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Technical Paper

Influence of Fuel Parameters on Deposit Formation and Emissions in a Direct Injection Stratified Charge SI Engine

This work investigates the influence of fuel parameters on deposit formation and emissions in a four-cylinder direct injection stratified charge (DISC) SI engine. The engine tested is a commercial DISC engine with a wall-guided combustion system. The combustion chamber deposits (CCDs) were analyzed with gas chromatography / mass spectrometry as well as thickness and mass measurements. Intake valve deposits (IVDs) were analyzed for mass, while internal injector deposits were evaluated using spray photography. The CCD build-up was obtained with the CEC1 F-020-A-98 performance test for evaluation of the influence of fuels and additives on IVDs and CCDs in port fuel injected SI engines. The 60 h test is designed to simulate city driving. Four fuels were compared in the study: a base gasoline, with and without a fuel additive, a specially blended high volatility gasoline, and a fuel representing the worst case of European gasolines; neither of the latter two had additives.
Technical Paper

A Contribution to Knock Statistics

Combustion information from three combustion chamber geometries was analyzed: Pancake and horseshoe geometry on a single-cylinder research engine, and pentroof geometry in a turbocharged four-cylinder production engine. Four different fuels were used. In the horseshoe configuration, the cylinder pressure traces from the burnt gas and from the end-gas pocket were evaluated. It is shown that the characteristics of knock are to a large degree a function of the combustion chamber geometry and that they are influenced strongly by the transducer position. It is shown for pentroof geometry that the number of cycles required to properly describe the knock population is a function of the knock intensity. A large error potential is shown for samples smaller than about 100 - 200 consecutive cycles. Good agreement between knock description based on accelerometer data and based on pressure data was found.
Technical Paper

Improving the NOx/Fuel Economy Trade-Off for Gasoline Engines with the CCVS Combustion System

A system for stratifying recycled exhaust gas (EGR) in order to substantially increase dilution tolerance has been applied to a single cylinder manifold injected pent-roof four-valve gasoline engine. This system has been given the generic name Combustion Control by Vortex Stratification (CCVS). Preliminary research has shown that greatly improved fuel consumption is achievable at stoichiometric conditions compared to a conventional version of the same engine whilst retaining ULEV NOx levels. Simultaneously the combustion system has shown inherently low HC emissions compared to homogeneous EGR engines. A production viable variable air motion system has also been assessed which increases the effectiveness of the stratification whilst allowing full load refinement and retaining high performance.
Technical Paper

Turbulence Characteristics of Tumbling Air Motion in Four-Valve S.I. Engines and their Correlation with Combustion Parameters

An experimental investigation has been carried out of the turbulence characteristics of tumble air motion in four-valve pent roof combustion chambers. This was conducted on an optically accessed single cylinder research engine under motored conditions at an engine speed of 1500 rev/min. Four cylinder heads with varying tumble magnitude were evaluated using conventional and scanning Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA) measurements. Analysis algorithms developed to account for the effects of mean flow cyclic variations and system noise were used to obtain unbiased estimates of turbulence intensity and integral length scales. The cylinder heads were also evaluated for combustion performance on a Ricardo single cylinder Hydra engine. Mixture and EGR loops at 1500 rev/min and 1.5 bar BMEP were carried out and cylinder pressure data was analysed to derive combustion characteristics.
Technical Paper

Reducing Pressure Fluctuations at High Loads by Means of Charge Stratification in HCCI Combustion with Negative Valve Overlap

Future demands for improvements in the fuel economy of gasoline passenger car engines will require the development and implementation of advanced combustion strategies, to replace, or combine with the conventional spark ignition strategy. One possible strategy is homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) achieved using negative valve overlap (NVO). However, several issues need to be addressed before this combustion strategy can be fully implemented in a production vehicle, one being to increase the upper load limit. One constraint at high loads is the combustion becoming too rapid, leading to excessive pressure-rise rates and large pressure fluctuations (ringing), causing noise. In this work, efforts were made to reduce these pressure fluctuations by using a late injection during the later part of the compression. A more appropriate acronym than HCCI for such combustion is SCCI (Stratified Charge Compression Ignition).
Technical Paper

Ion Current Sensing in an Optical HCCI Engine with Negative Valve Overlap

Ion current sensors have high potential utility for obtaining feedback signals directly from the combustion chamber in internal combustion engines. This paper describes experiments performed in a single-cylinder optical engine operated in HCCI mode with negative valve overlap to explore this potential. A high-speed CCD camera was used to visualize the combustion progress in the cylinder, and the photographs obtained were compared with the ion current signals. The optical data indicate that the ions responsible for the chemiluminescence from the HCCI combustion have to be in contact with the sensing electrode for an ion current to start flowing through the measurement circuit. This also means that there will be an offset between the time at which 50% of the fuel mass has burned and 50% of the ion current peak value is reached, which is readily explained by the results presented in the paper.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Knock on the Heat Transfer in an SI Engine: Thermal Boundary Layer Investigation using CARS Temperature Measurements and Heat Flux Measurements

