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Technical Paper

Emission Reduction Technologies for the Future Low Emission Rail Diesel Engines: EGR vs SCR

The EU emission standards for new rail Diesel engines are becoming even more stringent. EGR and SCR technologies can both be used to reduce NOx emissions; however, the use of EGR is usually accompanied by an increase in PM emissions and may require a DPF. On the other hand, the use of SCR requires on-board storage of urea. Thus, it is necessary to study these trade-offs in order to understand how these technologies can best be used in rail applications to meet new emission standards. The present study assesses the application of these technologies in Diesel railcars on a quantitative basis using one and three dimensional numerical simulation tools. In particular, the study considers a 560 kW railcar engine with the use of either EGR or SCR based solutions for NOx reduction. The NOx and PM emissions performances are evaluated over the C1 homologation cycle.
Technical Paper

Location of the First Auto-Ignition Sites for Two HCCI Systems in a Direct Injection Engine

To elucidate the processes controlling the auto-ignition timing and overall combustion duration in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines, the distribution of the auto-ignition sites, in both space and time, was studied. The auto-ignition locations were investigated using optical diagnosis of HCCI combustion, based on laser induced fluorescence (LIF) measurements of formaldehyde in an optical engine with fully variable valve actuation. This engine was operated in two different modes of HCCI. In the first, auto-ignition temperatures were reached by heating the inlet air, while in the second, residual mass from the previous combustion cycle was trapped using a negative valve overlap. The fuel was introduced directly into the combustion chamber in both approaches. To complement these experiments, 3-D numerical modeling of the gas exchange and compression stroke events was done for both HCCI-generating approaches.
Technical Paper

Modeling the Effect of Injection Schedule Change on Free Piston Engine Operation

In this study, the effects of varying the start of injection in a Free Piston Engine (FPE) have been investigated, using the KIVA-3V CFD code. In order to simulate the FPE the code has been modified by replacing the conventional crank shaft controlled piston motion by a piston motion profile calculated using a MATLAB/SIMULINK model. In this model, the piston motion is controlled by Newton's second law and the combustion process is represented by a simplified model based on ignition delay integrals and Wiebe functions. The results were tuned using predictions from the SENKIN software which are based on the detailed chemical kinetics mechanism of a Diesel oil surrogate represented by a blend of the main aliphatic (70% n-heptane) and aromatic (30% toluene) components. In order to help analyze the emission formation resulting from the HCCI/PPCI combustion modes in the engine, a special approach based on the temperature-equivalence ratio maps has been developed.
Technical Paper

Reducing Pressure Fluctuations at High Loads by Means of Charge Stratification in HCCI Combustion with Negative Valve Overlap

Future demands for improvements in the fuel economy of gasoline passenger car engines will require the development and implementation of advanced combustion strategies, to replace, or combine with the conventional spark ignition strategy. One possible strategy is homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) achieved using negative valve overlap (NVO). However, several issues need to be addressed before this combustion strategy can be fully implemented in a production vehicle, one being to increase the upper load limit. One constraint at high loads is the combustion becoming too rapid, leading to excessive pressure-rise rates and large pressure fluctuations (ringing), causing noise. In this work, efforts were made to reduce these pressure fluctuations by using a late injection during the later part of the compression. A more appropriate acronym than HCCI for such combustion is SCCI (Stratified Charge Compression Ignition).
Technical Paper

Analysis of Advanced Multiple Injection Strategies in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Using Optical Measurements and CFD-Simulations

In order to meet future emissions legislation for Diesel engines and reduce their CO2 emissions it is necessary to improve diesel combustion by reducing the emissions it generates, while maintaining high efficiency and low fuel consumption. Advanced injection strategies offer possible ways to improve the trade-offs between NOx, PM and fuel consumption. In particular, use of high EGR levels (⥸ 40%) together with multiple injection strategies provides possibilities to reduce both engine-out NOx and soot emissions. Comparisons of optical engine measurements with CFD simulations enable detailed analysis of such combustion concepts. Thus, CFD simulations are important aids to understanding combustion phenomena, but the models used need to be able to model cases with advanced injection strategies.
Technical Paper

