Refine Your Search



Search Results

Technical Paper

Improvement of Combustion and Exhaust Gas Emissions in a Passenger Car Diesel Engine by Modification of Combustion Chamber Design

Three types of combustion chamber configurations (Types A, B, and C) with compression ratio lower than that of the baseline were tested for improved performance and exhaust gas emissions from an inline-four-cylinder 1.7-liter common-rail diesel engine manufactured for use with passenger cars. First, three combustion chambers were examined numerically using CFD code. Second, engine tests were conducted by using Type B combustion chamber, which is expected to have the best performance and exhaust gas emissions of all. As a result, 80% of NOx emissions at both low and medium loads at 1500 rpm, the engine speed used frequently in the actual city driving, improved with nearly no degradation in smoke emissions and brake thermal efficiency. It was shown that a large amount of cooled EGR enables NOx-free combustion with long ignition delay.
Technical Paper

Control Strategy for Urea-SCR System in Single Step Load Transition

Urea-SCR system has a high NOx reduction potential in the steady-state diesel engine operation. In complicated transient operations, however, there are certain problems with the urea-SCR system in that NOx reduction performance degrades and adsorbed NH3 would be emitted. Here, optimum urea injection methods and exhaust bypass control to overcome these problems are studied. This exhaust bypass control enables NO/NOx ratio at the inlet of SCR catalyst to be decreased widely, which prevents over production of NO2 at the pre-oxidation catalyst. Steady-state and simple transient engine tests were conducted to clarify NOx reduction characteristics when optimum urea injection pattern and exhaust bypass control were applied. In simple transient test, only the engine load was rapidly changed for obtaining the fundamental knowledge concerning the effect of those techniques.
Technical Paper

Influence of Diesel Post Injection Timing on HC Emissions and Catalytic Oxidation Performance

For diesel emission control systems containing a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) and a Catalyzed Soot Filter (CSF) the DOC is used to oxidize the additional fuel injected into the cylinder and/or the exhaust pipe for the purpose of increasing the CSF inlet temperature during the soot regeneration. Hydrocarbon (HC) oxidation performance of the DOC is affected by HC species as well as a catalyst design, i.e., precious metal species, support materials and additives. How engine-out HC species vary as a function of fuel supply conditions is not well understood. In addition, the relationship between catalyst design and oxidation activity of different hydrocarbon species requires further study. In this study, diesel fuel was supplied by in-cylinder, post injection and exhaust HC species were measured by a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and a gas analyzer. The post injection timing was set to either 73°, 88° or 98° ATDC(after top dead center).
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation Accounting for the Finite-Rate Elementary Chemical Reactions for Computing Diesel Combustion Process

To facilitate research and development of diesel engines, the universal numerical code for predicting diesel combustion has been favored for the past decade. In this paper, the finite-rate elementary chemical reactions, sometimes called the detailed chemical reactions, are introduced into the KIVA-3V code through the use of the Partially Stirred Reactor (PaSR) model with the KH-RT break-up, modified collision and velocity interpolation models. Outcomes were such that the predicted pressure histories have favorable agreements with the measurements of single and double injection cases in the diesel engine for use in passenger cars. Thus, it is demonstrated that the present model will be a useful tool for predicting ignition and combustion characteristics encountered in the cylinder.
Technical Paper

Detailed Analysis of Particulate Matter Emitted from Biofueled Diesel Combustion with High EGR

Difference of engine combustion characteristics, species and amount of exhaust gas and PM (particulate matter consisted of SOF and Soot and Ash), and especially PM oxidation characteristics were studied when diesel fuel or bio-fuel, here PME (palm oil methyl ester) as an example, was used as a fuel. The fueling rate was adjusted to obtain the same torque for both fuels and engine was operated under several range of EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation) ratio. Under such conditions, PME showed shorter ignition delay time and lower R.H.R (rate of heat release) under 0-40% EGR ratio. With respect to engine exhaust gas species, CO, NO, THC and HCHO, CH3CHO concentration was almost the same when the EGR ratio is higher than 35% (Intake-Air/Fuel: A/F=20). However, PME also showed lower exhaust gas emission when the EGR ratio is higher than 30%.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Jatropha-derived Biodiesel on Diesel Engine Combustion and Emission Characteristics

