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Technical Paper

The Multi-party World of Aircraft Maintenance:A Case for Systemic Management and Human Factors Education

This paper presents a model which is representative of the current environment within which most domestic repair stations performing work for air carriers operate. The model illustrates how the successful habits of visionary companies, as documented by Collins and Porras (1997), could be applied to the aviation industry and how Human Factors education could be used to effect a long-term change in the aviation safety culture. A review of the current research on Human Factors in maintenance strongly indicates that the various types of training programs have been effective in raising the awareness of safety issues among the participants, but the applications of those principles to advance safety have been limited by the absence of a systemic management vision. An incremental and radical change in the aviation safety culture could be sought by educating the future workforce in using Human Factors in maintenance and management practices.
Technical Paper

A New Model for Measuring Return on Investment (ROI) For Safety Programs in Aviation: An Example from Airline Maintenance Resource Management (MRM)

This paper presents a new model of ROI for comparing and evaluating the new, rapidly evolving aviation maintenance resource management (MRM) programs. This model is simple and direct to apply. The results from this new approach to ROI will permit airline maintenance employees to clearly see the financial benefits of these safety initiatives and to be able to plan accordingly. This new approach will also permit policy makers to compare MRM results on even terms with other programs competing for their attention.
Technical Paper

Targeted MRM Programs: Setting ROI Goals and Measuring the Results

MRM programs have impacted several operational and safety issues. However, many of these programs did not target a particular safety or performance goal by design. Consequently, MRM champions have had difficulty in presenting financial justification for the continuation of their programs. This paper presents a model that accounts for extraneous influences on the performance/ safety changes while distilling the specific effects of MRM training or other interventions on the corporate bottom-line. It also presents a case for strategic implementation of MRM programs with specific ROI goals.
Technical Paper

Human Resources Integration Master Plan: A Response to Revolving Door Management

Taylor (1999) reported the effects of national cultures on the work values of aviation mechanics and Patankar (1999) reported the effects of their professional and organizational cultures. Taylor and Patankar (1999) found effects of national and professional cultures on the outcomes of maintenance human factors programs. Considering those effects, this paper focuses on a strategy that would encourage the champions of human factors programs to develop a human resources master plan and integrate it with the organizational culture.
Technical Paper

Corporate Aviation on the Leading Edge: Systemic Implementation of Macro-human Factors in Aviation Maintenance

While majority of the airlines are struggling to implement macro human factors principles in their maintenance activities, at least eleven corporate aviation departments (CADs) in the country are showing signs of success. The implementation philosophy of these CADs differs from others, and from the airlines in one fundamental aspect: it enforces a behavior change rather than an attitude change among the CAD employees. Consequently, they strive to achieve an employee behavior which is consistent within and across their flight operations, maintenance, and management functions. Ethnographic research was conducted at one of the eleven eligible sites to develop a theoretical model which is representative of the structure, the strategy, and the processes used by these aviation departments to implement macro human factors principles in aviation maintenance. This model was then tested at three other CADs that have a implemented similar approach.
Technical Paper

Analyses of Organizational and Individual Factors Leading to Maintenance Errors

Maintenance errors, as reported in 939 ASRS reports, were analyzed to determine primary and secondary causal factors. The taxonomy of these causal factors was developed by cross-mapping Reason’s General Failure Types, MEDA’s contributing factors, and the “Dirty Dozen.” At the primary level, the taxonomies were classified into either organizational-type factors or individual-type factors. At the secondary level, the organizational-type and individual-type factors were combined into one comprehensive list. At the primary causal level, the leading organizational factor was poor procedures or poor quality of information that is available to the maintenance personnel and the leading individual factor was a lack of awareness. At the secondary causal level, the leading factor was poor procedures or quality of information.