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Technical Paper

A Fault-Tolerant Control Method for 4WIS/4WID Electric Vehicles Based on Reconfigurable Control Allocation

2018-04-03
2018-01-0560
This paper presents a fault-tolerant control (FTC) method for four-wheel independently driven and steered (4WIS/4WID) electric vehicles based on a reconfigurable control allocation to increase the flexibility for vehicle control and improve the safety of vehicle after the steering actuator fails. The proposed fault tolerant control method consists of the following three parts: 1) a fault detection and diagnosis (FDD) module that monitors vehicle steering condition, detects and diagnoses actuator failures; 2) an upper controller that computes the generalized forces/moments to track the desired vehicle motion and trajectory; 3) a reconfigurable control allocator that optimally distributes the generalized forces/moments to four wheels. The FTC approach based on the reconfigurable control allocation reallocates the generalized forces/moments among healthy steering actuators and driving motors once the actuator failures is detected.
Technical Paper

A Model-Based Mass Estimation and Optimal Braking Force Distribution Algorithm of Tractor and Semi-Trailer Combination

2013-04-08
2013-01-0418
Taking a good longitudinal braking performance on flat and level road of tractor and semi-trailer combination as a target, in order to achieve an ideal braking force distribution among axles, while the vehicle deceleration is just depend on the driver's intention, not affected by the variation of semi-trailer mass, the paper proposes a model based vehicle mass identification and braking force distribution strategy. The strategy identifies the driver's braking intention via braking pedal, estimates semi-trailer's mass during the building process of braking pressure in brake chamber, distributes braking force among axles by using the estimated mass. And a double closed-loop regulation of the vehicle deceleration and utilization adhesion coefficient of each axle is presented, in order to eliminate the bad effect of mass estimation error, and enhance the robustness of the whole algorithm. A simulation is conducted by utilizing MATLAB/Simulink and TruckSim.
Technical Paper

Fault Tolerant Control Against Actuator Failures of 4WID/4WIS Electric Vehicles

2013-04-08
2013-01-0405
A fault tolerant control (FTC) approach based on reconfigurable control allocation for four-wheel independently driven and steered (4WID/4WIS) electric vehicles against driving motor failures is proposed in order to improve vehicle safety, performance and maneuverability after the driving motor failures. The proposed fault tolerant control method consists of the following three parts: 1) a fault detection and diagnosis (FDD) module that monitors vehicle driving condition, detects and diagnoses actuator failures; 2) a motion controller that computes the generalized forces/moments to track the desired vehicle motion using model predictive control method; 3) a reconfigurable control allocator that optimally distributes the generalized forces/moments to four wheels aiming at minimizing the total tire usage. The FTC approach is based on the reconfigurable control allocation which reallocates the generalized forces/moments among healthy actuators once the actuator failures is detected.
Technical Paper

Study on Braking Force Distribution Algorithm for Hybrid Electric Bus Based on EBS

2013-04-08
2013-01-0411
In order to improve the braking energy recovery, a parallel hybrid electric bus simulation model with electric braking system (EBS) was established by co-simulation platform for the TruckSim and Matlab/Simulink in this paper. EBS makes the front and rear shaft braking force arbitrarily distributed, which is more effective to improve the rate of energy recovery and the braking stability. A braking force distribution algorithm for hybrid electric bus based on EBS was designed in this paper. Under the premise to meet the driver's needs and the ECE regulations, this braking force distribution method focuses on making the braking force distribute to the drive shaft to a maximum extent, so as to obtain the maximum energy recovery rate by the utilization of the motor regenerative braking. At last, the simulation in different operating conditions was used to analyze the braking energy utilization and the braking performance based on the simulation model.
Technical Paper

The Regenerative Braking Control Strategy of Four-Wheel-Drive Electric Vehicle Based on Power Generation Efficiency of Motors

