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Technical Paper

Kinematic FCW System Modeling and Application for FCW Warning Strategy Evaluation

2011-04-12
2011-01-0590
One method of reducing the number and/or severity of vehicle crashes is to warn the driver of a potential crash. The theory is that there will be driving conditions in which the drivers are unaware of a potential crash and a warning system will allow them to, in some manner, avoid the accident or reduce the severity. In an attempt to develop an analytical understanding of Forward Collision Warning systems (FCW) for frontal impacts a 2-d mathematical/kinematic model representing a set of pre-crash vehicle dynamic maneuvers has been built. Different driving scenarios are studied to explore the potential improvement of warning algorithms in terms of headway reduction and minimization of false alarm rates. The results agree with the field data. NHTSA's new NCAP active safety criteria are evaluated using the model. The result from the analysis indicates that the NHTSA criteria may drive higher false alarm rates. Opportunities of minimizing false positive rates are discussed.
Journal Article

Effects of Vehicle Mass and Other Parameters on Driver Relative Fatality Risk in Vehicle-Vehicle Crashes

2013-04-08
2013-01-0466
Regression models are used to understand the relative fatality risk for drivers in front-front and front-left crashes. The field accident data used for the regressions were extracted by NHTSA from the FARS database for model years 2000-2007 vehicles in calendar years 2002-2008. Multiple logistic regressions are structured and carried out to model a log-linear relationship between risk ratio and the independent vehicle and driver parameters. For front-front crashes, the regression identifies mass ratio, belt use, and driver age as statistically significant parameters (p-values less than 1%) associated with the risk ratio. The vehicle type and presence of the ESC are found to be related with less statistical significance (p-values between 1% and 5%). For front-left crashes the driver risk ratio is also found to have a log-log linear relationship with vehicle mass ratio.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of the Hybrid III 10-year-Old Dummy Chest Response in the Sled Test Environment

2010-04-12
2010-01-0137
Ten sled tests were conducted with a Hybrid III 10-year-old dummy under a 3-point belt only restraint condition to evaluate its performance. The results of the Hybrid III 10-year-old in these tests indicate that there are artifactural noise spikes observable in the transducer responses. A number of metal-to-metal contacts in the shoulder area were identified as one of the sources for the chest acceleration spikes. Noise spikes were also observed in the response from multiple body regions; however, the source of the spikes could not be determined. Compared to the other Hybrid III dummies, non-characteristic dummy chest deflection responses were also observed. This limited analysis indicates that the Hybrid III 10-year-old dummy requires additional development work to eliminate the metal-to-metal contacts in the shoulder area and to understand and correct the other sources of the noise spikes. More investigation is needed to determine if the chest deflection response is appropriate.
Journal Article

Hybrid III Head/Neck Analysis Highlighting Nij in NCAP

2012-04-16
2012-01-0102
Nij, a function of upper neck forces and moment, plays a dominant role in the vehicle's star rating under the new NHTSA NCAP front impact program. This is mainly due to an artifact in the mapping of the Nij into the “risk” value used in the star rating, and the fact that the neck region is not weighted appropriately to reflect its real world significance relative to the other body regions in the NCAP rating. New test data also show that compared with the 50th male driver Nij, the 5th female passenger Nij is significantly more challenging to contain and therefore it is more dominant in the star rating. This paper describes the Hybrid III dummy head and neck impact response and provides a method to determine the external force acting on the head. The force and its acting point on the head are determined from head acceleration, angular acceleration, and the upper neck forces.
Technical Paper

OOP Response of THOR and Hybrid-III 50th% ATDs

2006-04-03
2006-01-0065
The responses of the THOR and the Hybrid-III ATDs to head and neck loading due to a deploying air bag were investigated. Matched pair tests were conducted to compare the responses of the two ATDs under similar loading conditions. The two 50th percentile male ATDs, in the driver as well as the passenger positions, were placed close to the air bag systems, in order to enhance the interaction between the deploying air bag and the chin-neck-jaw regions of the ATDs. Although both ATDs nominally meet the same calibration corridors, they differ significantly in their kinematic and dynamic responses to interaction with a deploying air bag. The difference between the structural designs of the Hybrid-III's and the THOR's neck appears to result in significant differences in the manner in which the loads applied on the head are resisted.
Technical Paper

