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Technical Paper

Effect of Fuel Temperature on Performance and Emissions of a Common Rail Diesel Engine Operating with Rapeseed Methyl Ester (RME)

The paper presents analysis of performance and emission characteristics of a common rail diesel engine operating with RME, with and without EGR. In both cases, the RME fuel was pre-heated in a heat exchanger to control its temperature before being pumped to the common rail. The studied parameters include the in-cylinder pressure history, rate of heat release, mass fraction burned, and exhaust emissions. The results show that when the fuel temperature increases and the engine is operated without EGR, the brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) decreases, engine efficiency increases and NOx emission slightly decreases. However, when EGR is used while fuel temperature is increased, the bsfc and engine efficiency is independent of fuel temperature while NOx slightly increases.
Technical Paper

The Application of Two Closely Coupled DPFs as the After-treatment System

In this study, the application of two closely coupled Diesel Particle Filters (DPFs), composed of an assistant DPF and a main standard honeycomb DPF, was investigated. A series of tests were carried out on a light-duty common-rail Euro 4 diesel engine and the emissions were measured and compared with those when a standard DOC+DPF system was used for the after-treatment. Replacing the DOC with an assisting DPF (ADPF) showed significant advantages in the reduction of particles, which had a direct impact in reducing the soot loading rate of the main DPF by up to 30%. Its oxidation characteristics not only showed equivalent exhaust-conversion efficiency, which concern the regulated gaseous emissions (CO and HC) under most engine conditions, but also continuously regenerated the soot it trapped.
Technical Paper

Comparative Experimental Study on Microscopic Spray Characteristics of RME, GTL and Diesel

In this paper, the microscopic spray characteristics of diesel, Rapeseed Methyl Ester (RME) and Gas-to-Liquid (GTL) fuel, were studied at different injection pressures and measuring positions using Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA) technique and the velocity development and size distributions of the fuel droplets were analysed in order to understand spray atomisation process. The injection pressures ranged from 80MPa to 150MPa, and the measuring position varied from 20mm to 70mm downstream the nozzle. It was found that the data rate is quite low in the near nozzle region and at high injection pressure. Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD) of all fuels obviously decreases when the injection pressure increases from 80MPa to 120MPa; but the injection pressure has little promotion on the axial velocity of droplets.
Journal Article

Spray Characteristics Study of DMF Using Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer

2,5-dimethylfuran (DMF) is currently regarded as a potential alternative fuel to gasoline due to the development of new production technology. In this paper, the spray characteristics of DMF and its blends with gasoline were studied from a high pressure direct injection gasoline injector using the shadowgraph and Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA) techniques, This includes the spray penetration, droplet velocity and size distribution of the various mixtures. In parallel commercial gasoline and ethanol were measured in order to compare the characteristics of DMF. A total of 52 points were measured along the spray so that the experimental results could be used for subsequent numerical modeling. In summary, the experimental results showed that DMF and its blends have similar spray properties to gasoline, compared to ethanol. The droplet size of DMF is generally smaller than ethanol and decreases faster with the increase of injection pressure.
Journal Article

The Particle Emissions Characteristics of a Light Duty Diesel Engine with 10% Alternative Fuel Blends

In this study, the particle emission characteristics of 10% alternative diesel fuel blends (Rapeseed Methyl Ester and Gas-to-Liquid) were investigated through the tests carried out on a light duty common-rail Euro 4 diesel engine. Under steady engine conditions, the study focused on particle number concentration and size distribution, to comply with the particle metrics of the European Emission Regulations (Regulation NO 715/2007, amended by 692/2008 and 595/2009). The non-volatile particle characteristics during the engine warming up were also investigated. They indicated that without any modification to the engine, adding selected alternative fuels, even at a low percentage, can result in a noticeable reduction of the total particle numbers; however, the number of nucleation mode particles can increase in certain cases.
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Optical Study on Combustion of DMF and DMF Fuel Blends