Heat Release in the End-Gas Prior to Knock in Lean, Rich and Stoichiometric Mixtures With and Without EGR

SI Engine knock is caused by autoignition in the unburnt part of the mixture (end-gas) ahead of the propagating flame. Autoignition of the end-gas occurs when the temperature and pressure exceeds a critical limit when comparatively slow reactions-releasing moderate amounts of heat-transform into ignition and rapid heat release. In this paper the difference in the heat released in the end-gas-by low temperature chemistry-between lean, rich, stochiometric, and stoichiometric mixtures diluted with cooled EGR was examined by measuring the temperature in the end-gas with Dual Broadband Rotational CARS. The measured temperature history was compared with an isentropic temperature calculated from the cylinder pressure trace. The experimentally obtained values for knock onset were compared with results from a two-zone thermodynamic model including detailed chemistry modeling of the end-gas reactions.
Technical Paper

Heavy-Duty Diesel Combustion with Ultra-Low NOx and SOOT Emissions - A Comparison Between Experimental Data and CFD Simulations

Experiments were conducted with a single cylinder heavy duty research engine, based on the geometry of a Volvo Powertrain D12C production engine. For these tests the engine was configured with a low compression ratio, low swirl, common rail fuel injection system and an eight-orifice nozzle. The combustion process was visualized by video via an inserted endoscope. From the resulting images temperatures were evaluated with the two-color method. In addition, the combustion and emission formation were simulated using the multiple flamelet concept implemented in the commercial CFD code STAR-CD. The models used in this paper are considered state-of-the-art. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the possibilities offered by combining several methods in the evaluation of novel engine concepts. Therefore, results from the optical measurements, the CFD simulations and global emission experimental data were compared.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of the Effect of Needle Opening (NOP) Pressure on Combustion and Emissions Formation in a Heavy Duty DI Diesel Engine

This paper presents an investigation of the effects of varying needle opening pressure (NOP) (375 to 1750 bar), engine speed (1000 rpm to 1800 rpm), and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) (0% to 20 %) on the combustion process, exhaust emissions, and fuel consumption at low (25 %) and medium (50 %) loads in a single cylinder heavy duty DI diesel research engine with a displacement of 2.02 l. The engine was equipped with an advanced two-actuator E3 Electronic Unit Injector (EUI) from Delphi Diesel, with a maximum injection pressure of 2000 bar. In previous versions of the EUI system, the peak injection pressure was a function of the injection duration, cam lift, and cam rate. The advanced EUI system allows electronic control of the needle opening and closing. This facilitates the generation of high injection pressures, independently of load and speed.
Technical Paper

Measurements of Fuel Film Thickness in the Inlet Port of an S.I. Engine by Laser Induced Fluorescence

Fuel wetting in the inlet port of a gasoline engine was studied using Laser-Induced Fluorescence (LIF). The measurements were done directly on the metal wall surface. Quantitative results were be obtained using a special calibration procedure. The sensitivity of the technique was found to correspond to a fuel layer thickness in the order of 1 μm, and the accuracy was estimated to be approx. 10 %. The engine was run on iso-octane, and in order to obtain fluorescence a dopant (3-pentanone) was added to the fuel. Laser light with a wave length of 266 nm was generated by frequency doubling the light from a Nd-YAG laser in two steps. A laser sheet was directed into the intake port and the fuel layer on the wall could be studied along a line on the bifurcation wall. The fluorescence light was detected with an intensified diode-array camera. The measurements from the fuel film thickness were compared with measurements of the total fuel film mass using an A/F response method.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Charge Air and Fuel Injection Parameters on Combustion with High Levels of EGR in a HDDI Single Cylinder Diesel Engine

When increasing EGR from low levels to levels corresponding to low temperature combustion, soot emissions first start to increase (due to reductions in soot oxidation), before decreasing to almost zero (due to very low rates of soot formation). At the EGR level where soot emissions start to increase, the NOx emissions are still low, but not low enough to comply with future emission standards. The purpose of this study was therefore to investigate the possibilities for moving the so-called “soot bump” (increase in soot) to higher EGR levels or reducing the magnitude of the soot bump. This involved an experimental investigation of parameters affecting the combustion and thus the engine-out emissions. The parameters investigated were: charge air pressure, injection pressure, EGR temperature and post injection (with different dwell times) for a wide range of EGR rates.
Technical Paper

