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Technical Paper

Changes to Fim-Motogp Rules to Reduce Costs and Make Racing More Directly Relevant to Road Motorcycle Development

2008-12-02
2008-01-2957
The specific power densities and therefore the level of sophistication and costs of FIM-MOTOGP engines 800 cm3 in capacity have reached levels similar to those of the traditionally much more expensive FIA-Formula One engines and some racing developments have no application at all in the development of production bikes. The aim of the paper is therefore to review FIM-MOTOGP engine rules and make recommendations that could reduce costs and make racing more directly relevant to the development of production bikes while enhancing the significant interest in technical innovation by the sports' fans.
Technical Paper

The Systematic Evaluation of Twelve LP Gas Fuels for Emissions and Fuel Consumption

2000-06-19
2000-01-1867
The effects on bi-fuel car exhaust emissions, fuel consumption and acceleration performance of a range of LPG fuels has been determined. The LPGs tested included those representing natural gas condensate and oil refineries' products to include a spectrum of C3:C4 and paraffiinic:olefinic mixtures. The overall conclusions are that exhaust emissions from the gaseous fuels for the three-way catalyst equipped cars tested were lower than for gasoline. For all the LPGs, CO2 equivalent emissions are reduced by 7% to 10% or more compared with gasoline. The cars' acceleration performance indicates that there was no sacrifice in acceleration times to various speeds, with any gaseous fuel in these OEM developed cars.
Journal Article

4 L Light Duty LPG Engine Evaluated for Heavy Duty Application

2010-05-05
2010-01-1463
Many applications of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) to commercial vehicles have used their corresponding diesel engine counterparts for their basic architecture. Here a review is made of the application to commercial vehicle operation of a robust 4 L, light-duty, 6-cylinder in-line engine produced by Ford Australia on a unique long-term production line. Since 2000 it has had a dedicated LPG pick-up truck and cab-chassis variant. A sequence of research programs has focused on optimizing this engine for low carbon dioxide (CO₂) emissions. Best results (from steady state engine maps) suggest reductions in CO₂ emissions of over 30% are possible in New European Drive Cycle (NEDC) light-duty tests compared with the base gasoline engine counterpart. This has been achieved through increasing compression ratio to 12, running lean burn (to λ = 1.6) and careful study (through CFD and bench tests) of the injected LPG-air mixing system.
Technical Paper

A Before and After Study of the Change to Unleaded Gasoline-Test Results from EPA and Other Cycles

1990-02-01
900150
A fleet of 50, 1986-1987 model year cars designed for unleaded gasoline has been tested on the road and on a chassis dynamometer over 5 driving cycles and a wide range of other manoeuvres including steady speeds. It was found that the fuel consumption of this fleet was 17 to 23% (depending on test cycle) less than that of a corresponding fleet to leaded fuelled cars of 1980 model year average. Exhaust emissions were significantly lowered in the range of 45 to 93%. However trend line analysis of the several data sets indicates that the ULG fleet has about 6% higher fuel consumption than would have been expected if there had been a continuing evolution of leaded vehicle technology. The data base produced has applicability to a wide range of planning and design tasks, and those illustrated indicate the effects of speed limit changes and advisory speed signs on fuel consumption and emissions.
Technical Paper

Effects of a Wide Range of Drive Cycles on the Emissions from Vehicles of Three Levels of Technology

1995-02-01
950221
Exhaust emission tests were performed on a fleet of vehicles comprising a range of engine technology from leaded fuel control methods to closed loop three-way catalyst meeting 1992 U.S. standards but marketed in Australia. Each vehicle was tested to 5 different driving cycles including the FTP cycles and steady speed driving. Research had shown that for hot-start operation the major driving pattern parameters which influence fuel consumption and exhaust emissions are average speed and PKE (the positive acceleration kinetic energy per unit distance). Plots from analysis of micro-trip fuel use and emissions rates from the test cycles may be presented as contours in PKE. It follows that the micro trip emissions from a range of driving cycles including, regulated e.g. FTP city and unregulated e.g. LA-92, recently developed EPA cycles or from other cities e.g. Bangkok can be superimposed.
Technical Paper

Concept Car - Life Cycle Energy Analysis

1998-02-23
981154
The Australian Concept Car was developed with support from a wide range of industry and government sectors. The estimated energy consumption over the vehicle life cycle is presented relative to a typical Australian Upper Medium Class car fleet. Several assumptions are made about the performance of the prototype car, when extrapolating it to a production counterpart for the comparison. Production methods are one area, covered by a survey of suppliers, and particularly in-service fuel use has had to be estimated using validated procedures. Uncertainties exist about the level of recycling at the end of the vehicles projected life after 225,000 km, leading to defined uncertainties. It is concluded that the concept car will have an energy reduction of 15-17.5% and the life cycle CO2 emissions will be reduced by a little less.
Technical Paper

Performance Comparison of Engine Down-Sized to High Efficieincy ICEs in Optimized Hybrid Vehicles

2012-04-16
2012-01-1033
A real time energy management (EMS) optimizing algorithm is introduced that performs similar to offline dynamic programming (DP) for parallel HEVs. The EMS and the DP are compared, especially with the addition of a local hill climbing technique, to the example performance prediction of the fuel consumption of a 1.67 tonne large car using a 50 kW Honda Insight engine (representing 65% power reduction from standard) as reference. Then the performance of the vehicle in HEV mode, with a parallel 30 kW motor/generator is examined. The average improvement of this vehicle over five drive cycles from around the world is about 50% reduction in fuel consumption. Next the engine is replaced with an advanced SI turbocharged engine with assisted ignition which returns the performance to that expected of this class of car i.e. 0-100 km/h acceleration time of 7 s. This results in a 14% average reduction in fuel consumption across the five cycles compared with the base Honda engine.
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