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Technical Paper

The Lean Limit and Emissions at Near-Idle for a Gasoline HAJI System with Alternative Pre-Chamber Fuels

2007-09-16
2007-24-0120
Hydrogen assisted jet ignition (HAJI) is a pre-chamber ignition system for otherwise standard gasoline fueled spark ignition engines that involves the use of a chemically active turbulent jet to initiate combustion in lean fuel mixtures. HAJI burns the lean main charge rapidly and with almost no combustion variability, which allows for low hydrocarbon emissions and almost zero NOx, due to lower peak temperatures. This paper focuses on the effects of different pre-chamber fuels on combustion stability, lean limit and emissions in a single cylinder, HAJI equipped, CFR engine under a worst case, light load condition. Results indicate that the choice of pre-chamber fuel affects the main chamber lean limit but that emissions are not largely affected before this lean limit is reached. The lean limit was extended furthest, to λ = 2.5 with hydrogen, followed by λ = 2.35 with LPG, λ = 2.25 with CNG and λ = 2.15 with carbon monoxide.
Technical Paper

The Feasibility of Downsizing a 1.25 Liter Normally Aspirated Engine to a 0.43 Liter Highly Turbocharged Engine

2007-09-16
2007-24-0083
In this paper, performance, efficiency and emission experimental results are presented from a prototype 434 cm3, highly turbocharged (TC), two cylinder engine with brake power limited to approximately 60 kW. These results are compared to current small engines found in today's automobile marketplace. A normally aspirated (NA) 1.25 liter, four cylinder, modern production engine with similar brake power output is used for comparison. Results illustrate the potential for downsized engines to significantly reduce fuel consumption while still maintaining engine performance. This has advantages in reducing vehicle running costs together with meeting tighter carbon dioxide (CO2) emission standards. Experimental results highlight the performance potential of smaller engines with intake boosting. This is demonstrated with the test engine achieving 25 bar brake mean effective pressure (BMEP).
Technical Paper

Compression Ratio Effects on Performance, Efficiency, Emissions and Combustion in a Carbureted and PFI Small Engine

2007-08-05
2007-01-3623
This paper compares the performance, efficiency, emissions and combustion parameters of a prototype two cylinder 430 cm3 engine which has been tested in a variety of normally aspirated (NA) modes with compression ratio (CR) variations. Experiments were completed using 98-RON pump gasoline with modes defined by alterations to the induction system, which included carburetion and port fuel injection (PFI). The results from this paper provide some insight into the CR effects for small NA spark ignition (SI) engines. This information provides future direction for the development of smaller engines as engine downsizing grows in popularity due to rising oil prices and recent carbon dioxide (CO2) emission regulations. Results are displayed in the engine speed, manifold absolute pressure (MAP) and CR domains, with engine speeds exceeding 10000 rev/min and CRs ranging from 9 to 13. Combustion analysis is also included, allowing mass fraction burn (MFB) comparison.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Hot and Cool EGR with Hydrogen Assisted Jet Ignition

2007-08-05
2007-01-3627
Hydrogen assisted jet ignition (HAJI) is a pre-chamber ignition system for standard gasoline fueled engines that involves the use of a chemically active turbulent jet to initiate combustion in lean fuel mixtures. HAJI burns the lean main charge rapidly and with almost no combustion variability, which allows for low hydrocarbon emissions and almost zero NOx, due to lower peak temperatures. This paper focuses on the effects of internal and cooled external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on combustion parameters, emissions and thermal efficiency in a single cylinder HAJI equipped CFR engine. Experimental results indicate that replacing air with EGR in λ=2 mixtures can shift the lean limit at which NOx is negligible to mixtures as rich as λ=1.3, without a large penalty in hydrocarbon emissions and thermal efficiency.
Technical Paper

Why Liquid Phase LPG Port Injection has Superior Power and Efficiency to Gas Phase Port Injection

2007-08-05
2007-01-3552
This paper reports comparative results for liquid phase versus gaseous phase port injection in a single cylinder engine. It follows previous research in a multi-cylinder engine where liquid phase was found to have advantages over gas phase at most operating conditions. Significant variations in cylinder to cylinder mixture distribution were found for both phases and leading to uncertainty in the findings. The uncertainty was avoided in this paper as in the engine used, a high speed Waukesha ASTM CFR, identical manifold conditions could be assured and MBT spark found for each fuel supply system over a wide range of mixtures. These were extended to lean burn conditions where gaseous fuelling in the multi-cylinder engine had been reported to be at least an equal performer to liquid phase. The experimental data confirm the power and efficiency advantages of liquid phase injection over gas phase injection and carburetion in multi-cylinder engine tests.
Technical Paper