The bio-fuel, 2,5 - dimethylfuran (DMF) is currently regarded as a potential alternative fuel to gasoline due to the development of new production technology. However, little is known about the flame behavior in an optical engine. In this paper, high speed imaging (with intensifier) was used during the combustion of DMF and its blends with gasoline and ethanol (D50, D85, E50D50 and E85D15) in an SI optical engine. The flame images from the combustion of each fuel were analyzed at two engine loads: 3bar and 4bar IMEP. For DMF, D50 and E50D50, two modes were compared: DI and PFI. The average flame shapes (in 2D) and the average flame speeds were calculated and combined with mass fraction burned (MFB) data. The results show that when using DMF, the rate of flame growth development and flame speed is higher than when using gasoline. The differences in flame speed between DMF and gasoline is about 10% to 14% at low IMEP.
Journal Article

Transient Emissions Characteristics of a Turbocharged Engine Fuelled by Biodiesel Blends

The effects of different biodiesel blends on engine-out emissions under various transient conditions were investigated in this study using fast response diagnostic equipment. The experimental work was conducted on a modern 3.0 L, V6 high pressure common rail diesel engine fuelled with mineral diesel (B0) and three different blends of rapeseed methyl esters (RME) (B30, B60, B100 by volume) without any modifications of engine parameters. DMS500, Fast FID and Fast CLD were used to measure particulate matter (PM), total hydrocarbon (THC) and nitrogen monoxide (NO) respectively. The tests were conducted during a 12 seconds period with two tests in which load and speed were changed simultaneously and one test with only load changing. The results show that as biodiesel blend ratio increased, total particle number (PN) and THC were decreased whereas NO was increased for all the three transient conditions.
Technical Paper

Improving Cold Start and Transient Performance of Automotive Diesel Engine at Low Ambient Temperatures

Ambient temperature has significant impact on engine start ability and cold start emissions from diesel engines. These cold start emissions are accounted for substantial amount of the overall regulatory driving cycle emissions like NEDC or FTP. It is likely to implement the low temperature emissions tests for diesel vehicles, which is currently applicable only for gasoline vehicles. This paper investigates the potential of the intake heating strategy on reducing the driving cycle emissions from the latest generation of turbocharged common rail direct injection diesel engines at low ambient temperature conditions. For this investigation an air heater was installed upstream of the intake manifold and New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) tests were conducted at -7°C ambient temperature conditions for the different intake air temperatures. Intake air heating reduced the cranking time and improved the fuel economy at low ambient temperatures.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study of Combustion Initiation and development in an Optical HCCI Engine

The major characteristics of the combustion in Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engines, irrespective of the technological strategy used to enable the ‘controlled auto-ignition’, are that the mixture of fuel and air is preferably premixed and largely homogeneous. Ignition tends to take place simultaneously at multiple points and there is no bulk flame propagation as in conventional spark-ignition (SI) engines. This paper presents an experimental study of flame development in an optical engine operating in HCCI combustion mode. High resolution and high-speed charge coupled device (CCD) cameras were used to take images of the flame during the combustion process. Fuels include gasoline, natural gas (NG) and hydrogen addition to NG all at stoichiometric conditions, permitting the investigation of combustion development for each fuel. The flame imaging data was supplemented by simultaneously recorded in-cylinder pressure data.
Technical Paper

Modelling and Experimental Investigations of Supercharged HCCI Engines

This paper focuses on supercharged HCCI engines employing internal EGR that is obtained by the use of negative valve overlap. In HCCI engines, the absence of throttling coupled with the use of high compression ratio to facilitate auto-ignition and with the use of lean mixtures result in improved fuel efficiency. High dilution is required to control the auto-ignition and it also results in reduction of the production of NOx. To compensate for the charge dilution effect, the method used to recover the loss of power is to introduce more air in to the engine which allows introducing also more fuel while maintaining high lambda. A supercharger is required to introduce the required amount of air into the engine. The modelling investigation performed with Ricardo WAVE® coupled with CHEMKIN® and experimental investigation for supercharged HCCI show significant improvement in terms of extension of load range and reduction of NOx over the naturally aspirated HCCI and also over SI operation.
Technical Paper

