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Journal Article

Spray Characteristics Study of DMF Using Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer

2010-05-05
2010-01-1505
2,5-dimethylfuran (DMF) is currently regarded as a potential alternative fuel to gasoline due to the development of new production technology. In this paper, the spray characteristics of DMF and its blends with gasoline were studied from a high pressure direct injection gasoline injector using the shadowgraph and Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA) techniques, This includes the spray penetration, droplet velocity and size distribution of the various mixtures. In parallel commercial gasoline and ethanol were measured in order to compare the characteristics of DMF. A total of 52 points were measured along the spray so that the experimental results could be used for subsequent numerical modeling. In summary, the experimental results showed that DMF and its blends have similar spray properties to gasoline, compared to ethanol. The droplet size of DMF is generally smaller than ethanol and decreases faster with the increase of injection pressure.
Journal Article

The Particle Emissions Characteristics of a Light Duty Diesel Engine with 10% Alternative Fuel Blends

2010-05-05
2010-01-1556
In this study, the particle emission characteristics of 10% alternative diesel fuel blends (Rapeseed Methyl Ester and Gas-to-Liquid) were investigated through the tests carried out on a light duty common-rail Euro 4 diesel engine. Under steady engine conditions, the study focused on particle number concentration and size distribution, to comply with the particle metrics of the European Emission Regulations (Regulation NO 715/2007, amended by 692/2008 and 595/2009). The non-volatile particle characteristics during the engine warming up were also investigated. They indicated that without any modification to the engine, adding selected alternative fuels, even at a low percentage, can result in a noticeable reduction of the total particle numbers; however, the number of nucleation mode particles can increase in certain cases.
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Optical Study on Combustion of DMF and DMF Fuel Blends

2012-04-16
2012-01-1235
The bio-fuel, 2,5 - dimethylfuran (DMF) is currently regarded as a potential alternative fuel to gasoline due to the development of new production technology. However, little is known about the flame behavior in an optical engine. In this paper, high speed imaging (with intensifier) was used during the combustion of DMF and its blends with gasoline and ethanol (D50, D85, E50D50 and E85D15) in an SI optical engine. The flame images from the combustion of each fuel were analyzed at two engine loads: 3bar and 4bar IMEP. For DMF, D50 and E50D50, two modes were compared: DI and PFI. The average flame shapes (in 2D) and the average flame speeds were calculated and combined with mass fraction burned (MFB) data. The results show that when using DMF, the rate of flame growth development and flame speed is higher than when using gasoline. The differences in flame speed between DMF and gasoline is about 10% to 14% at low IMEP.
Journal Article

Transient Emissions Characteristics of a Turbocharged Engine Fuelled by Biodiesel Blends

2013-04-08
2013-01-1302
The effects of different biodiesel blends on engine-out emissions under various transient conditions were investigated in this study using fast response diagnostic equipment. The experimental work was conducted on a modern 3.0 L, V6 high pressure common rail diesel engine fuelled with mineral diesel (B0) and three different blends of rapeseed methyl esters (RME) (B30, B60, B100 by volume) without any modifications of engine parameters. DMS500, Fast FID and Fast CLD were used to measure particulate matter (PM), total hydrocarbon (THC) and nitrogen monoxide (NO) respectively. The tests were conducted during a 12 seconds period with two tests in which load and speed were changed simultaneously and one test with only load changing. The results show that as biodiesel blend ratio increased, total particle number (PN) and THC were decreased whereas NO was increased for all the three transient conditions.
Journal Article

Cold and Warm Start Characteristics using HVO and RME Blends in a V6 Diesel Engine

2013-04-08
2013-01-1306
The first several cycles determine the quality of an engine start. Low temperatures and air/fuel ratio cause incomplete combustion of the fuel. This can lead to dramatic increases in HC and PM emissions. In order to meet Euro V legislation requirements which have stricter cold start emission levels, it is critical to study the characteristics of cold and warm starting of engines in order to develop an optimized operation. The NO and THC emissions were measured by fast CLD and Fast FID gas analyzers respectively and PM in both nucleation and accumulation modes were measured by DMS500. The coolant temperature was controlled in order to guarantee the experiment repeatability. The results show that at cold start using RME60 produced higher NO and lower THC than the other tested fuels while combustion of HVO60 produced a similar level of NO but lower THC compared with mineral diesel. Meanwhile, the nucleation mode of mineral diesel was similar to RME60 but higher than HVO60.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study of Combustion Initiation and development in an Optical HCCI Engine