Optimized Design of a Cyclic Variability Constrained Lean Limit SI Engine at Optimum NOx and Efficiency Using a PSO Algorithm

2007-08-05
2007-01-3551
In recent times new tools have emerged to aid the optimization of engine design. The particle swarm optimizer, used here is one of these tools. However, applying it to the optimization of the S.I. engine for high efficiency and low NOx emission has shown the preference of ultra lean burn strategy combined with high compression ratios. For combined power, efficiency and emissions benefits, there are two restricting factors, limiting the applicability of this strategy, knocking and cyclic variability. In the ultra lean region, knocking is not an important issue but the variability is a major concern. This paper demonstrates the application of a variability model to limit the search domain for the optimization program. The results show that variability constrains the possible gains in fuel consumption and emission reduction, through optimizing cam phasing, mixture and spark timing. The fuel consumption gain is reduced by about 11% relative.
Technical Paper

Direct Injection Compressed Natural Gas Combustion and Visualisation

2000-06-19
2000-01-1838
This paper details the development of a compressed natural gas (CNG) engine with ultra lean burn low emissions potential. Hydrogen assisted jet ignition (HAJI) is used to achieve reliable combustion and low NOx emissions, whilst direct injection is used to improve thermal efficiency and decrease hydrocarbon (HC) emissions. It is found that port inducted propane, port inducted CNG and directly injected CNG all produce negligible levels of CO and NOx when operating at air/fuel ratios higher than λ = 1.8. Furthermore, direct injection of CNG produced approximately 100 ppm C6 less HC emissions than port induction of CNG, and port induction of CNG decreased the HC emissions by around a factor of a third to a half in comparison with port induction of propane.
Technical Paper

Enhanced ICSI Engine Performance With Particle Swarm Optimization

2004-01-16
2004-28-0075
Increasing engine power and efficiency using a particle swarm optimization technique is investigated by using thermodynamics based quasi-steady engine simulation model. A simplified engine friction model is also incorporated to estimate the brake power output. Further, a simple knock model is used to make sure of knock free engine operation. Model is calibrated and validated to a Ford Falcon AU six-cylinder gasoline engine. Nine different engine-operating parameters are considered as input variables for the optimization; spark timing, equivalence ratio, compression ratio, inlet and exhaust vale opening timing and durations, maximum inlet valve lift and manifold pressure. Significant improvement of the engine power output for a given amount of induced gas is observed with the optimized conditions when compared to the corresponding power output with the reference engines normal operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Lean Mixture Ignition Systems for CNG in Diesel Applications

2004-01-16
2004-28-0017
A high compression ratio, single cylinder, open chamber diesel engine was converted to operate on homogenously charged compressed natural gas (CNG) with the aim of minimising pollutant emissions such as oxides of nitrogen, particulate matter and carbon dioxide. Three ignition systems were tested including spark ignition (SI), diesel pilot ignition (DPI) and hydrogen assisted jet ignition (HAJI). Irrespective of ignition system used, the efficiency of the engine operating on CNG was significantly reduced at part load compared to diesel. This was predominantly due to a greater amount of unburnt hydrocarbons, higher cycle-by-cycle variability, slow and partial burns and increased heat transfer to the walls. DPI and HAJI systems were able to extend the lean limit to lambda 2.7 and 3.3 respectively, however this did not result in efficiency gains.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Pfi and Di Superbike Engines

2008-12-02
2008-01-2943
Gasoline Direct Injection (DI) is a technique that was successful in motor sports several decades ago and is now relatively popular in passenger car applications only. DI gasoline fuel injectors have been recently improved considerably, with much higher fuel flow rates and much finer atomization enabled by the advances in fuel pressure and needle actuation. These improved injector performance and the general interest in reducing fuel consumption also in motor sports have made this option interesting again. This paper compares Port Fuel Injection (PFI) and DI of gasoline fuel in a high performance, four cylinder spark ignition engine for super bike racing. Computations are performed with a code for gas exchange, heat transfer and combustion, simulating turbulent combustion and knock.
Technical Paper

