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Technical Paper

The Lean Limit and Emissions at Near-Idle for a Gasoline HAJI System with Alternative Pre-Chamber Fuels

Hydrogen assisted jet ignition (HAJI) is a pre-chamber ignition system for otherwise standard gasoline fueled spark ignition engines that involves the use of a chemically active turbulent jet to initiate combustion in lean fuel mixtures. HAJI burns the lean main charge rapidly and with almost no combustion variability, which allows for low hydrocarbon emissions and almost zero NOx, due to lower peak temperatures. This paper focuses on the effects of different pre-chamber fuels on combustion stability, lean limit and emissions in a single cylinder, HAJI equipped, CFR engine under a worst case, light load condition. Results indicate that the choice of pre-chamber fuel affects the main chamber lean limit but that emissions are not largely affected before this lean limit is reached. The lean limit was extended furthest, to λ = 2.5 with hydrogen, followed by λ = 2.35 with LPG, λ = 2.25 with CNG and λ = 2.15 with carbon monoxide.
Technical Paper

The Feasibility of Downsizing a 1.25 Liter Normally Aspirated Engine to a 0.43 Liter Highly Turbocharged Engine

In this paper, performance, efficiency and emission experimental results are presented from a prototype 434 cm3, highly turbocharged (TC), two cylinder engine with brake power limited to approximately 60 kW. These results are compared to current small engines found in today's automobile marketplace. A normally aspirated (NA) 1.25 liter, four cylinder, modern production engine with similar brake power output is used for comparison. Results illustrate the potential for downsized engines to significantly reduce fuel consumption while still maintaining engine performance. This has advantages in reducing vehicle running costs together with meeting tighter carbon dioxide (CO2) emission standards. Experimental results highlight the performance potential of smaller engines with intake boosting. This is demonstrated with the test engine achieving 25 bar brake mean effective pressure (BMEP).
Technical Paper

Optimized Design of a Cyclic Variability Constrained Lean Limit SI Engine at Optimum NOx and Efficiency Using a PSO Algorithm

In recent times new tools have emerged to aid the optimization of engine design. The particle swarm optimizer, used here is one of these tools. However, applying it to the optimization of the S.I. engine for high efficiency and low NOx emission has shown the preference of ultra lean burn strategy combined with high compression ratios. For combined power, efficiency and emissions benefits, there are two restricting factors, limiting the applicability of this strategy, knocking and cyclic variability. In the ultra lean region, knocking is not an important issue but the variability is a major concern. This paper demonstrates the application of a variability model to limit the search domain for the optimization program. The results show that variability constrains the possible gains in fuel consumption and emission reduction, through optimizing cam phasing, mixture and spark timing. The fuel consumption gain is reduced by about 11% relative.
Technical Paper

Comparing the Performance and Limitations of a Downsized Formula SAE Engine in Normally Aspirated, Supercharged and Turbocharged Modes

This paper compares the performance of a small two cylinder, 430 cm3 engine which has been tested in a variety of normally aspirated (NA) and forced induction modes on 98-RON pump gasoline. These modes are defined by variations in the induction system and associated compression ratio (CR) alterations needed to avoid knock and maximize volumetric efficiency (ηVOL). These modes included: (A) NA with carburetion (B) NA with port fuel injection (PFI) (C) Mildly Supercharged (SC) with PFI (D) Highly Turbocharged (TC) with PFI The results have significant relevance in defining the limitations for small downsized spark ignition (SI) engines, with power increases needed via intake boosting to compensate for the reduced swept volume. Performance is compared in the varying modes with comparisons of brake mean effective pressure (BMEP), brake power, ηVOL, brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) and brake thermal efficiency (ηTH).
Technical Paper

Enhanced ICSI Engine Performance With Particle Swarm Optimization

Increasing engine power and efficiency using a particle swarm optimization technique is investigated by using thermodynamics based quasi-steady engine simulation model. A simplified engine friction model is also incorporated to estimate the brake power output. Further, a simple knock model is used to make sure of knock free engine operation. Model is calibrated and validated to a Ford Falcon AU six-cylinder gasoline engine. Nine different engine-operating parameters are considered as input variables for the optimization; spark timing, equivalence ratio, compression ratio, inlet and exhaust vale opening timing and durations, maximum inlet valve lift and manifold pressure. Significant improvement of the engine power output for a given amount of induced gas is observed with the optimized conditions when compared to the corresponding power output with the reference engines normal operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Pfi and Di Superbike Engines

