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Technical Paper

Catalysts for Methanol Vehicles

A Methanol catalyst test program has been conducted in two phases. The purpose of Phase I was to determine whether a base metal or lightly-loaded noble metal catalyst could reduce Methanol engine exhaust emissions with an efficiency comparable to conventional gasoline engine catalytic converters. The goal of Phase II was the reduction of aldehyde and unburned fuel emissions to very low levels by the use of noble metal catalysts with catalyst loadings higher than those in Phase I. Catalysts tested in Phase I were evaluated as three-way converters as well as under simulated oxidation catalyst conditions. Phase II catalysts were tested as three-way converters only. For Phase I, the most consistently efficient catalysts over the range of pollutants measured were platinum/rhodium configurations. None of the catalysts tested in Phase I were able to meet a NOx level of 1 gram per mile when operated in the oxidation mode.
Technical Paper

An Early-Design Methodology for Predicting Transient Fuel Economy and Catalyst-Out Exhaust Emissions

An early-design methodology for predicting both expected fuel economy and catalyst-out CO, HC and NOx concentrations during arbitrarily-defined transient cycles is presented. The methodology is based on utilizing a vehicle-powertrain model with embedded maps of fully warmed up engine-out performance and emissions, and appropriate temperature-dependent correction factors to account for not fully warmed up conditions during transients. Similarly, engine-out emissions are converted to catalyst-out emissions using conversion efficiencies based on the catalyst brick temperature. A crucial element of the methodology is hence the ability to predict heat flows and component temperatures in the engine and the exhaust system during transients, consistent with the data available during concept definition and early design phases.
Technical Paper

Factors Affecting Automotive Fuel Economy

The EPA certification data base is the most extensive available body of information relating engineering variables to fuel economy. The range and distributions of these variables are presented in a non-sales weighted context. A multiple regression analysis, performed with careful attention to selection of optimum non-linear forms for some of the variables, shows that the most significant determinant of fuel economy is the parameter CID × N/V. Vehicle weight is second. A sensitivity study on the isolated fuel economy effects of CID, N/V and weight confirms the superiority of CID as an influencing factor, and opens avenues for improving the structure of the forms of these variables in future regression equations. A method is devised for quantifying ignition timing over a driving cycle in terms of a single “labeling” value usable as an engineering variable. Although not illustrated, the method is applicable to carburetion in similar fashion.
Technical Paper

Development of Adjustment Factors for the EPA City and Highway MPG Values

This paper describes the development of adjustment factors applicable to the EPA City and Highway MPG values. The paper discusses the data bases used, and the analytical methods employed to arrive at adjustment factors of 0.90 for the EPA City MPG value and 0.78 for the EPA Highway MPG value.