The Always Lean Burn Spark Ignition (ALSI) Engine – Its Performance and Emissions

2009-04-20
2009-01-0932
This paper is based on extensive experimental research with lean burn, high compression ratio engines using LPG, CNG and gasoline fuels. It also builds on recent experience with highly boosted spark ignition gasoline and LPG engines and single cylinder engine research used for model calibration. The final experimental foundation is an evaluation of jet assisted ignition that generally allows a lean mixture shift of more than one unit in lambda with consequential benefits of improved thermal efficiency and close to zero NOx. The capability of an ultra lean burn spark ignition engine is described. The concept is operation at air-fuel ratios similar to the diesel engine but with essentially homogenous charge, although some stratification may be desirable. To achieve high thermal efficiency this engine has optimized compression ratio but with variable valve timing which enables reduction in the effective compression ratio when desirable.
Technical Paper

Exploring the Charge Composition of SI Engine Lean Limits

2009-04-20
2009-01-0929
In this paper the experimental performance of the lean limits is examined for two different types of engines the first a dedicated LPG high compression ratio 2-valve per cylinder engine (Ford of Australia MY 2001 AU Falcon) and the second a gasoline moderate compression 4-valve per cylinder variant of the same engine (Ford of Australia MY 2006 BF Falcon). The in-cylinder composition at the lean limit over a range of steady state operating conditions is estimated using a quasi-dimensional model. This makes it possible to take into account the effects of both residual fraction and fresh charge diluents (EGR and excess air) that allow the exploration of a modeled lean limit performance [1, 2]. The results are compared to the predictions from a model for combustion variability applied to the quasi-dimensional model operating in optimization mode.
Technical Paper

Gas Assisted Jet Ignition of Ultra-Lean LPG in a Spark Ignition Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-0506
Gas assisted jet ignition is an advanced prechamber ignition process that allows ignition of ultra lean mixtures in an otherwise standard spark ignition engine. The results presented in this paper indicate that in a gas assisted jet ignition system fuelled with LPG in both the main chamber and prechamber, the lean limit can be extended to between λ = 2-2.35, depending on the load and speed. Although the fuel combinations that employ H2 as the prechamber fuel can extend the lean limit furthest (λ = 2.5-2.6), the extension enabled by the LPG-LPG prechamber-main chamber combination provides lower NOx emission levels at similar λ. In addition, when LPG is employed in place of gasoline as the main chamber fuel, hydrocarbon emissions are significantly reduced, however with a slight penalty in indicated mean effective pressure due to the gaseous state of the LPG.
Technical Paper

Deterioration of Automotive Catalytic Converters (Part 2): Catalytic Performance Characterisation

2001-09-24
2001-01-3695
This is the second part of a two-part study that compared the degree of deterioration of catalytic converters taken from vehicles with low and high odometer readings. Part two details the catalytic performance characteristics of the catalysts that were physically characterised, according to chemical contamination and thermal degradation, previously in part one. The catalytic activity was determined using engine dynamometer and laboratory tests. The low odometer catalysts showed largely uniform light-off temperatures for CO, HC and NO that were increased in the order of 20 % relative to a new catalyst. The steady state activity was largely unaffected. The dominant deactivation mechanism of these catalysts was found to be the baseline thermal deterioration of the alumina washcoat under normal vehicle operating conditions. The deactivation shown in the high odometer catalysts was highly varied with the greatest loss of activity resulting from exposure to severe thermal conditions.
Technical Paper

Deterioration of Automotive Catalytic Converters: Physical Catalyst Characterisation

2001-09-24
2001-01-3691
The degree of physical deterioration of catalytic converters removed from two groups of motor vehicles with low and high odometer readings have been studied. The changes in the physical and chemical properties between the two catalyst groups were investigated using the XRD, BET and PIXE/PIGE techniques. Thermal damage was the main catalyst deterioration mechanism in both odometer groups. The low odometer group showed near-uniformity in both surface area loss (average 45 %) and degree of CeO2 sintering representing the baseline thermal deterioration from normal vehicle operation. High odometer catalysts displayed more complex deactivation mechanisms involving both chemical contamination and thermal deactivation such as support phase transformation, internal “hot zones” and contaminant-support interactions.
Technical Paper