Gasoline Direct Injection (DI) is a technique that was successful in motor sports several decades ago and is now relatively popular in passenger car applications only. DI gasoline fuel injectors have been recently improved considerably, with much higher fuel flow rates and much finer atomization enabled by the advances in fuel pressure and needle actuation. These improved injector performance and the general interest in reducing fuel consumption also in motor sports have made this option interesting again. This paper compares Port Fuel Injection (PFI) and DI of gasoline fuel in a high performance, four cylinder spark ignition engine for super bike racing. Computations are performed with a code for gas exchange, heat transfer and combustion, simulating turbulent combustion and knock.
Technical Paper

Changes to Fim-Motogp Rules to Reduce Costs and Make Racing More Directly Relevant to Road Motorcycle Development

The specific power densities and therefore the level of sophistication and costs of FIM-MOTOGP engines 800 cm3 in capacity have reached levels similar to those of the traditionally much more expensive FIA-Formula One engines and some racing developments have no application at all in the development of production bikes. The aim of the paper is therefore to review FIM-MOTOGP engine rules and make recommendations that could reduce costs and make racing more directly relevant to the development of production bikes while enhancing the significant interest in technical innovation by the sports' fans.
Technical Paper

Numerical Study of a Turbocharged, Jet Ignited, Cryogenic, Port Injected, Hydrogen Engine

Favorable and unfavorable properties of hydrogen as a combustion engine fuel have been accommodated in a design of a fuel efficient and clean engine providing similar to gasoline maximum torque and power. The advanced H2ICE being developed is a turbocharged engine fitted with cryogenic port hydrogen fuel injection and the hydrogen assisted jet ignition (HAJI). The combustion chamber is designed to produce a high compression ratio and therefore high thermal efficiency. A waste gated turbocharger provides pressure boosting for an increased power density running ultra lean for SULEV operation without after treatment. Thanks to the combustion properties of hydrogen further enhanced by the HAJI system, the engine load is mainly controlled throttle-less decreasing the fuel-to-air equivalence ratio from ultra lean ϕ=0.43 to ultra-ultra lean ϕ=0.18. The computational model developed for addressing the major design issues and the predicted engine performance and efficiency maps are included.
Technical Paper

The Systematic Evaluation of Twelve LP Gas Fuels for Emissions and Fuel Consumption

The effects on bi-fuel car exhaust emissions, fuel consumption and acceleration performance of a range of LPG fuels has been determined. The LPGs tested included those representing natural gas condensate and oil refineries' products to include a spectrum of C3:C4 and paraffiinic:olefinic mixtures. The overall conclusions are that exhaust emissions from the gaseous fuels for the three-way catalyst equipped cars tested were lower than for gasoline. For all the LPGs, CO2 equivalent emissions are reduced by 7% to 10% or more compared with gasoline. The cars' acceleration performance indicates that there was no sacrifice in acceleration times to various speeds, with any gaseous fuel in these OEM developed cars.
Journal Article

4 L Light Duty LPG Engine Evaluated for Heavy Duty Application

Many applications of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) to commercial vehicles have used their corresponding diesel engine counterparts for their basic architecture. Here a review is made of the application to commercial vehicle operation of a robust 4 L, light-duty, 6-cylinder in-line engine produced by Ford Australia on a unique long-term production line. Since 2000 it has had a dedicated LPG pick-up truck and cab-chassis variant. A sequence of research programs has focused on optimizing this engine for low carbon dioxide (CO₂) emissions. Best results (from steady state engine maps) suggest reductions in CO₂ emissions of over 30% are possible in New European Drive Cycle (NEDC) light-duty tests compared with the base gasoline engine counterpart. This has been achieved through increasing compression ratio to 12, running lean burn (to λ = 1.6) and careful study (through CFD and bench tests) of the injected LPG-air mixing system.
Technical Paper

A Before and After Study of the Change to Unleaded Gasoline-Test Results from EPA and Other Cycles

A fleet of 50, 1986-1987 model year cars designed for unleaded gasoline has been tested on the road and on a chassis dynamometer over 5 driving cycles and a wide range of other manoeuvres including steady speeds. It was found that the fuel consumption of this fleet was 17 to 23% (depending on test cycle) less than that of a corresponding fleet to leaded fuelled cars of 1980 model year average. Exhaust emissions were significantly lowered in the range of 45 to 93%. However trend line analysis of the several data sets indicates that the ULG fleet has about 6% higher fuel consumption than would have been expected if there had been a continuing evolution of leaded vehicle technology. The data base produced has applicability to a wide range of planning and design tasks, and those illustrated indicate the effects of speed limit changes and advisory speed signs on fuel consumption and emissions.
Technical Paper

