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Technical Paper

Propagation Processes of Newly Developed Plasma Jet Igniter

2000-06-12
2000-05-0014
In plasma jet ignition, combustion enhancement effects occur toward the plasma jet issuing direction. Therefore, when the igniter is attached at the center of cylindrically shaped combustion chamber, plasma jet should issue toward the round combustion chamber wall. The plasma jet igniter that had an annular circular orifice has been developed. The purpose of this study is to elucidate the relationship between the newly developed plasma jet igniter configuration and the combustion enhancement effects. In this newly developed plasma jet igniter, the fine scale turbulence appears on the flame front and flame propagates very rapidly. Plasma jet influences on the flame propagation for long period when the plasma jet igniter has issuing angle 90 [deg.] and large cavity volume. However, in the early stage of combustion, flame front area of issuing angle 45 [deg.] is larger than that of 90 [deg.], because the initial flame kernel is formed by the plasma jet.
Technical Paper

Relationship between Plasma Jet and Newly Developed Plasma Jet Igniter

1998-10-19
982564
In plasma jet ignition, combustion enhancement effects are caused toward the plasma jet issuing direction. Therefore, when the igniter is attached at the center of cylindrically shaped combustion chamber, the plasma jet should issues toward the round combustion chamber wall. The plasma jet igniter that had a concentric circular orifice has been developed. It is expected that the plasma jet is issued and is diffused from concentric circular orifice toward the combustion chamber wall. Relationship between plasma jet and igniter configuration was experimentally clarified. Plasma jet can issue from the entire concentric circular orifice for some igniter. Plasma jet is extended with increasing concentric circular orifice area. Plasma jet penetration increases with increasing concentric circular orifice width.
Technical Paper

Spectroscopic Measurement of Radical Behavior Under Knocking Operation, 1996

1996-10-01
962104
Emission intensity was measured at a wavelength of 395 2 nm (corresponding to the characteristic spectrum of the HCHO radical) and absorbance was measured at 306 4 nm (corresponding to that of the OH radical). The emission intensity and absorbance waveforms recorded during engine operation on n-heptane show behavior indicative of the passage and degeneracy of cool flame in the preflame reaction interval. As the combustion chamber wall temperature approached an overheated state in the transition from normal combustion to knocking operation different preflame reaction behavior was observed which is thought to correspond to the presence of a negative temperature coefficient region related to the ignition delay time.
Technical Paper

Radical Behavior in Preflame Reactions Under Knocking Operation in a Spark Ignition Engine

1994-10-01
942061
Using absorption spectroscopy, simultaneous measurements were made of the behavior of the OH (characteristic spectrum of 306.4 nm), CH (431.5 nm) and C2(516.5 nm) radicals in the end-gas region and center of the combustion chamber of a spark-ignition engine during preflame reactions with four types of fuel having different octane numbers. The results of this research show that the behavior of the OH, CH and C2 radicals in preflame reactions differed significantly in both the center and end-gas region of the combustion chamber depending on the octane number of the fuel and also between normal and knocking combustion conditions.
Technical Paper

Spectroscopic Measurement of OH Radical Emission Behavior Using a 2-Cycle Engine

1997-10-27
978515
The aim of this research was to investigate the mechanism causing autoignition and the effect of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on combustion by detecting the behavior of the OH radical and other excited molecules present in the flame in a spark ignition engine. The test equipment used was a 2-cycle engine equipped with a Schnürle scavenging system. Using emission spectroscopy, the behavior of the OH radical was measured at four locations in the end zone of the combustion chamber. The OH radical plays an important role in the elemental reactions of hydrocarbon fuels. When a certain level of EGR was applied according to the engine operating conditions, the unburned gas became active owing to heat transfer from residual gas near the measurement positions on the exhaust port side and the influence of excited species in the residual gas, and autoignition tended to occur.
Technical Paper

Combustion Characteristic of Lean Mixture Ignited by Gas-Oil Injection in High Compression Engine

