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Technical Paper

Effects of Average Driving Cycle Speed on Lean-Burn Natural Gas Bus Emissions and Fuel Economy

2007-01-23
2007-01-0054
Although diesel engines still power most of the heavy-duty transit buses in the United States, many major cities are also operating fleets where a significant percentage of buses is powered by lean-burn natural gas engines. Emissions from these buses are often expressed in distance-specific units of grams per mile (g/mile) or grams per kilometer (g/km), but the driving cycle or route employed during emissions measurement has a strong influence on the reported results. A driving cycle that demands less energy per unit distance than others results in higher fuel economy and lower distance-specific oxides of nitrogen emissions. In addition to energy per unit distance, the degree to which the driving cycle is transient in nature can also affect emissions.
Technical Paper

Parametric Study of 2007 Standard Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Particulate Matter Sampling System

2007-01-23
2007-01-0060
Heavy-Duty Diesel (HDD) engines' particulate matter (PM) emissions are most often measured quantitatively by weighing filters that collect diluted exhaust samples pre- and post-test. PM sampling systems that dilute exhaust gas and collect PM samples have different effects on measured PM data. Those effects usually contribute to inter-laboratory variance. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)'s 2007 PM emission measurement regulations for the test of HDD engines should reduce variability, but must also cope with PM mass that is an order of magnitude lower than legacy engine testing. To support the design of a 2007 US standard HDD PM emission sampling system, a parametric study based on a systematic Simulink® model was performed. This model acted as an auxiliary design tool when setting up a new 2007 HDD PM emission sampling system in a heavy-duty test cell at West Virginia University (WVU). It was also designed to provide assistance in post-test data processing.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Methods for Determining Continuous Particulate Matter from Transient Testing of Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines

2001-09-24
2001-01-3575
The historical lack of continuous data for PM emissions from heavy-duty diesel engines hampers advanced inventory approaches and hampers second-by-second engine control optimization. Continuos PM data can be obtained using a Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalance (TEOM), but moisture correction of data is needed to remove unwanted transient components of the mass. Reasonable correlation can be found between TEOM data integrated over the cycle and conventional PM filter data. Considerable scatter was evident when continuous TEOM data were plotted against instantaneous power, but by dispersing the power in time a clearer relationship was evident. Continuous TEOM data showed the same gross trends as PM filter mass distributed over a cycle in proportion to instantaneous CO, but it was evident that this CO proportioning technique is at best approximate. Binning of PM mass rate as a function of vehicle speed and acceleration were also evaluated for inventory purposes.
Technical Paper

Neural Network Modeling of Emissions from Medium-Duty Vehicles Operating on Fisher-Tropsch Synthetic Fuel

2007-04-16
2007-01-1080
West Virginia University has conducted research to characterize the emissions from medium-duty vehicles operating on Fischer-Tropsch synthetic gas-to-liquid compression ignition fuel. The West Virginia University Transportable Heavy Vehicle Emissions Testing Laboratory was used to collect data for gaseous emissions (carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, and total hydrocarbon) while the vehicles were exercised through a representative driving schedule, the New York City Bus Cycle (NYCB). Artificial neural networks were used to model emissions to enhance the capabilities of computer-based vehicle operation simulators. This modeling process is presented in this paper. Vehicle velocity, acceleration, torque at rear axel, and exhaust temperature were used as inputs to the neural networks. For each of the four gaseous emissions considered, one set of training data and one set of validating data were used, both based on the New York City Bus Cycle.
Technical Paper

Weight Effect on Emissions and Fuel Consumption from Diesel and Lean-Burn Natural Gas Transit Buses

2007-08-05
2007-01-3626
Transit agencies across the United States operate bus fleets primarily powered by diesel, natural gas, and hybrid drive systems. Passenger loading affects the power demanded from the engine, which in turn affects distance-specific emissions and fuel consumption. Analysis shows that the nature of bus activity, taking into account the idle time, tire rolling resistance, wind drag, and acceleration energy, influences the way in which passenger load impacts emissions. Emissions performance and fuel consumption from diesel and natural gas powered buses were characterized by the West Virginia University (WVU) Transportable Emissions Testing Laboratory. A comparison matrix for all three bus technologies included three common driving cycles (the Braunschweig Cycle, the OCTA Cycle, and the ADEME-RATP Paris Cycle). Each bus was tested at three different passenger loading conditions (empty weight, half weight, and full weight).
Technical Paper

