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Technical Paper

Advancement of GDCI Engine Technology for US 2025 CAFE and Tier 3 Emissions

The automotive industry is facing tremendous challenges to improve fuel economy and emissions of the internal combustion engine. In the US, 2025 standards for fuel economy and CO2 emissions are extremely stringent. Simultaneously, vehicles must comply with new US Tier 3 emissions standards. In all market segments, there is a need for very clean and efficient engines operating on gasoline fuels. Gasoline Direct Injection Compression Ignition (GDCI) has been under development for several years and significant progress has been realized. As part of two US DOE programs, Delphi has developed a third generation GDCI engine that utilizes partially premixed compression ignition. The engine features an innovative “wetless”, low-temperature, combustion system with the latest high-pressure GDi injection system. The system was developed using extensive simulation and engine testing.
Technical Paper

Development of Continuously Variable Valve Lift Mechanism for Improved Fuel Economy

Delphi has developed a Continuously Variable Valve Lift [CVVL] mechanism to improve spark ignition engine part throttle fuel economy through the minimization of pumping losses and reduction of cam drive torque. The latest CVVL design is focused on meeting valve lift duration targets derived from combustion analysis at key speed and load points, reducing packaging envelope, and reducing part count for low cost. Delphi's CVVL design process, simulation used to predict performance, and hardware confirmation testing will be presented and discussed in this paper.
Journal Article

Full-Time Gasoline Direct-Injection Compression Ignition (GDCI) for High Efficiency and Low NOx and PM

A gasoline compression-ignition combustion system is being developed for full-time operation over the speed-load map. Low-temperature combustion was achieved using multiple late injection (MLI), intake boost, and moderate EGR for high efficiency, low NOx, and low particulate emissions. The relatively long ignition delay and high volatility of RON 91 pump gasoline combined with an advanced injection system and variable valve actuation provided controlled mixture stratification for low combustion noise. Tests were conducted on a single-cylinder research engine. Design of Experiments and response surface models were used to evaluate injection strategies, injector designs, and various valve lift profiles across the speed-load operating range. At light loads, an exhaust rebreathing strategy was used to promote autoignition and maintain exhaust temperatures. At medium loads, a triple injection strategy produced the best results with high thermal efficiency.
Journal Article

Boost System Development for Gasoline Direct-Injection Compression-Ignition (GDCI)

Intake boosting is an important method to improve fuel economy of internal combustion engines. Engines can be down-sized, down-speeded, and up-loaded to reduce friction losses, parasitic losses, and pumping losses, and operate at speed-load conditions that are thermodynamically more efficient. Low-temperature combustion engines (LTE) also benefit from down-sizing, down-speeding, and up-loading, but these engines exhibit very low exhaust enthalpy to drive conventional turbochargers. This paper describes modeling, evaluation, and selection of an efficient boost system for a 1.8L four-cylinder Gasoline Direct-Injection Compression-Ignition (GDCI) engine. After a preliminary concept selection phase the model was used to develop the boost system parameters to achieve full-load and part-load engine operation objectives.
Journal Article

Development of a Gasoline Direct Injection Compression Ignition (GDCI) Engine

In previous work, Gasoline Direct Injection Compression Ignition (GDCI) has demonstrated good potential for high fuel efficiency, low NOx, and low PM over the speed-load range using RON91 gasoline. In the current work, a four-cylinder, 1.8L engine was designed and built based on extensive simulations and single-cylinder engine tests. The engine features a pent roof combustion chamber, central-mounted injector, 15:1 compression ratio, and zero swirl and squish. A new piston was developed and matched with the injection system. The fuel injection, valvetrain, and boost systems were key technology enablers. Engine dynamometer tests were conducted at idle, part-load, and full-load operating conditions. For all operating conditions, the engine was operated with partially premixed compression ignition without mode switching or diffusion controlled combustion.
Journal Article

GDCI Multi-Cylinder Engine for High Fuel Efficiency and Low Emissions

A 1.8L Gasoline Direct Injection Compression Ignition (GDCI) engine was tested over a wide range of engine speeds and loads using RON91 gasoline. The engine was operated with a new partially premixed combustion process without combustion mode switching. Injection parameters were used to control mixture stratification and combustion phasing using a multiple-late injection strategy with GDi-like injection pressures. At idle and low loads, rebreathing of hot exhaust gases provided stable compression ignition with very low engine-out NOx and PM emissions. Rebreathing enabled reduced boost pressure, while increasing exhaust temperatures greatly. Hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions after the oxidation catalyst were very low. Brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) of 267 g/kWh was measured at the 2000 rpm-2bar BMEP global test point.
Technical Paper

Pathway to 50% Brake Thermal Efficiency Using Gasoline Direct Injection Compression Ignition

Continued improvement in the combustion process of internal combustion engines is necessary to reduce fuel consumption, CO2 emissions, and criteria emissions for automotive transportation around the world. In this paper, test results for the Gen3X Gasoline Direct Injection Compression Ignition (GDCI) engine are presented. The engine is a 2.2L, four-cylinder, double overhead cam engine with compression ratio ~17. It features a “wetless” combustion system with a high-pressure direct injection fuel system. At low load, exhaust rebreathing and increased intake air temperature were used to promote autoignition and elevate exhaust temperatures to maintain high catalyst conversion efficiency. For medium-to-high loads, a new GDCI-diffusion combustion strategy was combined with advanced single-stage turbocharging to produce excellent low-end torque and power. Time-to-torque (TT) simulations indicated 90% load response in less than 1.5 seconds without a supercharger.
Journal Article

Second Generation GDCI Multi-Cylinder Engine for High Fuel Efficiency and US Tier 3 Emissions

The second generation 1.8L Gasoline Direct Injection Compression Ignition (GDCI) engine was built and tested using RON91 gasoline. The engine is intended to meet stringent US Tier 3 emissions standards with diesel-like fuel efficiency. The engine utilizes a fulltime, partially premixed combustion process without combustion mode switching. The second generation engine features a pentroof combustion chamber, 400 bar central-mounted injector, 15:1 compression ratio, and low swirl and squish. Improvements were made to all engine subsystems including fuel injection, valve train, thermal management, piston and ring pack, lubrication, EGR, boost, and aftertreatment. Low firing friction was a major engine design objective. Preliminary test results indicated good improvement in brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) over the first generation GDCI engines, while meeting targets for engine out emissions, combustion noise and stability.