2013-04-08
2013-01-0412
Nowadays, the endurance mileage of electric vehicle is commonly short. For the purpose of enhancing the endurance mileage of 4WD electric vehicles, this paper proposes a new control strategy based on the generation efficiency of in-wheel motors. When the brake strength is low, the strategy defines the torque on which the motor has the highest generate efficiency as the upper limit of the braking torque of the front axle. What's more, the proportion of mechanical braking force is reduced. Because of these, the vehicle has a higher generation power. The simulation model is built up by using Matlab/Simulink and CarSim software, and the strategy is simulated under several driving cycles. The result shows that, comparing with the two traditional braking force distribution strategies, the new strategy can obviously improve the regenerative efficiency.
Technical Paper

Variable Yaw Rate Gain for Vehicle Steer-by-wire with Joystick

2013-04-08
2013-01-0413
Steering-By-Wire (SBW) system has advantages of advanced vehicle control system, which has no mechanical linkage to control the steering wheel and front wheels. It is possible to control the steering wheel actuator and front wheels actuator steering independently. The goal of this paper is to use a joystick to substitute the conventional steering wheel with typical vehicle SBW system and to study a variable steering ratio design method. A 2-DOF vehicle dynamic reference model is built and focused on the vehicle steering performance of drivers control joystick. By verifying the results with a hardware-in-the-loop simulation test bench, it shows this proposed strategy can improve vehicle maneuverability and comfort.
Technical Paper

Integrated HIL Test and Development System for Pneumatic ABS/EBS ECU of Commercial Vehicles

2012-09-24
2012-01-2031
The quality of the brake system is a significant safety factor in commercial vehicles on the roads. With the development of automobile technology, the single function ABS system didn't meet active safety requirements of the user. The Electronically Controlled Brake System (EBS) system will replace the ABS system to become the standard safety equipment of commercial vehicles in the near future. EBS can be said an enhanced ABS system, it contains load sensor, brake valve sensor and pressure sensor of chamber, etc, and it is more advantages than ABS. This paper describes a flexible integrated test bench for ABS/EBS Electronic Control Unit (ECU) based on Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) simulation technique. It consists of most commercial vehicle pneumatic braking system components (from brake pedal valve, brake caliper to brake chambers), and uses the dSPACE real-time simulation system to communicate to the hardware I/O interface.
Technical Paper

Research on Characteristics of Proportional Relay Valve for Commercial Vehicle Pneumatic EBS

2013-11-27
2013-01-2795
The simulation of electro-pneumatic components used in brake systems of commercial vehicles is of great importance in order to understand their characteristics for developing a control logic and improve the braking performance. As the goal of improving the performance of the commercial vehicle pneumatic EBS(Electronically controlled Braking System), static and dynamic characteristics of proportional relay valve for commercial vehicle pneumatic EBS have been simulated by using MATLAB/Simulink environment and validated by testing on hardware-in-the-loop test bench focused on its pressure hysteresis characteristic. The simulation and test results show that the mathematic model for proportional relay valve characteristics is reasonable and reliable, and this simulation tool can be used for research and developing of pneumatic EBS system for commercial vehicle effectively.
Technical Paper

04Road Feel Feedback Design for Vehicle Steer-by-Wire via Electric Power Steering

2013-11-27
2013-01-2898
A new road feel feedback control design of steer-by-wire (SBW) is proposed, which is produce the steering feel of conventional vehicle with equipped electronic power steering (EPS) system, due to SBW system removes mechanical linkages between steering system and front wheels. A dynamic model is established to study the road feel generation and deal with the need of computed rack force of steer system. Based on the analysis of the assisting characteristic and the active damping control strategy of the EPS system, an integrated road feel algorithm is proposed. For rack force is difficult to measure, an estimator is presented to estimate rack force by Kalman filter (KF). The hardware-in-the-loop simulation (HILS) test bench results show that the proposed road feel control design make drivers get road feel information and SBW system can improve the vehicle maneuverability and comfortably.
Technical Paper

Braking Force Distribution and Coordinated Control Algorithm for Hybrid Electric Bus based on EBS