Joint Efficiency and NOx Optimization Using a PSO Algorithm

2006-04-03
2006-01-1109
The challenge of tough fuel consumption reduction targets and near zero NOx emission standards can be met by optimization of the full range of engine design variables. Here these are explored through an engine simulation model and the application of an optimizing algorithm that can work in discontinuous data space. The combustion model has main features that include flame propagation, the effects of turbulence, chamber shape interaction and NOx formation. Two engine configurations are used to illustrate the application of the model and optimizer. Both allow the adoption of extra lean burn possible with LPG as fuel and EGR through an external route or cam phasing. In the first the compression ratio and cam profiles are fixed, in the second study they are also optimized.
Technical Paper

The Systematic Evaluation of Twelve LP Gas Fuels for Emissions and Fuel Consumption

2000-06-19
2000-01-1867
The effects on bi-fuel car exhaust emissions, fuel consumption and acceleration performance of a range of LPG fuels has been determined. The LPGs tested included those representing natural gas condensate and oil refineries' products to include a spectrum of C3:C4 and paraffiinic:olefinic mixtures. The overall conclusions are that exhaust emissions from the gaseous fuels for the three-way catalyst equipped cars tested were lower than for gasoline. For all the LPGs, CO2 equivalent emissions are reduced by 7% to 10% or more compared with gasoline. The cars' acceleration performance indicates that there was no sacrifice in acceleration times to various speeds, with any gaseous fuel in these OEM developed cars.
Journal Article

4 L Light Duty LPG Engine Evaluated for Heavy Duty Application

2010-05-05
2010-01-1463
Many applications of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) to commercial vehicles have used their corresponding diesel engine counterparts for their basic architecture. Here a review is made of the application to commercial vehicle operation of a robust 4 L, light-duty, 6-cylinder in-line engine produced by Ford Australia on a unique long-term production line. Since 2000 it has had a dedicated LPG pick-up truck and cab-chassis variant. A sequence of research programs has focused on optimizing this engine for low carbon dioxide (CO₂) emissions. Best results (from steady state engine maps) suggest reductions in CO₂ emissions of over 30% are possible in New European Drive Cycle (NEDC) light-duty tests compared with the base gasoline engine counterpart. This has been achieved through increasing compression ratio to 12, running lean burn (to λ = 1.6) and careful study (through CFD and bench tests) of the injected LPG-air mixing system.
Journal Article

Mixture Preparation Effects on Gaseous Fuel Combustion in SI Engines

2009-04-20
2009-01-0323
This paper presents a comparison of the influence of different mixture preparation strategies on gaseous fuel combustion in SI engines. Three mixture preparation strategies are presented for a dedicated LPG fuelled engine, showing varying results - gaseous phase port injection (PFI-G), liquid-phase port injection (PFI-L) and gaseous-phase throttle-body injection (TBI-G). Previous work by the authors has shown considerable differences in emissions and thermal efficiency between different fuelling strategies. This paper extends this work to the area of combustion characteristics and lean limit operation and closer analyses the differences between these systems. A dedicated LPG in-line six cylinder engine with compression ratio increased to 11.7:1 (up from the standard 9.65:1) was tested over a range of speed/torque conditions representing most of the steady-state parts of the Euro drive-cycle for light duty-vehicles. The air-fuel ratio was varied from lambda 1.0 to the lean limit.
Journal Article

An Integrated Model of Energy Transport in a Reciprocating, Lean Burn, Spark Ignition Engine

2015-04-14
2015-01-1659
This paper presents a combined experimental and numerical method for analysing energy flows within a spark ignition engine. Engine dynamometer data is combined with physical models of in-cylinder convection and the engine's thermal impedances, allowing closure of the First Law of Thermodynamics over the entire engine system. In contrast to almost all previous works, the coolant and metal temperatures are not assumed constant, but rather are outputs from this approach. This method is therefore expected to be most useful for lean burn engines, whose temperatures should depart most from normal experience. As an example of this method, the effects of normalised air-fuel ratio (λ), compression ratio and combustion chamber geometry are examined using a hydrogen-fueled engine operating from λ = 1.5 to λ = 6. This shows large variations in the in-cylinder wall temperatures and heat transfer with respect to λ.
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