2005-05-11
2005-01-2129
The major characteristics of the combustion in Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engines, irrespective of the technological strategy used to enable the ‘controlled auto-ignition’, are that the mixture of fuel and air is preferably premixed and largely homogeneous. Ignition tends to take place simultaneously at multiple points and there is no bulk flame propagation as in conventional spark-ignition (SI) engines. This paper presents an experimental study of flame development in an optical engine operating in HCCI combustion mode. High resolution and high-speed charge coupled device (CCD) cameras were used to take images of the flame during the combustion process. Fuels include gasoline, natural gas (NG) and hydrogen addition to NG all at stoichiometric conditions, permitting the investigation of combustion development for each fuel. The flame imaging data was supplemented by simultaneously recorded in-cylinder pressure data.
Technical Paper

Mode Switch of SI-HCCI Combustion on a GDI Engine

2007-04-16
2007-01-0195
Multi-mode combustion is an ideal combustion strategy to utilize HCCI for internal combustion engines. It combines HCCI combustion mode for low-middle load and traditional SI mode for high load and high speed. By changing the cam profiles from normal overlap for SI mode to the negative valve overlap (NVO) for HCCI mode, as well as the adjustment of direct injection strategy, the combustion mode transition between SI and HCCI was realized in one engine cycle. By two-step cam switch, the throttle action is separated from the cam action, which ensures the stabilization of mode transition. For validating the feasibility of the stepped switch, the influence of throttle position on HCCI combustion was carefully studied. Based on the research, the combustion mode switch was realized in one engine cycle; the whole switch process including throttle action was realized in 10 cycles. The entire process was smooth, rapid and reliable without any abnormal combustion such as knocking and misfiring.
Technical Paper

Study on an Electronically Controlled Common-Rail Injection System for Liquefied Alternative Fuels

2005-05-11
2005-01-2085
Liquefied alternative fuels offer great potential benefits in reducing exhaust emissions and improving fuel economy of automotive engines. In order to achieve the best performance of the engine running with such fuels, it is critical to have an appropriate fuel system. In the present work, a new electronically controlled common-rail injection system has been specially designed and tested for the direct injection of liquefied alternative fuels, since a conventional pump-line-injector injection system in the conventional diesel engine was not suitable for the purpose. Experimental work has been carried out to examine and improve matching of the fuel injection system on a new fuel injection pump test bench. The preliminary engine bench test has demonstrated that this arrangement meets the requirement for the operating characteristics of a fuel injection system in a direct injection diesel engine operating with dimethyl ether (DME).
Technical Paper

Residual Gas Trapping for Natural Gas HCCI

2004-06-08
2004-01-1973
With the high auto ignition temperature of natural gas, various approaches such as high compression ratios and/or intake charge heating are required for auto ignition. Another approach utilizes the trapping of internal residual gas (as used before in gasoline controlled auto ignition engines), to lower the thermal requirements for the auto ignition process in natural gas. In the present work, the achievable engine load range is controlled by the degree of internal trapping of exhaust gas supplemented by intake charge heating. Special valve strategies were used to control the internal retention of exhaust gas. Significant differences in the degree of valve overlap were necessary when compared to gasoline operation at the same speeds and loads, resulting in lower amounts of residual gas observed. The dilution effect of residual gas trapping is hence reduced, resulting in higher NOx emissions for the stoichiometric air/fuel ratio operation as compared to gasoline.
Technical Paper

Effect of Hydrogen Addition on Natural Gas HCCI Combustion

2004-06-08
2004-01-1972
Natural gas has a high auto-ignition temperature, requiring high compression ratios and/or intake charge heating to achieve HCCI (homogeneous charge compression ignition) engine operation. Previous work by the authors has shown that hydrogen addition improves combustion stability in various difficult combustion conditions. It is shown here that hydrogen, together with residual gas trapping, helps also in lowering the intake temperature required for HCCI. It has been argued in literature that the addition of hydrogen advances the start of combustion in the cylinder. This would translate into the lowering of the minimum intake temperature required for auto-ignition to occur during the compression stroke. The experimental results of this work show that, with hydrogen replacing part of the fuel, a decrease in intake air temperature requirement is observed for a range of engine loads, with larger reductions in temperature noted at lower loads.
Technical Paper

Split-Injection Strategies under Full-Load Using DMF, A New Biofuel Candidate, Compared to Ethanol in a GDI Engine