Effect of Airbag Porosity, Mass Flow and Load Limiter on the 5th and 50th Hybrid Dummies in a 35 Mph Crash

2006-04-03
2006-01-0677
Restraint systems play an important role in managing the energy of occupants during a crash event. Belt and airbag systems complement each other in order to gradually decelerate the occupant. However, the seating position of the 5th percentile female and 50th percentile male occupants forces the need to manage this energy in different ways. MADYMO simulation of a generic vehicle-restraint system with a driver side 5th and a 50th percentile Hybrid III dummy were done for a typical frontal impact. The belt system had a retractor/load limiter, but no pretensioner. The effect of airbag fabric porosity, inflation rate and seat belt load limiting ability were evaluated for both occupants. Parameters examined that affect system rebalancing to achieve the highest star rating were HIC and 3ms Chest acceleration.
Technical Paper

Vehicle-to-Vehicle Frontal Impacts: 2D Numerical Study

2008-04-14
2008-01-0506
A 2D model for vehicle-to-vehicle impact analysis that was presented in an earlier paper [1], has been used to study several two-vehicle frontal impacts with different incidence angles, frontal overlap offsets, and mass ratios. The impacts have been evaluated in terms of energy and momentum change in the bullet vehicle and the target vehicle. Based on comparisons between pre- and post-impact longitudinal, lateral, and angular components of kinetic energy, and linear and angular momenta, the impacts experienced by the target vehicle and the bullet vehicle have been classified as collinear or oblique. These results have been used to propose a definition of frontal impact based on vehicle kinematics during a crash.
Technical Paper

Hybrid III Dummy Neck Issues

2005-04-11
2005-01-1704
While the Hybrid III anthropomorphic test device (ATD) family has experienced a lengthy period of development, and is an essential part of vehicle safety regulation, several issues associated with the ATD's head/neck design and the neck dynamic response due to airbag loading have been identified. As a result, the response of the Hybrid III neck under a number of airbag loading conditions could be an “artifact” of the ATD and not representative of the live human. One area of concern relates to the method of incorporating the human neck muscles into the neck response and how this affects the out-of-position (OOP) tests mandated in the new FMVSS 208. The results of a series of sled and OOP tests are presented in this paper to elaborate on the nature and the magnitude of the ATD's neck response “artifact”. In addition, the complication associated with balancing in-position and OOP requirements as a result of this “artifact” is highlighted.
Technical Paper

A Stochastic Approach for Occupant Crash Simulation

2000-04-02
2000-01-1597
Stochastic simulation is used to account for the uncertainties inherent to the system and enables the study of crash phenomenon. For analytical purposes, random variables such as material crash properties, angle of impact, human response and the like can be characterized using statistical models. The methodology outlined in this approach is based on using the information about the probability of random variables along with structural behavior in order to quantify the scatter in the structural response. Thus the analysis gives a more complete picture of the actual simulation. Practical examples for the use of this technique are demonstrated and an overview of this approach is presented.
Technical Paper

HYBRID III DUMMY NECK RESPONSE TO AIR BAG LOADING

2001-06-04
2001-06-0130
This paper discusses issues related to the Hybrid III dummy head/neck response due to deploying air bags. The primary issue is the occurrence of large moment at the occypital condyles of the dummy, when the head-rotation with respect to the torso is relatively small. The improbability of such an occurrence in humans is discussed in detail based on the available biomechanical data. A secondary issue is the different anthropometric characteristics of the head/neck region of the Hybrid III dummy when compared to humans. Different modes of interaction between the deploying air bag and the Hybrid III dummy’s neck are discussed. Key features of the dummy’s response in these interaction modes have been described in light of the laxity of the atlanto-occypital joint and the effect of the neck muscle pairs. Issues for improving the biofidelity of the Hybrid III dummy’s neck response due to deploying air bags are discussed.
Technical Paper

Air Bag Loading on In-Position Hybrid III Dummy Neck

2001-03-05
2001-01-0179
The Hybrid III family of dummies is used to estimate the response of an occupant during a crash. One recent area of interest is the response of the neck during air bag loading. The biomechanical response of the Hybrid III dummy's neck was based on inertial loading during crash events, when the dummy is restrained by a seat belt and/or seat back. Contact loading resulting from an air bag was not considered when the Hybrid III dummy was designed. This paper considers the effect of air bag loading on the 5th percentile female Hybrid III dummies. The response of the neck is presented in comparison to currently accepted biomechanical corridors. The Hybrid III dummy neck was designed with primary emphasis on appropriate flexion and extension responses using the corridors proposed by Mertz and Patrick. They formulated the mechanical performance requirements of the neck as the relationship between the moment at the occipital condyles and the rotation of the head relative to the torso.
Technical Paper