CFD Analysis of Air Intake System with Negative Pressure on Intake Grill

The objective of the current research was to predict and analyze the flow through the grill of air intake system which is positioned behind the front wheel arch of vehicle. Most of the vehicle used today locates the grill of air intake at the front side so to acquire benefit of ram effect. In some cases, however, the grill is located behind the vehicle to improve wading performance. The geometry of air intake system of Land Rover Freelander was used in the modelling approach. The study was focused on different flow speeds on the grill at high load operation where the air speed at the grill side is high and creates negative pressure. The CFD results are validated against experimental data of steady flow test bench.
Technical Paper

Study on an Electronically Controlled Common-Rail Injection System for Liquefied Alternative Fuels

Liquefied alternative fuels offer great potential benefits in reducing exhaust emissions and improving fuel economy of automotive engines. In order to achieve the best performance of the engine running with such fuels, it is critical to have an appropriate fuel system. In the present work, a new electronically controlled common-rail injection system has been specially designed and tested for the direct injection of liquefied alternative fuels, since a conventional pump-line-injector injection system in the conventional diesel engine was not suitable for the purpose. Experimental work has been carried out to examine and improve matching of the fuel injection system on a new fuel injection pump test bench. The preliminary engine bench test has demonstrated that this arrangement meets the requirement for the operating characteristics of a fuel injection system in a direct injection diesel engine operating with dimethyl ether (DME).
Technical Paper

Investigation of VVT and spark timing on combustion and particle emission from a GDI Engine during transient operation

Transient operation is frequently used by vehicle engines and the exhaust emissions from the engine are mostly higher than those under the steady station. An experimental study has been conducted to investigate the effect of various valve timings and spark timings on combustion characteristics and particle emissions from a modern 3.0-liter Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) passenger car engine. The transient condition was simulated by load increase from 5% to 15% at a constant engine speed with different settings of valve timings and spark timings. The transient particle emission measurement was carried out by a Cambustion DMS500 particulate analyser. The combustion characteristics of the engine during transient operation including cycle-by-cycle combustion variations were analyzed. The time-resolved particle number, particulate mass and particle size distribution were compared and analyzed between different engine settings.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study on the Effects of Split Injection in Stoichiometric Dual-Fuel Compression Ignition (SDCI) Combustion

Stoichiometric dual-fuel compression ignition (SDCI) combustion has superior potential in both emission control and thermal efficiency. Split injection of diesel reportedly shows superiority in optimizing combustion phase control and increasing flexibility in fuel selection. This study focuses on split injection strategies in SDCI mode. The effects of main injection timing and pilot-to-total ratio are examined. Combustion phasing is found to be retarded in split injection when overmixing occurs as a result of early main injection timing. Furthermore, an optimised split injection timing can avoid extremely high pressure rise rate without great loss in indicated thermal efficiency while maintaining soot emission at an acceptable level. A higher pilot-to-total ratio always results in lower soot emission, higher combustion efficiency, and relatively superior ITE, but improvements are not significant with increased pilot-to-total ratio up to approximately 0.65.
Journal Article

Dual-Injection as a Knock Mitigation Strategy Using Pure Ethanol and Methanol

For spark ignition (SI) engines, the optimum spark timing is crucial for maximum efficiency. However, as the spark timing is advanced, so the propensity to knock increases, thus compromising efficiency. One method to suppress knock is to use high octane fuel additives. However, the blend ratio of these additives cannot be varied on demand. Therefore, with the advent of aggressive downsizing, new knock mitigation techniques are required. Fortuitously, there are two well-known lower alcohols which exhibit attractive knock mitigation properties: ethanol and methanol. Both not only have high octane ratings, but also result in greater charge-cooling than with gasoline. In the current work, the authors have exploited these attractive properties with the dual-injection, or the dual-fuel concept (gasoline in PFI and fuel additive in DI) using pure ethanol and methanol.
Journal Article

Effects of Combustion Phasing, Injection Timing, Relative Air-Fuel Ratio and Variable Valve Timing on SI Engine Performance and Emissions using 2,5-Dimethylfuran

