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Technical Paper

Effects of Dual Loop EGR on Performance and Emissions of a Diesel Engine

An experimental study is carried out to compare the effects of high-pressure-loop, low-pressure-loop and dual-loop exhaust gas recirculation systems (HPL-EGR, LPL-EGR and DL-EGR) on the combustion characteristics, thermal efficiency and emissions of a diesel engine. The tests are conducted on a six-cylinder turbocharged heavy-duty diesel engine under various operating conditions. The low-pressure-loop portion (LPL-Portion) of DL-EGR is swept from 0% to 100% at several constant EGR rates, and the DL-EGR is optimized based on fuel efficiency. The results show that the LPL-EGR can attain the highest gross indicated thermal efficiency (ITEg) in the three EGR systems under all the tested conditions. At a middle load of 0.95 BMEP, 1660 r/min, the pumping losses of LPL-EGR lead to the lowest BTE among the EGR systems. The HPL-EGR can achieve the best brake thermal efficiency (BTE) and emissions within the EGR rate of 22.5% mainly due to the reduced pumping losses.
Technical Paper

Diesel Engine Combustion Control: Medium or Heavy EGR?

Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) is an important parameter for control of diesel engine combustion, especially to achieve ultra low NOx emissions. In this paper, the effects of EGR on engine emissions and engine efficiency have been investigated in a heavy-duty diesel engine while changing combustion control parameters, such as injection pressure, injection timing, boost, compression ratio, oxygenated fuel, etc. The engine was operated at 1400 rpm for a cycle fuel rate of 50mg. The results show that NOx emissions strongly depend on the EGR rate. The effects of conventional combustion parameters, such as injection pressure, injection timing, and boost, on NOx emissions become small as the EGR rate is increased. Soot emissions depend strongly on the ignition delay and EGR rate (oxygen concentration). Soot emissions can be reduced by decreasing the compression ratio, increasing the injection pressure, or burning oxygenated fuel.
Technical Paper

An Investigation of Different Ported Fuel Injection Strategies and Thermal Stratification in HCCI Engines Using Chemiluminescence Imaging

The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of the effects of port fuel injection strategies and thermal stratification on the HCCI combustion processes. Experiments were conducted in a single-cylinder HCCI engine modified with windows in the combustion chamber for optical access. Two-dimensional images of the chemiluminescence were captured using an intensified CCD camera in order to understand the spatial distribution of the combustion. N-heptane was used as the test fuel. The experimental data consisting of the in-cylinder pressure, heat release rate, chemiluminescence images all indicate that the different port fuel injection strategies result in different charge distributions in the combustion chamber, and thus affect the auto-ignition timing, chemiluminescence intensity, and combustion processes. Under higher intake temperature conditions, the injection strategies have less effect on the combustion processes due to improved mixing.
Technical Paper

Effect of Oil and Gasoline Properties on Pre-Ignition and Super-Knock in a Thermal Research Engine (TRE) and an Optical Rapid Compression Machine (RCM)

High boost and direct injection are effective ways for energy saving in gasoline engines. However, the occurrence of super-knock at high load has become a main obstacle for further improving power density and fuel economy. It has been known that super-knock can be induced by pre-ignition, and oil droplet auto-ignition is found to be one of the possible mechanisms. In this study, experiments were conducted in a single-cylinder thermal research engine (TRE), in which different types of oil and surrogates were directly injected into the cylinder and then led to pre-ignition and super-knock. The effect of oil injection timing, oil injection quantity, different gasoline and different oil were tested. All the oil in this work could induce pre-ignition, even though their combustion phasing was much later than that in the case of n-hexadecane.
Technical Paper

The Design and Optimized Combination of Combustion Modesover Full-Load Range in a Multi-cylinder Light-duty Engine

In order to achieve high efficiency and clean combustion indiesel engines, many advanced combustion concepts have been developed to simultaneously reduce NOx and soot emissions with high efficiency. However, the benefits of these combustion modes are limited to low loads because the energy release ratesaretoo fast at high loads. Recently, Dual-fuel highly premixed charge combustion (HPCC) strategies with the port injection of gasoline and direct injection of diesel have demonstrated advantages in terms of extending the operating range by the flexible control of fuel chemical reactivity and charge stratification. However, the extension to high-load in a turbocharged multi-cylinder diesel engine with the HPCC is a critical challenge due to excessive pressure rise rates. Mean while it suffers from the excessive of CO/HC emissions at low loads.
Technical Paper

Effects of Dual Loop EGR and Variable Geometry Turbocharger on Performance and Emissions of a Diesel Engine

An experimental study is carried out to investigate the coupling between dual loop EGR (DL-EGR) and variable geometry turbocharger (VGT) on a heavy-duty commercial diesel engine under different operating conditions and inlet conditions. The effects of VGT rack position and high-pressure (HP) proportion in DL-EGR on engine performance and emissions are studied. The boosting system is a series 2-stage turbocharger with a VGT as the HP-stage. The HP-Proportion in DL-EGR is swept from 0% to 100% while several intake pressure values and EGR rates are fixed by adjusting the VGT position. Results demonstrate that the VGT and HP EGR both have great influence on the exhaust enthalpy and turbocharger efficiency. The exhaust enthalpy and the intake demand have great influence on the DL-EGR split strategy.
Technical Paper

A Numerical Study on Combustion and Emission Characteristics of Marine Engine through Miller Cycle Coupled with EGR and Water Emulsified Fuel

The combustion in low-speed two-stroke marine diesel engines can be characterized as large spatial and temporal scales combustion. One of the most effective measures to reduce NOx emissions is to reduce the local maximum combustion temperature. In the current study, multi-dimensional numerical simulations have been conducted to explore the potential of Miller cycle, high compression ratio coupled with EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation) and WEF (water emulsified fuel) to improve the trade-off relationship of NOx-ISFC (indicated specific fuel consumption) in a low-speed two-stroke marine engine. The results show that the EGR ratio could be reduced combined with WEF to meet the Tier III emission regulation. The penalty on fuel consumption with EGR and WEF could be offset by Miller cycle and high geometric compression ratio.
Journal Article

The Effects of EGR and Injection Timing on the Engine Combustion and Emission Performances Fueled by Butanol-Diesel Blends

The combustion and emission characteristics of a diesel engine running on butanol-diesel blends were investigated in this study. The blending ratio of n-butanol to diesel was varied from 0 to 40 vol% using an increment of 10 vol%, and each blend was tested on a 2.7 L V6 common rail direction injection diesel engine equipped with an EGR system. The test was carried out under two engine loads at a constant engine speed, using various combinations of EGR ratios and injection timings. Test results indicate that n-butanol addition to engine fuel is able to substantially decrease soot emission from raw exhaust gas, while the change in NOx emissions varies depending on the n-butanol content and engine operating conditions. Increasing EGR ratio and retarding injection timing are effective approaches to reduce NOx emissions from combustion of n-butanol-diesel blends.