hours of oil age and then they increased to 2 g/kg at 100 hours. This was similar to the previous work on the Petter AA1 engine, where the emissions first decreased and then increased as the oil aged. For the 1.8 litre engine the lube oil fraction of the VOF was high with fresh oil and decreased with time for the first 50 hours and then remained steady.
Technical Paper

The Composition of Spark Ignition Engine Steady State Particulate Emissions

1999-03-01
1999-01-1143
The contribution of spark ignition engine particulate emissions to total particulate emissions and the published data on SI engine emission levels are reviewed. There is a wide spread of published data and the worst SI engines would exceed the future diesel particulate emissions regulations. However, most modern SI engines with a catalyst will easily meet the future diesel particulate emissions regulations, although their particulates emissions are a significant fraction of these regulations. Steady state lambda 1 results are presented for a Ford Zetec SI engine at conditions representative of the urban driving cycle at 5 and 10kW power output and also at WOT. The impact of a cold start and EGR at the two low power conditions was also investigated. The particulate emissions for petrol were of the order of 5% of the future (2005) diesel emissions regulations and were approximately 20 mg/kg fuel (about 2 mg/mile or 1.3 mg/km).
Technical Paper

The Influence of an On Line Heated Lubricating Oil Recycler on Emissions from an IDI Passenger Car Diesel as a Function of Oil Age

2000-03-06
2000-01-0232
A method of cleaning diesel engine lubricating oil on-line was investigated using a bypass fine particulate filter followed by an infra-red heater to remove water vapour and light diesel fractions in the oil. The impact of this oil recycler on the gaseous and particulate emissions was investigated over a 300 hour oil age period. A Ford 1.8 litre IDI passenger car diesel engine was used with engine out emission sampled every 15-20 hours. The tests were carried out at 2500rpm (52% of the maximum speed) and 12.3 kW with 47 Nm load (43% of the maximum load and 29% of the maximum power). The EGR level at this condition was 15%. A stop start test cycle was used with a cold start each time and a typical test period of 2-3 hours. The results showed that the recycler had its greatest influence on emissions for fresh oil when there was a large reduction in particulate emissions due mainly to large reductions in the ash, carbon and unburned lubricating oil fractions.
Technical Paper

The Use of a Water/Lube Oil Heat Exchanger and Enhanced Cooling Water Heating to Increase Water and Lube Oil Heating Rates in Passenger Cars for Reduced Fuel Consumption and CO2 Emissions During Cold Start.

2007-07-23
2007-01-2067
Lubricating oil takes all of the NEDC test cycle time to reach 90°C. Hence, this gives high friction losses throughout the test cycle, which leads to a significant increase in the fuel consumption. In real world driving, particularly in congested traffic, it is shown that lube oil warm-up is even slower than in the NEDC. Euro 1, 2 and 4 Ford Mondeo water and oil warm up rates in real world urban driving were determined and shown to be comparable with the results of Kunze et al. (2) for a BMW on the NEDC. This paper explores the use of forced convective heat exchange between the cooling water and the lube oil during the warm-up period. A technique of a step warm-up of the engine at 32 Nm at 2000 rpm (35% of peak power) was used and the engine lube oil and water temperature monitored. It was shown that the heat exchanger results in an increase in lube oil temperature by 4°C, which increased to 10°C if enhanced heat transfer to the water was used from an exhaust port heat exchanger.
Technical Paper

Study of the Emissions Generated at Intersections for a SI Car under Real World Urban Driving Conditions

2006-04-03
2006-01-1080
A precision in-vehicle tail-pipe emission measurement system was installed in a EURO1 emissions compliant SI car and used to investigate the variability in tail-pipe emission generation at an urban traffic junction. Exhaust gas and skin temperatures were also measured along the exhaust pipe of the instrumented vehicle, so the thermal characteristics and the efficiency of the catalyst monitored could be included in the analysis. Different turning movements (driving patterns) at the priority T-junction were investigated such as straight, left and right turns with and without stops. The test car was hot stable running conditions before each test, thereby negating cold start effects. To demonstrate the influence of the junction on tail-pipe emissions and fuel consumption, distance based factors were determined that compared the intersection drive-through measurements with steady speed (state) runs. Fuel consumption was increased at intersections by a factor of 1.3∼5.9.
Technical Paper

Condensable and Gaseous Hydrocarbon Emissions and Their Speciation for a Real World SI Car Test

2007-01-23
2007-01-0062
Condensable and gaseous hydrocarbon emissions and speciation of the hydrocarbons have been investigated using a EURO1 emissions compliant SI (Spark Ignition) car. Exhaust gas samples were simultaneously collected upstream and downstream of the catalyst using a system containing cold ice trap, resin, particulate filter block and Teflon gas sampling bag. GC (Gas Chromatography) was employed to analyze for hydrocarbons and 16 of the more significant hydrocarbons are reported. The test was carried out using both cold start and hot start driving cycles. Results show that the benzene and toluene were major species emitted from the tailpipe under cold start conditions. Methylnaphthalene was a dominated hydrocarbon under hot start conditions. The cold start had significant influence on hydrocarbon emissions. The catalyst out benzene emissions for cold start was thirty times higher than that for hot start.
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