Low Temperature Combustion with Thermo-Chemical Recuperation

2007-10-29
2007-01-4074
The key to overcoming Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) load range limitations is based on suitable control over the thermo-chemical properties of the in-cylinder charge. The proposed alternative to achieve the required control of LTC is the use of two separate fuel streams to regulate timing and heat release at specific operational points, where the secondary fuel, with different autoignition characteristics, is a reformed product of the primary fuel in the tank. It is proposed in this paper that the secondary fuel is produced using Thermo-Chemical Recuperation (TCR) with steam/fuel reforming. The steam/fuel mixture is heated by sensible heat from the engine exhaust gases in the recuperative reformer, where the original hydrocarbon reacts with water to form a hydrogen rich gas mixture. An equilibrium model developed by Gas Technology Institute (GTI) for n-heptane steam reforming was applied to estimate reformed fuel composition at different reforming temperatures.
Technical Paper

Weighting of Parameters in Artificial Neural Network Prediction of Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Emissions

2002-10-21
2002-01-2878
The use of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) as a predictive tool has been shown to have a broad range of applications. Earlier work by the authors using ANN models to predict carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), and particulate matter (PM) from heavy-duty diesel engines and vehicles yielded marginal to excellent results. These ANN models can be a useful tool in inventory prediction, hybrid vehicle design optimization, and incorporated into a feedback loop of an on-board, active fuel injection management system. In this research, the ANN models were trained on continuous engine and emissions data. The engine data were used as inputs to the ANN models and consisted of engine speed, torque, and their respective first and second derivatives over a one, five, and ten second time range. The continuous emissions data were the desired output that the ANN models learned to predict through an iterative training process.
Technical Paper

Relationships Between Instantaneous and Measured Emissions in Heavy Duty Applications

2001-09-24
2001-01-3536
Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR), using urea injection, is being examined as a method for substantial reduction of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) for diesel engines, but the urea injection rates must be controlled to match the NOx production which may need to be predicted during open loop control. Unfortunately NOx is usually measured in the laboratory using a full-scale dilution tunnel and chemiluminescent analyzer, which cause delay and diffusion (in time) of the true manifold NOx concentration. Similarly, delay and diffusion of measurements of all emissions cause the task of creating instantaneous emissions models for vehicle simulations more difficult. Data were obtained to relate injections of carbon dioxide (CO2) into a tunnel with analyzer measurements. The analyzer response was found to match a gamma distribution of the input pulse, so that the analyzer output could be modeled from the tunnel CO2 input.
Technical Paper

Emission Reductions and Operational Experiences With Heavy Duty Diesel Fleet Vehicles Retrofitted with Continuously Regenerated Diesel Particulate Filters in Southern California

2001-03-05
2001-01-0512
Particulate emission control from diesel engines is one of the major concerns in the urban areas in California. Recently, regulations have been proposed for stringent PM emission requirements from both existing and new diesel engines. As a result, particulate emission control from urban diesel engines using advanced particulate filter technology is being evaluated at several locations in California. Although ceramic based particle filters are well known for high PM reductions, the lack of effective and durable regeneration system has limited their applications. The continuously regenerated diesel particulate filter (CRDPF) technology discussed in this presentation, solves this problem by catalytically oxidizing NO present in the diesel exhaust to NO2 which is utilized to continuously combust the engine soot under the typical diesel engine operating condition.
Technical Paper

Class 8 Trucks Operating On Ultra-Low Sulfur Diesel With Particulate Filter Systems: Regulated Emissions

2000-10-16
2000-01-2815
Emissions from heavy-duty vehicles may be reduced through the introduction of clean diesel formulations, and through the use of catalyzed particulate matter filters that can enjoy increased longevity and performance if ultra-low sulfur diesel is used. Twenty over-the-road tractors with Detroit Diesel Series 60 engines were selected for this study. Five trucks were operated on California (CA) specification diesel (CARB), five were operated on ARCO (now BP Amoco) EC diesel (ECD), five were operated on ARCO ECD with a Johnson-Matthey Continuously Regenerating Technology (CRT) filter and five were operated on ARCO ECD with an Engelhard Diesel Particulate Filter (DPX). The truck emissions were characterized using a transportable chassis dynamometer, full-scale dilution tunnel, research grade gas analyzers and filters for particulate matter (PM) mass collection. Two test schedules, the 5 mile route and the city-suburban (heavy vehicle) route (CSR), were employed.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Emissions from Hybrid-Electric and Conventional Transit Buses