Ethanol has long been regarded as the optimal gasoline-alternative biofuel for spark-ignition (SI) engines. It is used widely in Latin and North America and is increasingly accepted as an attractive option across Europe. Nevertheless, its low energy density requires a high rate of manufacture; in areas which are deficient of arable land, such rates might prove problematic. Therefore, fuels with higher calorific values, such as butanol or 2,5-dimethylfuran (DMF) deserve consideration; a similar yield to ethanol, in theory, would require much less land. This report addresses the suitability of DMF, to meet the needs as a biofuel substitute for gasoline in SI engines, using ethanol as the biofuel benchmark. Specific attention is given to the sensitivity of DMF to various engine control parameters: combustion phasing (ignition timing), injection timing, relative air-fuel ratio and valve timing (intake and exhaust).
Technical Paper

Modelling Study of Combustion and Gas Exchange in a HCCI (CAI) Engine

The main obstacle for the development of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engines is the control of auto-ignition timing, and one key is to control the trapped gas temperature so as to enable the autoignition at the end of compression stroke. Using special valve mechanisms, very high residual gas mass fraction can be achieved to raise the charge temperature. Gas exchange process hence plays a crucial role in such HCCI engines because of its strong interaction with combustion. The modification of the gas exchange process in a 4-stroke automotive engine for HCCI combustion is not straightforward, since the engine must be able to operate across a considerably wide range of speeds and loads. Intake air temperatures and the valve mechanism need to be controlled in order to deliver optimal engine performance and fuel economy. This paper presents a modelling study of the combustion and gas exchange in a HCCI engine.
Technical Paper

Operating Characteristics of a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engine with Cam Profile Switching - Simulation Study

A single zone combustion model based on a chemical kinetic solver has been combined with a one-dimension thermo/gas dynamic engine simulation code to study the operating characteristics of a V6 engine in which Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) operation (also referred to as ‘Controlled Auto-ignition” CAI) is enabled by a cam profile switching (CPS) system with negative valve overlap. An operational window within which HCCI combustion is possible has been identified and the limit of HCCI operating region for varied valve lift possibilities is explored. The mechanisms and potential fuel economy improvements within the HCCI envelope are studied and modelled results compared against data from similar engines. It is shown that for the best fuel economy the valve timing strategy needs to be selected very carefully, despite the engine's capability to operate at a range of valve timing combinations.
Technical Paper

The Comparative Study of Gasoline and n-butanol on Spray Characteristics

n-butanol has been recognized as a promising alternative fuel for gasoline and may potentially overcome the drawbacks of methanol and ethanol, e.g. higher energy density. In this paper, the spray characteristics of gasoline and n-butanol have been investigated using a high pressure direct injection injector. High speed imaging and Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA) techniques were used to study the spray penetration and the droplet atomization process. The tests were carried out in a high pressure constant volume vessel over a range of injection pressure from 60 to 150 bar and ambient pressure from 1 to 5 bar. The results show that gasoline has a longer penetration length than that of n-butanol in most test conditions due to the relatively small density and viscosity of gasoline; n-butanol has larger SMD due to its higher viscosity. The increase in ambient pressure leads to the reduction in SMD by 42% for gasoline and by 37% for n-butanol.
Technical Paper

A Study of Methodology for the Investigation of Engine Transient Performance

Automotive engines especially turbocharged diesel engines produce higher level of emissions during transient operation than in steady state. In order to improve understanding of the engine transients and develop advanced technologies to reduce the transient emissions, the engine researchers require accurate data acquisition and appropriate post-processing techniques which are capable of dealing with noise and synchronization issues. Four alternative automated methods namely FFT (Fast Fourier Transform), low-pass, linear and zero-phase filters were implemented on in-cylinder pressure. The data of each individual cycle was compared and analyzed for the suitability of combustion diagnostic. FFT filtering was the best suited method since it eliminated most pressure fluctuation and provided smooth rate of heat release profiles for each cycle.