1997-10-27
978496
We have investigated combustion characteristics of lean gasoline-air pre-mixture ignited by gas-oil injection using a high compression D.I. diesel engine. Gasoline was supplied as an uniform lean mixture by using carburetors, and gas-oil was directly injected into the cylinder. Two different types of combustion chamber were attempted. It was confirmed that the lean mixture of air-fuel ratio between 150 and 35 could be ignited and burned by this ignition method. An engine with the re-entrant type combustion chamber had an advantage for combustion and ignition. The brake mean effective pressure increased when relatively rich mixture was provided with a small amount of the gas-oil injection. As the gas-oil injection increased, HC concentration decreased, and NO and CO concentration increased. The exhaust gas emission of pollutants could be reduced when lean mixture was ignited by an optimum gas-oil injection.
Technical Paper

Simultaneous Measurement of Light Emission and Absorption Behavior of Unburned Gas During Knocking Operation

1993-10-01
932754
With the aim of elucidating the mechanism generating knock, an examination was made of the preflame reaction behavior of end gas in the combustion chamber in the transition from normal combustion to abnormal combustion characterized by the occurrence of knocking. Simultaneous measurements were made in the same cycle of the light absorption and emission behavior of the OH (characteristic spectrum of 306.4 nm), CH (431.5 nm) and C2 (516.5 nm) radicals in the end-gas region using spectroscopic methods. The absorbance behavior of a blue flame prior to autoignition is believed to be an important factor in the mechanism causing knock.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Knocking in an SI Engine based on In-cylinder: Spectroscopic Measurements and Visualization

2010-09-28
2010-32-0092
There are strong demands today to further improve the thermal efficiency of internal combustion engines against a backdrop of various environmental issues, including rising carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and global warming. One factor that impedes efforts to improve the thermal efficiency of spark ignition engines is the occurrence of knocking. The aim of this study was to elucidate the details of knocking based on spectroscopic measurements and visualization of phenomena in the combustion chamber of a test engine that was operated on three primary reference fuels with different octane ratings (0 RON, 30 RON, and 50 RON). The ignition timing was retarded in the experiments to delay the progress of flame propagation, making it easier to capture the behavior of low-temperature oxidation reactions at the time knocking occurred.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Electric Fields on Flame Propagation of Homogeneous Hydrogen-Air Mixture

2011-11-08
2011-32-0577
The flame propagation behavior of homogeneous hydrogen-air mixture under application of high-voltage uniform or non-uniform electric field was explored by using combustion vessel. When a uniform electric field was applied, two plate electrodes were attached to ceiling and bottom of combustion chamber and, to apply a non-uniform electric field, an electrode in ceiling was needle-shaped and an electrode in bottom was plate-shaped. The positive or negative polarity DC high voltage was applied for an electrode in ceiling. When a positive polarity non-uniform electric field was applied to the mixture at any equivalence ratios and the input voltage was higher than 12 kV, the flame propagation was enhanced in the downward direction. This is because the corona wind was generated from the tip of needle-shaped electrode to grounded electrode by the brush corona.
Technical Paper

Performance of Air Motor with Regenerating System Designed for Propulsion of Bicycle

2011-11-08
2011-32-0615
An air motor with regenerating system for propulsion of a bicycle was newly developed. An air motor was driven by the compressed air and the bicycle was propelled. When the bicycle was decelerating, the air motor was acted as a compressor and the kinetic energy of bicycle was regenerated as compressed air. The purpose of this study is to elucidate the performance of air motor and driving characteristic of bicycle. The air motor in this study was the reciprocating piston type like an internal combustion engine, and cylinder arrangement was in-line two-cylinder. The output power increased with an increase of supply air pressure although the maximum cylinder pressure was less than the supply air pressure. The output power decreased as the revolution increased due to friction loss. The maximum cylinder pressure reduced as the rotational frequency increased because the inlet valve opening duration was decreased.
Technical Paper

Study on Performance of Diesel Engine Applied with Emulsified Diesel Fuel: The Influence of Fuel Injection Timing and Water Contents