2000-06-19
2000-01-2011
Hybrid-electric transit buses offer benefits over conventional transit buses of comparable capacity. These benefits include reduced fuel consumption, reduced emissions and the utilization of smaller engines. Factors allowing for these benefits are the use of regenerative braking and reductions in engine transient operation through sophisticated power management systems. However, characterization of emissions from these buses represents new territory: the whole vehicle must be tested to estimate real world tailpipe emissions levels and fuel economy. The West Virginia University Transportable Heavy Duty Emissions Testing Laboratories were used to characterize emissions from diesel hybrid-electric powered as well as diesel and natural gas powered transit buses in Boston, MA and New York City.
Technical Paper

Regulated Emissions from Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Trucks Operating in the South Coast Air Basin

2006-10-16
2006-01-3395
Heavy duty diesel vehicle (HDDV) emissions are known to affect air quality, but few studies have quantified the real-world contribution to the inventory. The objective of this study was to provide data that may enable ambient emissions investigators to m,odel the air quality more accurately. The 25 vehicles reported in this paper are from the first phase of a program to determine representative regulated emissions from Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Trucks (HHDDT) operating in Southern California. Emissions data were gathered using a chassis dynamometer, full flow dilution tunnel, and research grade analyzers. The subject program employed two truck test weights and four new test modes (one was idle operation), in addition to the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS), and the AC50/80 cycle. The reason for such a broad test cycle scope was to determine thoroughly how HHDDT emissions are influenced by operating cycle to improve accuracy of models.
Technical Paper

Influences of Real-World Conditions on In-Use Emission from Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines

2006-10-16
2006-01-3393
The 1998 Consent Decrees between the settling heavy-duty diesel engine manufacturers and the United States Government require the engine manufacturer to perform in-use emissions testing to evaluate their engine designs and emissions when the vehicle is placed into service. This additional requirement will oblige the manufacturer to account for real-world conditions when designing engines and engine control algorithms and include driving conditions, ambient conditions, and fuel properties in addition to the engine certification test procedures. Engine operation and ambient conditions can be designed into the engine control algorithm. However, there will most likely be no on-board determination of fuel properties or composition in the near future. Therefore, the engine manufacturer will need to account for varying fuel properties when developing the engine control algorithm for when in-use testing is performed.
Technical Paper

Development of a Vehicle Road Load Model for ECU Broadcast Power Verification in On-Road Emissions Testing

2006-10-16
2006-01-3392
The 1998 Consent Decrees between the United States Government and the settling heavy-duty diesel engine manufacturers require in-use emissions testing from post 2000 model year engines. The emissions gathered from these engines must be reported on a brake-specific mass basis. To report brake-specific mass emissions, three primary parameters must be measured. These are the concentration of each emission constituent, the exhaust mass flow rate, and the engine power output. The measurement of the concentration level and exhaust mass flow rate can be (and are generally) measured directly with instrumentation installed in the exhaust transfer tube. However, engine power cannot be measured directly for in-use emissions testing due to the direct coupling of the engine output shaft to the vehicle's transmission. Engine power can be inferred from the electronic control unit (ECU) broadcast of engine speed and engine torque.
Technical Paper

Characterization and Abatement of Diesel Crankcase Emissions

2006-10-16
2006-01-3372
In 2007, the Environmental Protection Agency will begin measuring not only exhaust emissions from diesel engines, but also emissions from the crankcase if it is not vented into the engine intake. The 2007 government standards for emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) will also become more restrictive. There is the additional concern that crankcase emissions from present day trucks and buses may impact the quality of air inside the vehicle. This paper presents data to characterize crankcase emissions and examines a crankcase emissions abatement system (CEAS), the New Condensator®, manufactured by World NCI. Rather than allowing crankcase emissions to leave via a vent tube, a CEAS re-circulates the emissions to the intake of the engine.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Error Analysis Investigation into Dilution Factor Equations