Low Temperature Combustion in a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Using High Levels of EGR

The possibilities for extending the range of engine loads in which soot and NOx emissions can be minimised by using low temperature combustion in conjunction with high levels of EGR was investigated in a series of experiments with a single cylinder research engine. The results show that very low levels of both soot and NOx emissions can be achieved at engine loads up to 50 % by reducing the compression ratio to 14 and applying high levels of EGR (up to approximately 60 %). Unfortunately, the low temperature combustion is accompanied by increases in fuel consumption and emissions of both HC and CO. However, these drawbacks can be reduced by advancing the injection timing. The research engine was a 2 litre direct injected (DI), supercharged, heavy duty, single cylinder diesel engine with a geometry based on Volvo's 12 litre engine, and the amount of EGR was increased by adjusting the exhaust back pressure while keeping the charge air pressure constant.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Split Injections at Low Load in an HDDI Diesel Engine Equipped with a Piezo Injector

In order to investigate the effects of split injection on emission formation and engine performance, experiments were carried out using a heavy duty single cylinder diesel engine. Split injections with varied dwell time and start of injection were investigated and compared with single injection cases. In order to isolate the effect of the selected parameters, other variables were kept constant. In this investigation no EGR was used. The engine was equipped with a common rail injection system with a piezo-electric injector. To interpret the observed phenomena, engine CFD simulations using the KIVA-3V code were also made. The results show that reductions in NOx emissions and brake specific fuel consumption were achieved for short dwell times whereas they both were increased when the dwell time was prolonged. No EGR was used so the soot levels were already very low in the cases of single injections.
Technical Paper

The Volvo 3-Litre 6-Cylinder Engine with 4-Valve Technology

During 1990, the Volvo Car Corporation will Introduce a new In-line six-cylinder engine featuring three litre displacement, twin overhead camshafts and 24 valves, designated the B6304F. The engine has been designed and adapted for Volvo's top-of-the-line model 960, and it has been developed to meet the market's high demands on comfort, performance, reliability, economy and environmental friendliness. The engine has been designed and manufactured with the help of advanced CAE technology. The engine structure consists of five basic aluminium parts. This construction contributes to the low engine weight of 182 kg including auxiliary units, oil and wiring. The engine's gas flow has been optimized with the help of data simulation and laser measurement technology so as to ensure efficient utilization of energy. Fuel injection and ignition timing are regulated and controlled by an advanced electronic control system, the Bosch Motronic 1.8.
Technical Paper

Low Soot, Low NOx in a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Using High Levels of EGR

The objective of the study presented here was to examine the possibility of simultaneously reducing soot and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from a heavy duty diesel engine, using very high levels of EGR (exhaust gas recirculation). The investigation was carried out using a 2 litre DI single cylinder diesel engine. Two different EGR strategies were examined. One entailed maintaining a constant charge air pressure with a varied exhaust back pressure in order to change the amount of EGR. In the other strategy a constant pressure difference was maintained over the engine, resulting in different equivalence ratios at similar EGR levels. EGR levels of 60 % or more significantly reduced both soot and NOx emissions at 25 % engine load with constant charge air pressure and increasing exhaust back pressure. However, combustion under these conditions was incomplete, resulting in high emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbons (HC) and high fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

Spray Shape and Atomization Quality of an Outward-Opening Piezo Gasoline DI Injector

The spray formation and consequent atomization of an outward opening piezo-electric gasoline DI injector have been experimentally investigated in a constant pressure spray chamber. The sizes and velocities of the droplets and the resulting spray shape were evaluated, under different boundary conditions, using Planar Mie scattering and Planar Laser-induced Fluorescence (PLIF) in combination with Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA) analyses and high-speed video photography. The use of piezo-electric actuation for gasoline DI injectors provides an additional means to control the atomization and spray shape that is not available with solenoid-driven injectors such as swirling and multi-hole type injectors. For instance, with piezo injectors up to four injections per cycle are possible, and the fuel flow rate can be controlled by adjusting needle lift. The captured high-speed video images show that a hollow-cone spray forms as the fuel exits the outward-opening nozzle.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Cylinder Pressure Based Knock Detection Methods