It is generally accepted that knocking combustion influences the heat transfer in SI engines. However, the effects of heat transfer on the onset of knock is still not clear due to lack of experimental data of the thermal boundary layer close to the combustion chamber wall. This paper presents measurements of the temperature in the thermal boundary layer under knocking and non-knocking conditions. The temperature was measured using dual-broadband rotational Coherent anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy (CARS). Simultaneous time-resolved measurements of the cylinder pressure, at three different locations, and the heat flux to the wall were carried out. Optical access to the region near the combustion chamber wall was achieved by using a horseshoe-shaped combustion chamber with windows installed in the rectangular part of the chamber. This arrangement made CARS temperature measurements close to the wall possible and results are presented in the range 0.1-5 mm from the wall.
Technical Paper

Direct Gasoline Injection in the Negative Valve Overlap of a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engine

An engine with variable valve timing was operated in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) mode. In two sets of experiments, the fuel was introduced directly into the combustion chamber using a split injection strategy. In the first set, lambda was varied while the fuel flow was constant. The second set consisted of experiments during which the fuel flow was altered and lambda was fixed. The results were evaluated using an engine simulation code with integrated detailed-chemistry. The auto-ignition temperature of the air-fuel mixture was reached when residual mass of the previous combustion cycle was captured using a negative valve overlap and compressed together with the fresh mixture charge inducted. When a pilot fuel amount was introduced in the combustion chamber before piston TDC, during the negative valve overlap, radicals were formed as well as intermediates and combustion took place during this overlap provided the mixture was lean.
Technical Paper

Location of the First Auto-Ignition Sites for Two HCCI Systems in a Direct Injection Engine

To elucidate the processes controlling the auto-ignition timing and overall combustion duration in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines, the distribution of the auto-ignition sites, in both space and time, was studied. The auto-ignition locations were investigated using optical diagnosis of HCCI combustion, based on laser induced fluorescence (LIF) measurements of formaldehyde in an optical engine with fully variable valve actuation. This engine was operated in two different modes of HCCI. In the first, auto-ignition temperatures were reached by heating the inlet air, while in the second, residual mass from the previous combustion cycle was trapped using a negative valve overlap. The fuel was introduced directly into the combustion chamber in both approaches. To complement these experiments, 3-D numerical modeling of the gas exchange and compression stroke events was done for both HCCI-generating approaches.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Knock on Heat Transfer in SI Engines

Heat transfer to the walls of the combustion chamber is increased by engine knock. In this study the influence of knock onset and knock intensity on the heat flux is investigated by examining over 10 000 individual engine cycles with a varying degree of knock. The heat transfer to the walls was estimated by measuring the combustion chamber wall temperature in an SI engine under knocking conditions. The influence of the air-fuel ratio and the orientation of the oscillating cylinder pressure-relative to the combustion chamber wall-were also investigated. It was found that knock intensities above 0.2 Mpa influenced the heat flux. At knock intensities above 0.6 Mpa, the peak heat flux was 2.5 times higher than for a non-knocking cycle. The direction of the oscillations did not affect the heat transfer.
Technical Paper

A Method to Evaluate the Compression Ratio in IC Engines with Porous Thermal Barrier Coatings

The compression ratio is an important engine design parameter. It determines to a large extend engine properties like the achievable efficiency, the heat losses from the combustion chamber and the exhaust losses. The same properties are affected by insulation of the combustion chamber. It is therefore especially important to know the compression ratio when doing experiments with thermal barrier coatings (TBC). In case of porous TBCs, the standard methods to measure the compression ratio can give wrong results. When measuring the compression ratio by volume, using a liquid, it is uncertain if the liquid fills the total porous volume of the coating. And for a thermodynamic compression ratio estimation, a model for the heat losses is needed, which is not available when doing experiments with insulation. The subject of this paper is the evaluation of an alternative method to assess the compression ratio.
Technical Paper

Optical Diagnostics of Spray Characteristics and Soot Volume Fractions of n-Butanol, n-Octanol, Diesel, and Hydrotreated Vegetable Oil Blends in a Constant Volume Combustion Chamber

The effects of using n-butanol, n-octanol, fossil Diesel, hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO), and blends of these fuels on spray penetration, flame and soot characteristics were investigated in a high-pressure high-temperature constant volume combustion chamber designed to mimic a heavy duty Diesel engine. Backlight illumination was used to capture liquid and vapor phase spray images with a high-speed camera. The flame lift-off length (LOL) and ignition delay were determined by analyzing OH* chemiluminescence images. Laser extinction diagnostics were used to measure the spatially and temporally resolved soot volume fraction. The spray experiments were performed by injecting fuels under non-combusting (623 K) and combusting (823 K) conditions at a fixed ambient air density of 26 kg/m3. A Scania 0.19 mm single straight hole injector and Scania XPI common rail fuel supply system were used to produce injection pressures of 120 MPa and 180 MPa.