2014-04-01
2014-01-1908
In order to improve the braking energy recovery and ensure the braking comfort, a new type of regenerative braking coordinated control algorithm is designed in this paper. The hierarchical control theory is used to the regenerative braking control algorithm. First, the front axle braking force and rear axle braking force are distributed. Then the rear axle motor braking force and mechanical braking force are distributed. Finally, the dynamic coordinated control strategy is designed to control pneumatic braking system and motor braking system. Aimed at keeping the fluctuation of the total braking force of friction and the regenerative braking force small during braking modes switch, a coordinated controller was designed to control the pneumatic braking system to compensate the error of the motor braking force. Based on Matlab/Simulink platform, a parallel hybrid electric bus simulation model with electric braking system (EBS) was established.
Technical Paper

Research On Simulation And Control Of Differential Braking Stability Of Tractor Semi-trailer

2015-09-29
2015-01-2842
Heavy vehicles have the characteristics of with high center of gravity position, large weight and volume, wheelbase is too narrow relative to the body height and so on, so that they always prone to rollover. In response to the above heavy security problems of heavy vehicle in running process, this paper mainly analyzes roll stability and yaw stability mechanism of heavy vehicles and studies the influence of vehicle parameters on stability by establishing the vehicle dynamics model. At the same time, this paper focuses on heavy vehicles stability control methods based on simulation and differential braking technology. At last, verify the effect of heavy vehicle stability control by computer simulation. The results shows that self-developed stability control algorithm can control vehicle stability effectively, so that the heavy vehicles instability can be avoided, the vehicle driving safety and braking stability are improved.
Technical Paper

Development and Test of Braking Intention Recognition Strategies for Commercial Vehicle

2015-09-29
2015-01-2841
This paper establishes a brake pedal model for braking intention identification, using the structural features of electronic braking system and selecting the proper parameters. A three-dimensional model is built that the input parameters are pedal displacement and pedal displacement change rate, and the output parameter is braking intensity. The relationship between the driver braking operation and braking intention are designed. A hardware-in-the-loop test bench experiment has been taken under several skilled drivers to practice the established the brake pedal model with the operation data during the braking. Thus, it results a model indicating the braking intention by braking operation that means effectively improve the braking comfort and applies to the research of electronic braking system of commercial vehicle.
Technical Paper

Hydraulic Character Modeling and Vehicle Stability Control Algorithm for EHB System of Passenger Car

2016-04-05
2016-01-0454
As a new braking system, EHB can significantly improve the braking performance and vehicle handling and stability. In this paper the structure of high-speed on-off valve and the valve core principle are discussed, the paper also analysis the response of the valve core under different modulation frequency, duty cycle and the change of wheel cylinder pressure. Set a proper modulation frequency to make sure that electromagnetic valve can be worked in a greater linear range.
Technical Paper

The Design of Electrically Controlled Steering System Hardware-In-the-Loop Test Bench

2014-04-01
2014-01-0243
Nowadays, conventional steering system cannot meet consumers' requirements as their environmental awareness increasing. Electrically controlled steering system can solve this problem well [1] [2]. Electrically controlled steering system has been not only applied widely in automobile steering technique but also becomes an important section of automobile integrated chassis control technology. It is necessary for vehicles to test their every component repeatedly before every component assembled. So a test bench becomes an essential part for vehicle products' design and improvement. The electrically controlled steering system consists of Electric Power Steering system (EPS), Active Front Steering (AFS) and Steer by Wire (SBW). The similarity among them is containing pinion-and-rack mechanical structure, so it is viable to design a test bench suitable for these three systems. This paper takes EPS as a prototype to verify the design's availability.
Technical Paper

Study on Automated Mechanical Transmission and Method of Parameter Optimization Design for Hybrid Electric Bus

2013-11-27
2013-01-2828
The hybrid electric city bus, which consists of the electric motor and battery, is obviously different from the traditional buses. This paper focuses on optimizing the characteristics of the automatic mechanical transmission in hybrid electric city bus and does the following studies: firstly, in order to reduce the fuel consumption, the transmission ratio and some structural parameters are optimized with CRUISE software; secondly, the volume and weight of the transmission structure is reduced and optimized by numerical optimization approach, with the limitation of the structural reliability.
Technical Paper