The objective of the present research is to investigate the effects on diesel engine combustion and NOx and PM emission characteristics in case of blending the ordinary diesel fuel with biodiesel in passenger car diesel engines. Firstly, we conducted experiments to identify the combustion and emissions characteristics in a modern diesel engine complying with the EURO 4 emission standard. Then, we developed a numerical simulation model to explain and generalize biodiesel combustion phenomena in detail and generalize emission characteristics. The experimental and simulation results are useful to reduce biodiesel emissions by controlling engine operating and design parameters in the diesel engine. Engine tests were conducted and a mathematical model created to investigate the effects of 40% and 100% methyl oleate modeled fuel representing Jatropha-derived biodiesel on diesel combustion and emission characteristics, over a wide range of passenger car DI diesel engine operating conditions.
Technical Paper

A Numerical Study on Combustion and Exhaust Gas Emissions Characteristics of a Dual Fuel Natural Gas Engine Using a Multi-Dimensional Model Combined with Detailed Kinetics

Natural gas pre-mixture is ignited by a small amount of pilot fuel in the dual fuel engine. In this paper, numerical studies were carried out to investigate the combustion and exhaust gas emissions formation process of this engine type by using a multi dimensional model combined with the detailed chemical kinetics including 57 chemical species and 290 elementary reactions. In calculation, the effect of the pre-mixture concentration on combustion was examined. The result indicated that the increased concentration of natural gas could improve the burning fraction and THC, CO emissions due to the increased pre-mixture consumption rate and the cylinders gas temperature.
Technical Paper

Ignition and Combustion Control of Diesel HCCI

Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) is effective for the simultaneous reduction of soot and NOx emissions in diesel engine. In general, high octane number fuels (gasoline components or gaseous fuels) are used for HCCI operation, because these fuels briefly form lean homogeneous mixture because of long ignition delay and high volatility. However, it is necessary to improve injection systems, when these high octane number fuels are used in diesel engine. In addition, the difficulty of controlling auto-ignition timing must be resolved. On the other hand, HCCI using diesel fuel (diesel HCCI) also needs ignition control, because diesel fuel which has a low octane number causes the early ignition before TDC. The purpose of this study is the ignition and combustion control of diesel HCCI. The effects of parameters (injection timing, injection pressure, internal/external EGR, boost pressure, and variable valve timing (VVT)) on the ignition timing of diesel HCCI were investigated.
Technical Paper

A Quasi Two Dimensional Model of Transport Phenomena in Diesel Particulate Filters - The Effects of Particle Diameter on the Pressure Drop in DPF Regeneration Mode-

Experimental and numerical studies on the combustion of the particulate matter in the diesel particulate filter with the particulate matter loaded under different particulate matter loading condition were carried out. It was observed that the pressure losses through diesel particulate filter loaded with particulate matter having different mean aggregate particle diameters during both particulate matter loading and combustion periods. Diesel particulate filter regeneration mode was controlled with introducing a hot gas created in Diesel Oxidation Catalyst that oxidized hydrocarbon injected by a fuel injector placed on an exhaust gas pipe. The combustion amount was calculated with using a total diesel particulate filter weight measured by the weight meter both before and after the particulate matter regeneration event.
Technical Paper

0D/1D Turbulent Combustion Model Assessment from an Ultra-Lean Spark Ignition Engine

This paper focuses on an assessment of predictive combustion model using a 0D/1D simulation tool under high load, different excess air ratio λ , and different combustion stabilities (based on coefficient of variation of indicated mean effective pressure COVimep). To consider that, crank angle resolved data of experimental pressure of 500 cycles are recorded under engine speed 1000 RPM and 2000 RPM, wide-open throttle, and λ=1.0, 1.42, 1.7, and 2.0. Firstly, model calibration is conducted using 18 cases at 2000 RPM using 500 cycle-averaged in-cylinder pressure to find optimized model constants. Then, the model constants are unchanged for other cases. Next, different cycle-averaged pressure data are used as inputs in the simulation based on the COVimep for studying sensitivity of the turbulent model constants. The simulation is conducted using 1D simulation software GT-Power.
Technical Paper