2011-11-08
2011-32-0606
The application of emulsified fuel for diesel engines is expected to reduce NOx and soot simultaneously. The purpose of this study is to clarify the influence of water content in emulsified fuel and fuel injection timing on diesel engine performance. The engine performance of emulsified fuel was compared with the water injection method. In the water injection test, water was injected to intake manifold and diesel fuel was directly injected into combustion chamber. Two emulsified fuels of which mixing ratio of water and emulsifier to diesel fuel were 15 and 30 vol.% were tested. Engine performance and exhaust gas emission of water injection method were almost similar to those of diesel fuel, so that water presented in combustion chamber had almost no influence on engine performance. Therefore, it can be considered that the micro explosion of fuel droplet enhanced the fuel atomization and mixing of fuel and air.
Technical Paper

A Study on Influence of Forced Over Cooling on Diesel Engine Performance

2011-11-08
2011-32-0605
The ignitability and engine performance of FAMEs at the cold condition were experimentally investigated by using two FAMEs, i.e. coconut oil methyl ester (CME) and soybean oil methyl ester (SME). The cold start test and forced over cooling test were conducted. In the forced over cooling test, engine was forced cooled by the injecting water mist to engine cooling fin. In the cold start test, the cylinder pressure of CME rose earliest because CME has a superior ignitability. The crank angle at ignitions of diesel fuel and CME were not so affected by the forced over cooling, however ignition timing of SME was remarkably delayed. In cases of forced over cooling, COV of maximum combustion pressure of CME was lower than that of normal air cooling condition. The forced over cooling has a potential to reduce NOx emission, however HC, CO and smoke concentrations were increased in a high load due to incomplete combustion.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Compression Ignition Characteristics of FAME for Low Compression Ratio Diesel Engine

2012-10-23
2012-32-0010
The purpose of this study is to clarify ignition characteristics and engine performance of FAME for 4-stroke diesel engine in low compression ratios. Diesel fuel and coconut oil methyl ester (CME) were selected as test fuels, because CME consisted of saturate FAMEs which were good ignition characteristics. To reduce the compression ratio, thin copperplates were inserted between cylinder head and cylinder block and the compression ratio was reduced from 20.6 that was standard to 15. The engine starting test and an ordinary engine performance test were made at 3600 min.-₁. In engine starting test, the engine was soaked at room temperature and the ignition timing of diesel fuel was remarkably delayed compared with CME. When the compression ratio was 16, for diesel fuel, the misfiring cycles were included during engine warming up. In case of 15 of compression ratio, the engine could not be started by diesel fuel; however the engine could be run by CME.
Technical Paper

A Spectroscopic Study of the Effects of Multicomponent Fuel Blends on Supercharged HCCI Combustion

2012-10-23
2012-32-0080
The growing severity of global environmental issues in recent years, including air pollution and the depletion of fossil fuels, has made it necessary for internal combustion engines to achieve higher efficiency and lower exhaust emission levels. Calls for reducing atmospheric emissions of carbon dioxide (CO₂) necessitate thoroughgoing measures to lower the levels of CO₂ originating in the combustion process of internal combustion engines and to facilitate operation on diverse energy sources. Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion has attracted widespread interest because it achieves high efficiency and can reduce particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions simultaneously. These characteristics are obtainable because HCCI combustion can take place at ultra-lean conditions exceeding the limits of flame propagation.
Technical Paper

A Study of the Mechanism Producing Autoignition in an HCCI Engine Using In-Cylinder Spectroscopy and Chemical Kinetic Simulation

2012-10-23
2012-32-0079
This study examined Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion characteristics in detail on the basis of in-cylinder combustion visualization, spectroscopic measurements of light emission and absorption and chemical kinetic simulations. Special attention was focused on investigating and comparing the effects of the fuel octane number and residual gas on combustion characteristics. The results made clear the relationship between the production/consumption of formaldehyde (HCHO) in the HCCI autoignition process and flame development behavior in the cylinder. Additionally, it was found that both the fuel octane number and residual gas have the effect of moderating low-temperature oxidation reactions. Furthermore, it was observed that residual gas has the effect of shifting the temperature for the occurrence of the hot flame to a higher temperature range.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the Effects of a Higher Compression Ratio on HCCI Combustion Characteristics using In-cylinder Visualization and Spectroscopic Measurement

