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Technical Paper

(Nano) Particles from 2-S Scooters: SOF / INSOF; Improvements of Aftertreatment; Toxicity

2007-04-16
2007-01-1089
Limited and non-regulated emissions of scooters were analysed during several annual research programs of the Swiss Federal Office of Environment (BAFU) *). Small scooters, which are very much used in the congested centers of several cities, are a remarkable source of air pollution. Therefore every effort to reduce the emissions is an important contribution to improve the air quality in urban centers. In the present work detailed investigations of particle emissions of different 2-stroke scooters with direct injection and with carburettor were performed. The nanoparticulate emissions were measured by means of SMPS, (CPC) and NanoMet. Also the particle mass emission (PM) was measured with the same method as for Diesel engines. Extensive analyses of PM-residuum for SOF/INSOF, PAH and toxicity equivalence (TEQ), were carried out in an international project network. Particle mass emission (PM) of 2-S Scooters consists mostly of SOF.
Technical Paper

Combinations of Technical Measures for Reduction of Particle Emissions & Toxicity of 2-S Scooters

2009-04-20
2009-01-0689
2- and 3-wheelers with 2-S propulsion are still a very serious source of air pollution worldwide in many urban areas. Therefore, every effort to reduce the emissions of those vehicles is an important contribution to improve the air quality. In the present work detailed investigations of regulated emissions and of particle emissions of 2-stroke scooters with direct injection and with carburator were performed. To demonstrate the emission reduction potentials some possibilities of emission improvements were grouped into steps. These technical measures were: ○ Higher tier lube oils ○ Lower oil dosing ○ Active oxidation catalyst ○ Supplementary filtration & oxidation devise (WFC) **) ○ Special fuel. Particle mass and nanoparticles (number), which are amply present in 2-stroke exhaust gas and which contribute strongly to the toxicity level are still unlimited by the international exhaust gas legislation. They were extensively investigated in the present project series.
Technical Paper

Influences of Different Exhaust Filter Configurations on Emissions of a 2-Stroke Scooter Peugeot TSDI

2011-09-11
2011-24-0203
Exhaust emissions measurements of a small 2-S Scooter Peugeot TSDI*), 50cc with different particle filters have been performed in this present work according to the measuring procedures, which were established in the previous research in the Swiss Scooter Network, [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9]. The investigated particle filtration materials were supplied from different manufacturers as samples without specifications and they were applied by the research laboratory in a special muffler able to be taken apart. The investigated scooter represented a modern (2002) 2-stroke technology with direct injection, with oxidation catalyst and with injection of the lube oil to the intake air. Since there is a special concern about the particle emissions of the small engines, the particle mass and nanoparticle measurements were systematically carried out. The nanoparticulate emissions were measured by means of SMPS (CPC) and NanoMet*).
Journal Article

Unregulated Emissions with TWC, Gasoline & CNG

2010-04-12
2010-01-1286
Analysis of non-legislated engine-emission components, with different exhaust-gas after-treatment techniques, is an important air quality objective. This paper reports the results for various nitrogen oxides, ammonia and differentiated hydrocarbons emitted at part load from a small 4-S SI engine. It was operated with gasoline, with CNG and with two different three-way catalytic converters. CNG produces less HC and less aromatics. But the HC conversion rate is insufficient. This is due to the lower exhaust gas temperatures, at part load with CNG, and due to the higher stability of light HCs. CNG affects the λ-regulation window, of the investigated system, such that the NOx conversion rate is lowered. In the rich domain of the λ-regulation window, the NO & NOx emissions after catalyst were lowest, while the NH₃ formation was most intense, and vice versa.
Technical Paper

Comparative Studies of Particles Deposited in Diesel Particulate Filters Operating with Biofuel, Diesel Fuel and Fuel Blends

2011-09-11
2011-24-0102
Macroscopic studies and scanning electron microscope (SEM), as well as transmission electron microscope (TEM) research were carried out to investigate the nature and properties of particulate matter (PM) deposited in three diesel particulate filters (DPFs) operating with different fuels: 100% rapeseed methyl ester (RME100), a blend of 20% RME and 80% diesel (RME20), as well as 100% diesel (RME0). The DPFs were catalytically coated with V₂O₅/TiO₂. The PM deposits were either extracted from sectioned DPFs or studied "in situ," as deposited. In the RME100-DPF, the lowest soot and highest ash depositions are found. The higher amount of ash in RME100-DPF, as well as the higher participation of the element Ca in the ash from this filter, indicates that in addition to lubricating oil, the RME fuel contributes also to ash formation. Ash is found accumulating in the plugged inlet channels only in RME100 and as a few tens of μm-thick layer on the channel walls of all three filters.
Technical Paper