Study on Automated Mechanical Transmission Parameters Optimization for Hybrid Electric Bus

2014-09-30
2014-01-2371
For city buses, especially hybrid electric buses, the requirements for the fuel economy and low noises are stricter, comparing with the momentum quality. Since hybrid electric buses sometimes run without the engine, the noises that the transmission makes become the major type. To get better fuel economy and lower noises, this paper focuses on optimizing the characteristics of the automatic mechanical transmission (AMT) in a hybrid electric city bus, and the studies are done as follows. Firstly, in order to reduce the fuel consumption, the transmission ratios are optimized by the co-simulation and optimization in CRUISE and MATLAB, with the limitation of the quality of driving momentum. Secondly, for the purpose of lightweight and lower transmission noise, multi-objective optimization based on reliability is applied in transmission geometric optimization design, the objective function are the smallest volume and the biggest transmission gear contact ratio of the transmission.
Technical Paper

A Slip-Rate-Based Braking Force Distribution Algorithm for the Electronic Braking System of Combination Vehicle

2014-09-30
2014-01-2385
The paper focus on enhancing the braking safety and improving the braking performance of the tractor/trailer vehicle. A slip-rate-based braking force distribution algorithm is proposed for the electronic braking system of tractor/trailer combination vehicle. The algorithm controls the slip-rates of the tractor's rear wheels and the semi-trailer's wheels changing with the slip-rate of tractor's front wheels, making tractor's front wheels lock up ahead of the tractor's rear wheels and the semi-trailer's wheels. The algorithm protects the combination vehicle from jackknifing and swing, guaranteeing that the combination vehicle has better driving stability and steering capability. The algorithm can be tested by co-simulation with MATLAB/Simulink and TruckSim software both on high adhesion and low adhesion roads.
Technical Paper

The Brake Pads Compensation Control Algorithm for Brake Force Distribution

2014-09-30
2014-01-2287
A brake pad wear control algorithm used under non-emergency braking conditions is proposed to reduce the difference in brake pad wear between the front and rear axles caused by the difference in brakes and braking force. According to the adhesion state of the pad wear, the control algorithm adjusted the braking force distribution ratio of front and rear wheel that balanced adhesion pad wear value. Computer co-simulations of braking with Trucksim and Matlab/Simulink using vehicle models with equal brake pad wear, greater wear on the front axle and greater wear on the rear axle respectively is performed. The computation simulation results show that meet the brake force distribution system regulatory requirements and total vehicle braking force unchanged.
Technical Paper

Development and Research on Control Strategy of Advanced Electronic Braking Systems for Commercial Vehicle

2014-09-30
2014-01-2285
Electronic braking system (EBS) of commercial vehicle is developed based on Anti-lock Braking System (ABS), for the purpose of enhancing the braking performance. Based on the previous study, this paper aims at the development and research on the control strategy of advanced electronic braking system for commercial vehicle, which mainly includes braking force distribution and multiple targets control strategy. In the study of braking force distribution control strategy, the mass of vehicle and the axle loads will be calculated dynamically and the braking force of each wheel will be distributed regarding to the axle loads. The braking intention recognition takes the brake pad wear into account when braking uncritically, so it can detect a difference in the pads between the front and the rear axles. The brake assist strategy supports the driver during emergency braking and the braking distance is shortened by the reduction of the braking system response time.
Technical Paper

Assistance Characteristics and Control Strategy of Electro-Hydraulic Power Steering Systems on Commercial Vehicles

2015-09-29
2015-01-2723
Electro-hydraulic power steering system (EHPS) maintains the advantages of Hydraulic power steering system (HPS) and Electric power steering system (EPS).It is even more superior than this two. In the foreseeable future, this system will have a certain development space. Assistant characters analysis was carried out in this paper. Control strategy based on steering states and feedback control strategy were designed too. Besides, aiming at the emergency steering conditions, steering angular velocity additional controlling strategy was brought out. Under emergency steering conditions, steering angular velocity additional controlling strategy will be applied. Additional steering moment will be calculated to ensure the assistant follow steering rapidly.
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