2012-10-23
2012-32-0078
Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion experiments were conducted in this study using a single-cylinder test engine fitted with a sapphire observation window to facilitate visualization of the entire cylinder bore area. In addition to in-cylinder visualization of combustion, spectroscopic measurements were made of light emission and absorption in the combustion chamber to investigate autoignition behavior in detail. Engine firing experiments were conducted to visualize HCCI combustion over a wide range of compression ratios from 12:1 to 22:1. The results showed that increasing the compression ratio advanced the ignition timing and increased the maximum pressure rise rate, making it necessary to moderate combustion. It was also found that autoignition can be induced even in a mixture lean enough to cause misfiring by raising the intake air temperature so as to advance the overall combustion process.
Technical Paper

A Study of the Effects of Varying the Compression Ratio and Fuel Octane Number on HCCI Engine Combustion using Spectroscopic Measurement

2013-10-15
2013-32-9031
A Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine was operated under a continuous firing condition in this study to visualize combustion in order to obtain fundamental knowledge for suppressing the rapidity of combustion in HCCI engines. Experiments were conducted with a two-stroke engine fitted with a quartz observation window that allowed the entire bore area to be visualized. The effect of varying the compression ratio and fuel octane number on HCCI combustion was investigated. In-cylinder spectroscopic measurements were made at compression ratios of 11:1 and 15:1 using primary reference fuel blends having different octane numbers of 0 RON and 50 RON. The results showed that varying the compression ratio and fuel octane number presumably has little effect on the rapidity of HCCI combustion at the same ignition timing when the quantity of heat produced per cycle by the injected fuel is kept constant.
Technical Paper

An Application of Cellulosic Liquefaction Fuel for Diesel Engine - Improvement of Fuel Property by Cellulosic Liquefaction with Plastics -

2013-10-15
2013-32-9174
There are few investigations to change wood biomasses to the industrially available energy, so that a new conversion technology of biomass to liquid fuel has been established by the direct liquefaction process. However, cellulosic liquefaction fuel (for short CLF) cold not mixed with diesel fuel. In this study, the plastic was mixed with wood to improve the solubility of CLF to diesel fuel. CLF made by the direct co-liquefaction process could be stably and completely mixed with diesel fuel in any mixing ratio and CLF included 2 wt.% of oxygen. The test engine was an air-cooled, four-stroke, single cylinder, direct fuel injection diesel engine. In the engine starting condition test, the ignition timing of 5 wt.% CLF mixed diesel fuel was slightly delayed at immediately after the engine started, however the ignition timing was almost the same as diesel fuel after the engine was warmed-up.
Technical Paper

A Study of Supercharged HCCI Combustion Using Blended Fuels of Propane and DME

2014-11-11
2014-32-0005
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) has attracted a great deal of interest as a combustion system for internal combustion engines because it achieves high efficiency and clean exhaust emissions. However, HCCI combustion has several issues that remain to be solved. For example, it is difficult to control engine operation because there is no physical means of inducing ignition. Another issue is the rapid rate of heat release because ignition of the mixture occurs simultaneously at multiple places in the cylinder. The results of previous investigations have shown that the use of a blended fuel of DME and propane was observed that the overall combustion process was delayed, with that combustion became steep when injected propane much. This study focused on expanding the region of stable engine operation and improving thermal efficiency by using supercharging and blended fuels. The purpose of using supercharging were in order to moderated combustion.
Technical Paper

Study of Supercharged Gasoline HCCI Combustion by Using Spectroscopic Measurements and FT-IR Exhaust Gas Analysis

2014-11-11
2014-32-0004
One issue of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engines that should be addressed is to suppress rapid combustion in the high-load region. Supercharging the intake air so as to form a leaner mixture is one way of moderating HCCI combustion. However, the specific effect of supercharging on moderating HCCI combustion and the mechanism involved are not fully understood yet. Therefore, experiments were conducted in this study that were designed to moderate rapid combustion in a test HCCI engine by supercharging the air inducted into the cylinder. The engine was operated under high-load levels in a supercharged state in order to make clear the effect of supercharging on expanding the stable operating region in the high-load range. HCCI combustion was investigated under these conditions by making in-cylinder spectroscopic measurements and by analyzing the exhaust gas using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy.
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