Investigations of Changes of the 2-Stroke Scooters Nanoparticles in the Exhaust- and CVS-System

2013-09-08
2013-24-0178
Nanoparticle emissions of two 2-stroke scooters were investigated along the exhaust and the CVS (Constant Volume Sampling) systems. Two configurations were tested: regular full-flow dilution configuration (denoted as “closed”) and also a modified sampling configuration (denoted as “open”). The scooters represent two distinct modern technologies. One scooter had direct injection TSDI*) (Two-Stroke Direct Injection). The other had a carburettor. Depending on the technology, the scooters produce different kind of aerosols (state-of-oxidation and SOF content). Moreover, the scooters were operated with and without oxidation catalyst. The tests were performed at two constant vehicular speeds (20 km/h and 40 km/h). The measuring procedures are those established during the previous research of the Swiss Scooter Network. The nanoparticulate emissions were measured using SMPS (Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer) and DC (Diffusion Charging) sensors.
Technical Paper

Effects of Ethanol Blend Fuels E10 and E85 on the Non-Legislated Emissions of a Flex Fuel Passenger Car

2016-04-05
2016-01-0977
A well-balanced use of alternative fuels worldwide is an important objective for a sustainable development of individual transportation. Several countries have objectives to substitute a part of the energy of traffic by ethanol as the renewable energy source. The global share of Bioethanol used for transportation is continuously increasing. Investigations of limited and unregulated emissions of a flex fuel vehicle with gasoline-ethanol blend fuel have been performed in the present work on the chassis dynamometer according to the measuring procedures, which were established in the previous research in the Swiss Network to adequately consider the transient (WLTC) and the stationary operation (SSC). The investigated fuel contained ethanol (E), in the portions of 10% & 85% by volume. The investigated vehicle represented a newer state of technology and an emission level of Euro 5. The engine works with homogenous GDI concept and with 3-W-catalyst (3WC).
Technical Paper

Diesel NO/NO2/NOX Emissions - New Experiences and Challenges

2007-04-16
2007-01-0321
During the VERT *) testing of different DPF systems it was remarked, that the oxidation catalyst converts sometimes a big part of NO to NO2, producing on the one hand a more toxic composition of the exhaust gases and causing on the other hand measuring artefacts, which tend to underestimate of NO2 and NOx by the cold NOx - measurement. The present work summarizes the experiences in this matter elaborated at the Laboratories for IC-Engines & Exhaust Emissions Control (AFHB) of the University of Applied Sciences Biel-Bienne, Switzerland, during several VERT activities and didactic projects on engine and chassis dynamometers in the years 2000-2006.
Technical Paper

Nanoparticle Filtration for Vehicle Cabins

2008-04-14
2008-01-0827
A filter system is presented which allows the reduction of the concentration of ultrafine particles in vehicle cabins to very low levels. The original ventilation system is switched to the recirculation mode and all cabin intake air is supplied via a retrofitted filter system. Tests with a variety of different vehicles (from passenger cars to coaches) show the efficiency of the system.
Technical Paper

Features of the Particulate Emission and Regenerations of Different DPF's on a Detroit Diesel 2-Stroke Bus Engine

2004-03-08
2004-01-0825
Different Diesel Particle Filters (DPF)*) were tested on a 2-Stroke Detroit-Diesel bus engine 6V 92 TA. The investigations focused on soot burden and regeneration of the DPF with special filter materials. Also examined was promoting the regeneration by: throttling, additive (FBC), oxidation catalytic converter upstream of DPF and the catalytic coating of the filter material. The metrics were the particulate matter emission, its composition and the nanoparticles. The most important results are: The average SOF content in the engine exhaust particulate matter is 77.6 % and the majority of it is emitted as bigger droplets The wire-mesh filter catalyst (WFC) - a novel emission reduction technology -substantially curtails the SOF and PM. WFC traps and oxidizes the oil droplets and produces a “dry” soot. This can be very advantageous for the DPF downstream of WFC. (WFC can be also very interesting for 2-S gasoline engines).
Technical Paper