Predicting Exhaust Emissions in a Glow-Assisted DI Methanol Engine Using a Combustion Model Combined with Full Kinetics

A numerical model has been developed to predict the formation of NOx and formaldehyde in the combustion and post-combustion zones of a methanol DI engine. For this purpose, a methanol-air mixture model combined with a full kinetics model has been introduced, taking into account 39 species with their 157 related elementary reactions. Through these kinetic simulations, a concept is proposed for optimizing methanol combustion and reducing exhaust emissions.
Technical Paper

Simulating Exhaust Emissions Characteristics and Their Improvements in a Glow-Assisted DI Methanol Engine Using Combustion Models Combined with Detailed Kinetics

An experimental and numerical study has been conducted on the emission and reduction of HCHO (formaldehyde) and other pollutants formed in the cylinder of a direct-injection diesel engine fueled by methanol. Engine tests were performed under a variety of intake conditions including throttling, heating, and EGR (exhaust gas recirculation) for the purpose of improving these emissions by changing gas compositions and combustion temperatures in the cylinder. Moreover, a detailed kinetics model was developed and applied to methanol combustion to investigate HCHO formation and the reduction mechanism influenced by associated elementary reactions and in-cylinder mixing.
Technical Paper

A Quasi Two Dimensional Model of Transport Phenomena in Diesel Particulate Filters - The Effects of Particle and Wall Pore Diameter on the Pressure Drop -

Experimental and numerical studies were conducted on diesel particulate filters (DPFs) under different soot loading conditions and DPF configurations. Pressure drops across DPFs with various mean pore diameters loaded with soots having different mean particle diameters were measured by introducing exhaust gases from a 2.2 liter inline four-cylinder, TCI diesel engine designed for use in passenger cars. A mechanistic hypothesis was then proposed to explain the observed trends, accounting for the effects of the soot loading regime in the wall and the soot cake layer on the pressure drop. This hypothesis was used to guide the development and validation of a numerical model for predicting the pressure drop in the DPF. The relationship between the permeability and the porosity of the wall and soot cake layer was modeled under various soot loading conditions.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Studies on Particulate Matter Formed in Fuel Rich Mixture

Experimental and numerical studies on PAHs (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons) and PM (Particulate Matters) formed in the fuel rich mixture have been conducted. In the experiment, neat n-heptane and n-heptane with benzene 25 % by weight were chosen as test fuels. In-cylinder gases produced by the fuel-rich HCCI (Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition) combustion were directly sampled and analyzed by the use of GC/MS (Gas Chromatograph/Mass Spectro- metry), and PM emission was also measured by PM sampling system to reveal characteristics of PM formation. Numerical study has been also carried out using a zero dimensional combustion model combined with detailed chemistry. Furthermore, simple surface growth of soot particles was integrated into a detailed chemical kinetic model, and validated with the experimental data.
Technical Paper

Developments of the Reduced Chemical Reaction Scheme for Multi-Component Gasoline Fuel

The reduced chemical reaction scheme which can take the effect of major fuel components on auto ignition timing into account has been developed. This reaction scheme was based on the reduced reaction mechanism for the primary reference fuels (PRF) proposed by Tsurushima [1] with 33 species and 38 reactions. Some pre-exponential factors were modified by using Particle Swarm Optimization to match the ignition delay time versus reciprocal temperature which was calculated by the detailed scheme with 2,301 species and 11,116 elementary chemical reactions. The result using the present reaction scheme shows good agreements with that using the detailed scheme for the effects of EGR, fuel components, and radical species on the ignition timing under homogeneous charge compression ignition combustion (HCCI) conditions.
Journal Article