Comparative Performance Evaluation of THOR and Hybrid III

2000-03-06
2000-01-0161
A comparison of the NHTSA advanced dummy, THOR, and the Hybrid III dummy is presented in this paper, based on their performance in four vehicle barrier tests, six HYGE sled tests and twenty two pendulum chest–impact tests. Various time–histories pertaining to accelerations, angular motions, deflections, forces and moments are compared between the two dummies in light of their design difference. In general, in the vehicle crash tests, the resultant head acceleration and chest deflection in THOR are greater than those in the HYBRID III. The shear, axial force and lateral moment in THOR's lumbar are less than those in the Hybrid III in frontal impacts. The differences in the head/chest acceleration and chest deflection could be due to the differences in the construction of the neck and the thorax of the THOR when compared to those of the Hybrid III. The THOR and the Hybrid III have the same level of repeatability in the rear impact sled tests.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Energy Management Materials for Head Impact Protection

1997-02-24
970159
Energy management materials are widely used in automotive interiors in instrument panel, knee bolster, and door absorber applications to reduce the risk of injury to an occupant during a crash. Automobile manufacturers must meet standards set by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) that identify maximum levels of injury to an occupant. The recent NHTSA upgrade to the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) 201 test procedure(1) for upper interior head impact protection has prompted energy management materials' use in several new areas of affected vehicles. While vehicle evaluations continue, results to date show that energy management foams can be effective in reducing the head injury criterion [HIC(d)] to acceptable government and OEM levels.
Technical Paper

Technical Specifications of the SID-IIs Dummy

1995-11-01
952735
The SID-IIs is a small [s], second-generation [II] Side Impact Dummy [SID] which has the anthropometry of a 5th percentile adult female. It has a mass of 43.5 kg, a seated height of 790 mm, and over 100 available data channels. Based on the height and mass, this is equivalent to an average 12-13 year old adolescent. The state-of-the-art SID-IIs has special application in evaluating the performance of side impact airbags. The dummy has undergone prototype testing and will shortly be available for worldwide evaluation. This paper describes the technical details of the dummy, its biomechanical design targets, how well it met those targets, its validation requirements, and its instrumentation. The dummy is the product of a joint development agreement between the Occupant Safety Research Partnership (OSRP) of USCAR and First Technology Safety Systems.
Journal Article

Assessment of Similarity of a Set of Impact Response Time Histories

2015-04-14
2015-01-1441
Two methods of assessing the similarity of a set of impact test signals have been proposed and used in the literature, which are cumulative variance-based and cross correlation-based. In this study, a normalized formulation unites these two approaches by establishing a relationship between the normalized cumulative variance metric (v), an overall similarity metric, and the normalized magnitude similarity metric (m) and shape similarity metric (s): v=1 − m · s. Each of these ranges between 0 and 1 (for the practical case of signals acquired with the same polarity), and they are independent of the physical unit of measurement. Under generally satisfied conditions, the magnitude similarity m is independent of the relative time shifts among the signals in the set; while the shape similarity s is a function of these.
Technical Paper

An Energy Based Analysis for Neck Forces in Frontal Impacts

2000-03-06
2000-01-0166
In 1997 Mertz, Prasad and Irwin [1] have described a technique for the development of injury risk curves for measurements made with the CRABI and Hybrid III family of biofidelic child and adult dummies that are used to evaluate restraint systems in frontal collision simulations. They further developed normalized injury risk curves for neck tension, neck extension moment, combined neck tension and extension moment for adults and children. The approach described by Mertz et al [1], is based on lines of equivalent stress and uses the maximum normal stress theory of failure to impose limits of the risk of injuries. In this paper a complementary approach is described based on the maximum energy of failure and lines of constant energy. A special case of this approach in 1D is used to develop the assessment values obtained by Mertz et al [1]. Limitations and advantages of the energy based approach are described, with especial emphasis on future implementation.
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