Influences of Gas Quality on a Natural Gas Engine

2001-03-05
2001-01-1194
1 The topic of investigation of this work was the influence of different gas qualities on the engine parameters and particularly on the air excess factor λ. For this research the normalized gases with extreme compositions were used. At stationary operation there are no differences of the leaning capability of the different gases. The gas with the highest content of inert components causes the lowest full load power, the highest fuel consumption and the highest cyclic irregularity. With the same air flow and the same injection duration for different gases result different air excess factors λ according to the density and to the necessary stoichiometric air quantity of each gas. This fact influences the λ at transient operation conditions as: cold starting, gas quality jump, or load increase, if there is no λ-control. With an active λ-control, which is today fast enough, especially with an adaptive system there are no problems with λ- differences.
Technical Paper

Catalyst Aging and Effects on Particle Emissions of 2-Stroke Scooters

2008-04-14
2008-01-0455
An active oxidation catalyst is an efficient measure to reduce not only gaseous components (CO, HC), but also particle emissions (mostly oil condensates) of a small 2-stroke engine with lost oil lubrication. Since the 2- and 3-wheelers with 2-stroke propulsion are still a very serious source of air pollution worldwide in many urban areas, it is important to have a look on some consequences of an improperly working catalyst. The present paper shows some results of user-oriented aging of catalyst on the vehicle and results of limited emissions and unlimited (nano)particles during the catalysts screening tests. The works are a part of an international scooter network project, which was performed (2004 to 2007) in the Laboratories for IC-Engines & Exhaust Emission Control of the University of Applied Sciences, Biel, Switzerland with main support of the Swiss Federal Office of Environment (BAFU), Swiss Petrol Union (EV) and Swiss Lubes (VSS).
Technical Paper

Diesel Emission with DPF+SCR in VERTdePN - Testing & Potentials

2011-04-12
2011-01-1139
The most efficient way and the best available technology (BAT) to radically reduce the critical diesel emission components particles (PM&NP) and nitric oxides (NOx) are combined exhaust gas aftertreatment systems (DPF+SCR). SCR (selective catalytic reduction) is regarded as the most efficient deNOx-system, diesel particle filters are most efficient for soot abatement. Today, several suppliers offer combined systems for retrofitting of HD vehicles. The presented results are part of the work in the international network project VERT *) dePN (de-activation, de-contamination, disposal of particles and NOx), which has the objectives to establish test procedures and quality standards and to introduce the SCR-, or combined DPF+SCR-systems in the VERT verification procedure.
Journal Article

Research on Emissions and Engine Lube Oil Deterioration of Diesel Engines with BioFuels (RME)

2011-04-12
2011-01-1302
In the diesel sector the fatty acid methyl esters (FAME's) - in Europe mostly RME (rapeseed methyl ester) and in US mostly SME (soja oil methyl ester) - are used as a various share, % volume blends with the diesel fuel (B5, B7, B10, B20, Bxx). The present joint project focuses on RME being the most important representative of the biofuels of 1st generation in Europe. The influences of RME blend fuels on emissions and on lube oil deterioration are emphasized. Emissions were investigated on a modern engine with exhaust gas aftertreatment devices like SCR and (DPF+ SCR). Beside the legally limited exhaust emission components some non-legislated like NO₂, N₂O, NH₃ and nanoparticles were measured at stationary and dynamic engine operation.
Technical Paper

Research on Particle Emissions of Modern 2-Stroke Scooters

2006-04-03
2006-01-1078
Limited and nonlimited emissions of scooters were analysed during several annual research programs of the Swiss Agency of Environment Forests and Landscape (SAEFL, BUWAL)*). Small scooters, which are very much used in the congested centers of several cities are a remarkable source of air pollution. Therefore every effort to reduce the emissions is an important contribution to improve the air quality in urban centers. In the present work detailed investigations of particle emissions of different 2-stroke scooters with direct injection and with carburetor were performed. The nanoparticulate emissions with different lube oils and fuels were measured by means of SMPS, (CPC) and NanoMet *). Also the particle mass emission (PM) was measured with the same method as for Diesel engines. Extensive analyses of PM-residuum for PAH & SOF/INSOF, as well as for VOC were carried out in an international project network.
Technical Paper