2012-04-16
2012-01-0403
It is well known that direct injection (DI) is a technology enabler for stratified combustion in spark-ignition (SI) engines. At full load or wide-open throttle (WOT), partial charge stratification can suppress knock, enabling greater spark advance and increased torque. Such split-injection or double-pulse injection strategies are employed when using gasoline in DI (GDI). However, as the use of biofuels is set to increase, is this mode still beneficial? In the current study, the authors attempt to answer this question using two gasoline-alternative biofuels: firstly, ethanol; the widely used gasoline-alternative biofuel and secondly, 2,5-dimethylfuran (DMF); the new biofuel candidate. These results have been benchmarked against gasoline in a single-cylinder, spray-guided DISI research engine at WOT (λ = 1 and 1500 rpm). Firstly, single-pulse start of injection (SOI) timing sweeps were conducted with each fuel to find the highest volumetric efficiency and IMEP.
Technical Paper

Effects of Biodiesel Feedstock on the Emissions from a Modern Light Duty Engine

2014-04-01
2014-01-1394
Biodiesel is an oxygenated alternative fuel made from vegetable oils and animal fats via transesterification and the feedstock of biodiesel is diverse and varies between the local agriculture and market scenarios. Use of various feedstock for biodiesel production result in variations in the fuel properties of biodiesel. In this study, biodiesels produced from a variety of real world feedstock was examined to assess the performance and emissions in a light-duty engine. The objective was to understand the impact of biodiesel properties on engine performances and emissions. A group of six biodiesels produced from the most common feedstock blended with zero-sulphur diesel in 10%, 30% and 60% by volume are selected for the study. All the biodiesel blends were tested on a light-duty, twin-turbocharged common rail V6 engine. Their gaseous emissions (NOx, THC, CO and CO2) and smoke number were measured for the study.
Technical Paper

Investigation on the Spray Characteristics of DMF- Isooctane Blends using PDPA

2014-04-01
2014-01-1408
Little research has been done on spray characteristics of 2,5-dimethylfuran (DMF), since the breakthrough in its production method as an alternative fuel candidate. In this paper, the spray characteristics of pure fuels (DMF, Isooctane) and DMF-Isooctane blends under different ambient pressures (1 bar, 3 bar and 7 bar) and injection pressures (50 bar, 100 bar and 150 bar) were studied using Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA) and high speed imaging. Droplet velocity, size distribution, spray angle and penetration of sprays were examined. Based on the results, DMF had larger SMD and penetration length than isooctane. The surface tension of fuel strongly influenced spray characteristics. Increasing the surface tension by 26 % resulted in 12 % increase in SMD. Higher ambient pressure increased the drag force, but SMD was not influenced by the increased drag force. However, the increased ambient pressure reduced the injection velocity and We number resulting in higher SMD.
Technical Paper

Study of Near Nozzle Spray Characteristics of Ethanol under Different Saturation Ratios

2016-10-17
2016-01-2189
Atomization of fuel sprays is a key factor in controlling the combustion quality in the direct-injection engines. In this present work, the effect of saturation ratio (Rs) on the near nozzle spray patterns of ethanol was investigated using an ultra-high speed imaging technique. The Rs range covered both flash-boiling and non-flash boiling regions. Ethanol was injected from a single-hole injector into an optically accessible constant volume chamber at a fixed injection pressure of 40 MPa with different fuel temperatures and back pressures. High-speed imaging was performed using an ultrahigh speed camera (1 million fps) coupled with a long-distance microscope. Under non-flash boiling conditions, the effect of Rs on fuel development was small but observable. Clear fuel collision can be observed at Rs=1.5 and 1.0. Under the flash boiling conditions, near-nozzle spray patterns were significant different from the non-flash boiling ones.
Technical Paper

Phenomenology of EGR in a Light Duty Diesel Engine Fuelled with Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil (HVO), Used Vegetable Oil Methyl Ester (UVOME) and Their Blends

2013-04-08
2013-01-1688
HVO contains paraffin only and UVOME is methyl ester with long chain alkyl while mineral diesel is complex compound and contains lots of aromatic and Naphthenic. This paper compares the effects of EGR on the two different types of biodiesels blends compared to diesel. The combustion performance and emissions of biodiesel blends of UVOME and HVO were investigated in a turbocharged direct injection V6 diesel engine with EGR swept from 0% to the calibration setting for diesel. The EGR sweep tests with increment of 5% were conducted at the engine speed of 1500 RPM for the load of between 72 Nm to 143 Nm, using sulfur-free diesel blended with UVOME and HVO at 30% and 60% by volume respectively. As the EGR rate was increased, the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) for each fuel was reduced at lower load but increased at higher load. The BSFC of mineral diesel was lower than UVOME blends and similar to the HVO blends.
Journal Article