2007-04-16
2007-01-0310
As emission regulations become increasingly strict, the need for more accurate sampling systems becomes essential. When calculating emissions from a dilution system, a correction is made to remove the effects of contaminants in the dilution air. The dilution air correction was explored to determine why this correction is needed, when this correction is important, and what methods are available for calculating the dilution factor (DF). An experimental and error analysis investigation into the standard and recently proposed methods for calculating the DF was conducted. Five steady state modes were run on a 1992 Detroit Diesel engine series 60 and the DF from eleven different equations were investigated. The effects of an inaccurate dilution air correction on calculated fuel flow from a carbon balance and the mass emissions was analyzed. The dilution air correction was shown to be important only for hydrocarbons, particulate matter (PM), and CO2.
Technical Paper

An Investigation into the Emissions Reduction Performance of an SCR System Over Two Years' In-Use Heavy-Duty Vehicle Operation

2005-04-11
2005-01-1861
Increasingly stringent oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) regulations worldwide have prompted considerable activity in developing emission control technology to reduce the emissions of these two constituents from heavy-duty diesel engines. NOx has come under particular scrutiny by regulators in the US and in Europe with the promulgation of very stringent regulation by both the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the European Union (EU). In response, heavy-duty engine manufacturers are considering Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) as a potential NOx reduction option. While SCR performance has been well established through engine dynamometer evaluation under laboratory conditions, there exists little data characterizing SCR performance under real-world operating conditions over time. This project evaluated the field performance of ten SCR units installed on heavy-duty Class 8 highway and refuse trucks.
Technical Paper

Final Operability and Chassis Emissions Results from a Fleet of Class 6 Trucks Operating on Gas-to-Liquid Fuel and Catalyzed Diesel Particle Filters

2005-10-24
2005-01-3769
Six 2001 International Class 6 trucks participated in a project to determine the impact of gas-to-liquid (GTL) fuel and catalyzed diesel particle filters (DPFs) on emissions and operations from December 2003 through August 2004. The vehicles operated in Southern California and were nominally identical. Three vehicles operated “as-is” on California Air Resources Board (CARB) specification diesel fuel and no emission control devices. Three vehicles were retrofit with Johnson Matthey CCRT® (Catalyzed Continuously Regenerating Technology) filters and fueled with Shell GTL Fuel. Two rounds of emissions tests were conducted on a chassis dynamometer over the City Suburban Heavy Vehicle Route (CSHVR) and the New York City Bus (NYCB) cycle. The CARB-fueled vehicles served as the baseline, while the GTL-fueled vehicles were tested with and without the CCRT filters. Results from the first round of testing have been reported previously (see 2004-01-2959).
Technical Paper

Nitric Oxide Conversion in a Spark Ignited Natural Gas Engine

2005-04-11
2005-01-0234
Understanding the nitric oxide (NO) conversion process plays a major role in optimizing the Selective NOX Recirculation (SNR) technique. SNR has been proven in gasoline and diesel engines, with up to 90% NOX conversion rates being achieved. This technique involves adsorbing NOX from an exhaust stream, then selectively desorbing the NOX into a concentrated NOX stream, which is fed back into the engine's intake, thereby converting a percentage of the concentrated NOX stream into harmless gases. The emphasis of this paper is on the unique chemical kinetic modeling problem that occurs with high concentrations of NOX in the intake air of a spark ignited natural gas engine with SNR. CHEMKIN, a chemical kinetic solver software package, was used to perform the reaction modeling. A closed homogeneous batch reactor model was used to model the fraction of NOX versus time for varying initial conditions and constants.
Technical Paper

Assessment of NOx Destruction in Diesel Engines by Injecting NO in the Intake Manifold

2005-04-11
2005-01-0370
Emissions from diesel engines, particularly NOx and TPM emissions are harmful to the environment. Reduction of NOx emissions from diesel engines is of increasing concern. In 1998, a novel approach called Selective NOx Recirculation (SNR) was used to reduce NOx emissions in diesel engines. The SNR concept relies on two major parts, one to collect the NOx emissions from the exhaust by an adsorber, and another to decompose NOx using the in-cylinder combustion process by injecting the collected NOx emissions into the intake manifold at an elevated concentration. This paper deals with the destruction rates during the combustion process. A 1992 DDC series 60, 350 hp, 12.7 liter engine was connected to a 500 hp DC dynamometer. A full-scale dilution tunnel and analyzers capable of measuring continuous NOx, CO2, CO, HC, and PM in the exhaust were used.
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