Metal-Oxide Particles in Combustion Engine Exhaust

2010-04-12
2010-01-0792
Concern for engine particle emission led to EC regulations of the number of solid particles emitted by LDV and HDV. However, all conventional piston-driven combustion engines emit metal oxide particles of which only little is known. The main sources are abrasion between piston ring and cylinder, abrasion of bearing, cams and valves, catalyst coatings, metal-organic lubrication oil additives, and fuel additives. While abrasion usually generates particles in the μm range, high concentrations of nanosize metal oxide particles are also observed, probably resulting from nucleation processes during combustion. In general, metal oxides, especially from transition metals, have high surface reactivity and can therefore be very toxic, especially nanosize particles, which evidently provide a high specific bioactive surface and are suspected to penetrate into the organism. Hence, these particles must be scrutinized for quantity, size distribution and composition.
Technical Paper

(Particle) Emissions of Small 2-& 4-Stroke Scooters with (Hydrous) Ethanol Blends

2010-04-12
2010-01-0794
The objectives of the present work are to investigate the regulated and unregulated (particle) emissions of a classical and modern 2-stroke and a typical 4-stroke scooter with different ethanol blend fuels. There is also comparison of two different ethanol fuels: pure ethanol (E) *) and hydrous ethanol (EH) which contains 3.9% water and is denatured with 1.5% gasoline. Special attention is paid in this research to the hydrous ethanol, since the production costs of hydrous ethanol are much less than those for (dry) ethanol. The vehicles are with carburettor and without catalyst, which represents the most frequent technology in Eastern Asia and offers the information of engine-out emissions. Exhaust emissions measurements have been performed with fuels containing ethanol (E), or hydrous ethanol (EH) in the portion of 5, 10, 15 and 20% by volume. During the test systematical analysis of particle mass (PM) and nano-particles counts (NP) were carried out.
Technical Paper

Investigations of NO2 in Legal Test Procedure for Diesel Passenger Cars

2015-09-06
2015-24-2510
As a result of increased use of catalytic exhaust aftertreatment systems of vehicles and the low-sulfur Diesel fuels there is an increasing share of nitrogen dioxide NO2 in the ambient air of several cities. This is in spite of lowering the summary nitric oxides NOx emissions from vehicles. NO2 is much more toxic than nitrogen monoxide NO and it will be specially considered in the next legal testing procedures. There are doubts about the accuracy of analyzing the reactive substances from diluted gas and this project has the objective to show how NO2 is changing as it travels down through the exhaust- and the CVS systems. For legal measurements of NO2 a WLTP-DTP subgroup (Worldwide Light Duty Test Procedures - Diesel Test Procedures) proposed different combinations of NOx-analyzers and analysis of NO and NOx. Some of these set-ups were tested in this work.
Technical Paper

Reliability of DPF-Systems: Experience with 6000 Applications of the Swiss Retrofit Fleet

2004-03-08
2004-01-0076
The Swiss 1998 Ordinance on Air Pollution Control (OAPC) mandates curtailment of carcinogenic Diesel particle emissions at construction sites [4]. In addition particle traps are compulsory at underground workplaces [3]. In compliance, more than 6,000 Diesel engines were retrofitted with different particle trap systems. Many traps surpassed 99% filtration efficiency, from the beginning, and secondary emissions were mostly prevented. However, trap failure due to mechanical and thermal damage was initially rather high at about 10%. By Y-2000 the failure rate was halved to about 6%. Thanks to focussed improvements, the Y-2003 statistics show yearly failures of “only” about 2%. The Swiss target is to retrofit 15,000 construction machines with traps, fully compliant with environmental directives, having 5,000 operating hours durability and failure rates below 1%. Construction machines have much higher PM-emission factors than trucks, and are operated more intensely than tractors.
Technical Paper

Emissions of small 2S-SI-Engine for Handheld Machinery-Nanoparticulates & Particulate Matter

2001-12-01
2001-01-1830
1 Small off-road 2-stroke SI-engines have very high pollutant emissions. The Swiss environmental protection agency (BUWAL) investigates the state of the technology and emissions with the scope to show the potential of improvements by means of the best available technology (BAT) and to motivate the consumers to use the more sophisticated equipment and cleaner fuels to protect their health and the environment. In the present work emission measurements of chainsaws were performed with a special concern of particulate emissions. Particulates were analysed by means of: gravimetry, SMPS, NanoMet and differential analysis of filter residue. The varied conditions were: A/F-ratio, lube-oil content and the fuel quality. It has been shown, that the particulate mass and the nanoparticle numbers, which both consisting almost exclusively of unburned lube-oil, attain very high values. They are strongly influenced by the mixture tuning and by the lube-oil content.
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