A Numerical Study of the Effects of FAME Blends on Diesel Combustion and Emissions Characteristics Using a 3-D CFD Code Combined with Detailed Kinetics and Phenomenological Soot Formation Models

The objective of the present research is to analyze the effects of using oxygenated fuels (FAMEs) on diesel engine combustion and emission (NOx and soot). We studied methyl oleate (MO), which is an oxygenated fuel representative of major constituents of many types of biodiesels. Engine tests and numerical simulations were performed for 100% MO (MO100), 40% MO blended with JIS#2 diesel (MO40) and JIS#2 diesel (D100). The effects of MO on diesel combustion and emission characteristics were studied under engine operating conditions typically encountered in passenger car diesel engines, focusing on important parameters such as pilot injection, injection pressure and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rate. We used a diesel engine complying with the EURO4 emissions regulation, having a displacement of 2.2 L for passenger car applications. In engine tests comparing MO with diesel fuel, no effect on engine combustion pressure was observed for all conditions tested.
Technical Paper

Effects of High Temperature Fuel on In-Cylinder Fuel Mixture Formation Process for Direct Injection Engine

Swirl injector spray at high fuel temperatures has unique characteristics [1][2][3][4] compared to normal fuel temperature spray such as strong penetration and narrow spray width. These characteristics have a possibility for improving fuel consumption and exhaust emission at the cold start condition. Thus, Swirl injector spray at high fuel temperature conditions was modeled in a CFD(Computational Fluid Dynamics) code by using a multi components fuel evaporation model and other spray sub-models to predict the mixture formation process at the cold start condition. Results show that, high temperature fuel decreases wall film amount and increases vapor amount. It can be concluded that high temperature fuel has the possibility for improving fuel consumption and exhaust emission at the cold start condtion.
Journal Article

Detailed Diesel Combustion and Soot Formation Analysis with Improved Wall Model Using Large Eddy Simulation

A mixed time-scale subgrid large eddy simulation was used to simulate mixture formation, combustion and soot formation under the influence of turbulence during diesel engine combustion. To account for the effects of engine wall heat transfer on combustion, the KIVA code's standard wall model was replaced to accommodate more realistic boundary conditions. This were carried out by implementing the non-isothermal wall model of Angelberger et al. with modifications and incorporating the log law from Pope's method to account for the wall surface roughness. Soot and NOx emissions predicted with the new model are compared to experimental data acquired under various EGR conditions.
Journal Article

Experiments and Simulations of a Lean-Boost Spark Ignition Engine for Thermal Efficiency Improvement

Primary work is to investigate premixed laminar flame propagation in a constant volume chamber of iso-octane/air combustion. Experimental and numerical results are investigated by comparing flame front displacements under lean to rich conditions. As the laminar flame depends on equivalence ratio, temperature, and pressure conditions, it is a main property for chemical reaction mechanism validation. Firstly, one-dimensional laminar flame burning velocities are predicted in order to validate a reduced chemical reaction mechanism. A set of laminar burning velocities with pressure, temperature, and mixture equivalence ratio dependences are combined into a 3D-CFD calculation to compare the predicted flame front displacements with that of experiments. It is found that the reaction mechanism is well validated under the coupled 1D-3D combustion calculations. Next, lean experiments are operated in a SI engine by boosting intake pressure to maintain high efficiency without output power penalty.
Technical Paper

Computational Study to Improve Thermal Efficiency of Spark Ignition Engine

The objective of this paper is to investigate the potential of lean burn combustion to improve the thermal efficiency of spark ignition engine. Experiments used a single cylinder gasoline spark ignition engine fueled with primary reference fuel of octane number 90, running at 4000 revolution per minute and at wide open throttle. Experiments were conducted at constant fueling rate and in order to lean the mixture, more air is introduced by boosted pressure from stoichiometric mixture to lean limit while maintaining the high output engine torque as possible. Experimental results show that the highest thermal efficiency is obtained at excess air ratio of 1.3 combined with absolute boosted pressure of 117 kPa. Three dimensional computational fluid dynamic simulation with detailed chemical reactions was conducted and compared with results obtained from experiments as based points.