An Investigation into the Characteristics of DISI Injector Deposits Using Advanced Analytical Methods

2014-10-13
2014-01-2722
There is an increasing recognition of injector deposit (ID) formation in fuel injection equipment as direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engine technologies advance to meet increasingly stringent emission legislation and fuel economy requirements. While it is known that the phenomena of ID in DISI engines can be influenced by changes in fuel composition, including increasing usage of aliphatic alcohols and additive chemistries to enhance fuel performance, there is however still a great deal of uncertainty regarding the physical and chemical structure of these deposits, and the mechanisms of deposit formation. In this study, a mechanical cracking sample preparation technique was developed to assess the deposits across DISI injectors fuelled with gasoline and blends of 85% ethanol (E85).
Journal Article

Dual-Injection as a Knock Mitigation Strategy Using Pure Ethanol and Methanol

2012-04-16
2012-01-1152
For spark ignition (SI) engines, the optimum spark timing is crucial for maximum efficiency. However, as the spark timing is advanced, so the propensity to knock increases, thus compromising efficiency. One method to suppress knock is to use high octane fuel additives. However, the blend ratio of these additives cannot be varied on demand. Therefore, with the advent of aggressive downsizing, new knock mitigation techniques are required. Fortuitously, there are two well-known lower alcohols which exhibit attractive knock mitigation properties: ethanol and methanol. Both not only have high octane ratings, but also result in greater charge-cooling than with gasoline. In the current work, the authors have exploited these attractive properties with the dual-injection, or the dual-fuel concept (gasoline in PFI and fuel additive in DI) using pure ethanol and methanol.
Journal Article

Effects of Combustion Phasing, Injection Timing, Relative Air-Fuel Ratio and Variable Valve Timing on SI Engine Performance and Emissions using 2,5-Dimethylfuran

2012-04-16
2012-01-1285
Ethanol has long been regarded as the optimal gasoline-alternative biofuel for spark-ignition (SI) engines. It is used widely in Latin and North America and is increasingly accepted as an attractive option across Europe. Nevertheless, its low energy density requires a high rate of manufacture; in areas which are deficient of arable land, such rates might prove problematic. Therefore, fuels with higher calorific values, such as butanol or 2,5-dimethylfuran (DMF) deserve consideration; a similar yield to ethanol, in theory, would require much less land. This report addresses the suitability of DMF, to meet the needs as a biofuel substitute for gasoline in SI engines, using ethanol as the biofuel benchmark. Specific attention is given to the sensitivity of DMF to various engine control parameters: combustion phasing (ignition timing), injection timing, relative air-fuel ratio and valve timing (intake and exhaust).
Technical Paper

The Comparative Study of Gasoline and n-butanol on Spray Characteristics

2014-10-13
2014-01-2754
n-butanol has been recognized as a promising alternative fuel for gasoline and may potentially overcome the drawbacks of methanol and ethanol, e.g. higher energy density. In this paper, the spray characteristics of gasoline and n-butanol have been investigated using a high pressure direct injection injector. High speed imaging and Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA) techniques were used to study the spray penetration and the droplet atomization process. The tests were carried out in a high pressure constant volume vessel over a range of injection pressure from 60 to 150 bar and ambient pressure from 1 to 5 bar. The results show that gasoline has a longer penetration length than that of n-butanol in most test conditions due to the relatively small density and viscosity of gasoline; n-butanol has larger SMD due to its higher viscosity. The increase in ambient pressure leads to the reduction in SMD by 42% for gasoline and by 37% for n-butanol.
Technical Paper

Investigation on the Performance of Diesel Oxidation Catalyst during Cold Start at L ow Temperature Conditions

2014-10-13
2014-01-2712
Cold start is a critical operating condition for diesel engines because of the pollutant emissions produced by the unstable combustion and non-performance of after-treatment at lower temperatures. In this research investigation, a light-duty turbocharged diesel engine equipped with a common rail injection system was tested on a transient engine testing bed to study the starting process in terms of engine performance and emissions. The engine (including engine coolant, engine oil and fuel) was soaked in a cold cell at −7°C for at least 8 hours before starting the test. The engine operating parameters such as engine speed, air/fuel ratio, and EGR rate were recorded during the tests. Pollutant emissions (Hydrocarbon (HC), NOx, and particles both in mode of nucleation and accumulation) were measured before and after the Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC). The results show that conversion efficiency of NOx was higher during acceleration period at −7°C start than the case of 20°C start.
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