Eight different cylinder pressure trace based knock detection methods are compared using two reference cycles of different time-frequency content, reflecting single blast and developing blast, and a test population of 300 knocking cycles. It is shown that the choice of the pass window used for the pressure data has no significant effect on the results of the different methods, except for the KI20. In contrast to other authors, no sudden step in the knock characteristics is expected; first, because the data investigated contain only knocking cycles, and second, because a smooth transition between normal combustion and knock is expected, according to recent knock theory. It is not only the correlation coefficient, but also the Kendall coefficient of concordance, that is used to investigate the differences between the knock classification methods.
Technical Paper

Cyclic Variation in an SI Engine Due to the Random Motion of the Flame Kernel

This paper reports an investigation of the association between flame kernel movement and cyclic variability and assesses the relative importance of this phenomenon, with all other parameters that show a cyclic variability held constant. The flame is assumed to be subjected to a “random walk” by the fluctuating velocity component of the flow field as long as it is of the order of or smaller than the integral scale. However, the mean velocity also imposes prefered convection directions on the flame kernel motion. Two-point LDA (Laser Doppler Anemometry) measurements of mean velocity, turbulence intensity and integral length scale are used as input data to the simulations. A quasi-dimensional computer code with a moving flame center position is used to simulate the influence of these two components on the performance of an S I engine with a tumble-based combustion system.
Technical Paper

Modeling Gasoline Spray-Wall Interactions and Comparison to Experimental Data

The effects of a gasoline spray impinging on a heated surface were investigated under simulated engine conditions in an earlier study. The data from the experimental investigation have now been compared to results obtained from Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) simulations generated using several different numerical models for spray-wall impingement found in the literature. It was found that the models based on single-drop experiments do not predict the outcome of spray impingement well in some respects. Their major drawback was that the predicted diameter distributions of the reflected drops in the secondary spray were shifted downwards from the measured drop size distributions. The tested models predicted the normal velocity component relative to the wall well. However, they were less good at capturing the tangential velocity component relative to the wall.
Technical Paper

Effect of Injection Parameters on Auto-Ignition and Soot Formation in Diesel Sprays

A validation study of the numerical model of n-heptane spray combustion based on experimental constant-volume data [1] was done, by comparing auto-ignition delays for different pre - turbulence levels and initial temperatures, flame contours, and soot distributions under Diesel-like conditions. The basic novelty of the methodology developed in [2] - [3] is the implementation of the partially stirred reactor (PaSR) model accounting for detailed chemistry / turbulence interactions. It is based on the assumption that the chemical processes proceed in two successive steps: micro mixing, simulated on a sub - grid scale, is followed by the reaction act. When the all Re number RNG k-ε or LES models are employed, the micro mixing time can be consistently defined giving the combustion model a “well-closed” form incorporated into the KIVA-3V code.
Technical Paper

Effects of Injector Parameters on Mixture Formation for Multi-Hole Nozzles in A Spray-Guided Gasoline DI Engine

This paper focuses on ways of improving the spray formation from spray-guided multi-hole gasoline direct injection injectors. Work has been done both experimentally using laser diagnostic tools and numerically using Computational Fluid Dynamics. Laser Induced Exciplex Fluorescence (LIEF) measurements in a constant pressure spray chamber and optical engine measurements have shown that injectors with 6-hole nozzles and 50-degree umbrella angles are unsuitable for stratified combustion because they produce steep air-fuel ratio gradients and create a spray with overly-deep liquid fuel penetration as well as presence of liquid fuel around the spark plug. In order to study injector performance, numerical calculations using the AVL FIRE™ CFD code were performed. The numerical results indicate that by increasing the injector umbrella angle, the extent of piston wall wetting can be decreased.