HAJI Operation in a Hydrogen-Only Mode for Emission Control at Cold Start

The HAJI (Hydrogen Assisted Jet Ignition) system for S.I. engines utilises direct injection of small amounts of hydrogen to enhance the combustion of a variety of automotive fuels. Although not the primary purpose of HAJI, the hardware, once in place, also lends itself to the possibility of hydrogen-only running during a cold start. Cold-start simulations have been performed using a single cylinder engine. Results are presented, comparing hydrogen-only tests with standard HAJI operation and normal spark-ignition operation. HAJI and spark ignition tests were carried out with gasoline as the main-chamber fuel. Emission levels and combustion stability characteristics were recorded as the engine warmed up. The differences between the various fueling/ignition scenarios are presented and the implications for possible automotive applications are discussed in light of current and proposed emissions legislation.
Technical Paper

Concept Car - Life Cycle Energy Analysis

The Australian Concept Car was developed with support from a wide range of industry and government sectors. The estimated energy consumption over the vehicle life cycle is presented relative to a typical Australian Upper Medium Class car fleet. Several assumptions are made about the performance of the prototype car, when extrapolating it to a production counterpart for the comparison. Production methods are one area, covered by a survey of suppliers, and particularly in-service fuel use has had to be estimated using validated procedures. Uncertainties exist about the level of recycling at the end of the vehicles projected life after 225,000 km, leading to defined uncertainties. It is concluded that the concept car will have an energy reduction of 15-17.5% and the life cycle CO2 emissions will be reduced by a little less.
Technical Paper

Optimum Control of an S.I. Engine with a λ=5 Capability

HAJI (Hydrogen Assisted Jet Ignition) is an advanced combustion initiation system for otherwise standard S.I engines. It utilises the fluid mechanics of a turbulent, chemically active jet, combined with the reliability of spark igniting rich hydrogen mixtures. The result is an extremely robust ignition system, capable of developing power from an engine charged with air-fuel mixtures as lean as λ = 5. Experiments have been performed using a single cylinder engine operating on gasoline in the speed range of 600-1800 r/min. Data are presented in the form of maps which describe fuel efficiency, combustion stability and emissions with respect to load, speed, air-fuel ratio and throttle. The results are incorporated into a model of a known engine and vehicle and this is used to estimate performance over the Federal drive-cycle.
Technical Paper

Performance Comparison of Engine Down-Sized to High Efficieincy ICEs in Optimized Hybrid Vehicles

A real time energy management (EMS) optimizing algorithm is introduced that performs similar to offline dynamic programming (DP) for parallel HEVs. The EMS and the DP are compared, especially with the addition of a local hill climbing technique, to the example performance prediction of the fuel consumption of a 1.67 tonne large car using a 50 kW Honda Insight engine (representing 65% power reduction from standard) as reference. Then the performance of the vehicle in HEV mode, with a parallel 30 kW motor/generator is examined. The average improvement of this vehicle over five drive cycles from around the world is about 50% reduction in fuel consumption. Next the engine is replaced with an advanced SI turbocharged engine with assisted ignition which returns the performance to that expected of this class of car i.e. 0-100 km/h acceleration time of 7 s. This results in a 14% average reduction in fuel consumption across the five cycles compared with the base Honda engine.
Technical Paper

Exploring the Charge Composition of SI Engine Lean Limits

In this paper the experimental performance of the lean limits is examined for two different types of engines the first a dedicated LPG high compression ratio 2-valve per cylinder engine (Ford of Australia MY 2001 AU Falcon) and the second a gasoline moderate compression 4-valve per cylinder variant of the same engine (Ford of Australia MY 2006 BF Falcon). The in-cylinder composition at the lean limit over a range of steady state operating conditions is estimated using a quasi-dimensional model. This makes it possible to take into account the effects of both residual fraction and fresh charge diluents (EGR and excess air) that allow the exploration of a modeled lean limit performance [1, 2]. The results are compared to the predictions from a model for combustion variability applied to the quasi-dimensional model operating in optimization mode.
Technical Paper

Gas Assisted Jet Ignition of Ultra-Lean LPG in a Spark Ignition Engine

Gas assisted jet ignition is an advanced prechamber ignition process that allows ignition of ultra lean mixtures in an otherwise standard spark ignition engine. The results presented in this paper indicate that in a gas assisted jet ignition system fuelled with LPG in both the main chamber and prechamber, the lean limit can be extended to between λ = 2-2.35, depending on the load and speed. Although the fuel combinations that employ H2 as the prechamber fuel can extend the lean limit furthest (λ = 2.5-2.6), the extension enabled by the LPG-LPG prechamber-main chamber combination provides lower NOx emission levels at similar λ. In addition, when LPG is employed in place of gasoline as the main chamber fuel, hydrocarbon emissions are significantly reduced, however with a slight penalty in indicated mean effective pressure due to the gaseous state of the LPG.