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Technical Paper

The Filtration, Oxidation and Pressure Drop Characteristics of a Catalyzed Particulate Filter during Active Regeneration – A 1D Modeling Study

2009-04-20
2009-01-1274
Active regeneration of a catalyzed particulate filter (CPF) is affected by a number of parameters specifically particulate matter loading and inlet temperature. The MTU 1-D 2-Layer CPF model [1] was used to analyze these effects on the pressure drop, oxidation and filtration characteristics of a CPF during active regeneration. In addition, modeling results for post loading experiments were analyzed to understand the difference between loading a clean filter as compared to a partially regenerated filter. Experimental data obtained with a production Cummins regenerative particulate filter for loading, active regenerations and post loading experiments were used to calibrate the MTU 1-D 2-Layer CPF model. The model predicted results are compared with the experimental data and were analyzed to understand the CPF characteristics during active regeneration at 1.1, 2.2 and 4.1 g/L particulate matter (PM) loading and CPF inlet temperatures of 525, 550 and 600°C.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Modeling Results Comparing Two Diesel Oxidation Catalyst - Catalyzed Particulate Filter Systems

2008-04-14
2008-01-0484
Steady-state particulate loading experiments were conducted on an advanced production catalyzed particulate filter (CPF), both with and without a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC). A heavy-duty diesel engine was used for this study with the experiments conducted at 20, 40, 60 and 75 % of full load (1120 Nm) at rated speed (2100 rpm). The data obtained from these experiments were used and are necessary for calibrating the MTU 1-D 2-Layer CPF model. These experimental and modeling results were compared to previous research conducted at MTU that used the same engine but an earlier development version of the combination of DOC and CPF. The motivation for the comparison of the two systems was to determine whether the reformulated production catalysts performed as good or better than the early development catalysts. The results were compared to understand the filtration and oxidation differences between the two DOC+CPF and the CPF-only aftertreatment systems.
Technical Paper

Correlations of Non-Vaporizing Spray Penetration for 3000 Bar Diesel Spray Injection

2013-09-08
2013-24-0033
Increasing fuel injection pressure has enabled reduction of diesel emissions while retaining the advantage of the high thermal efficiency of diesel engines. With production diesel injectors operating in the range from 300 to 2400 bar, there is interest in injection pressures of 3000 bar and higher for further emissions reduction and fuel efficiency improvements. Fundamental understanding of diesel spray characteristics including very early injection and non-vaporizing spray penetration is essential to improve model development and facilitate the integration of advanced injection systems with elevated injection pressure into future diesel engines. Studies were conducted in an optically accessible constant volume combustion vessel under non-vaporizing conditions. Two advanced high pressure multi-hole injectors were used with different hole diameters, number of holes, and flow rates, with only one plume of each injector being imaged to enable high frame rate imaging.
Technical Paper

Influence of the Nozzle Geometry of a Diesel Single-Hole Injector on Liquid and Vapor Phase Distributions at Engine-Like Conditions

2013-09-08
2013-24-0038
The paper describes an experimental activity on the spatial and temporal liquid- and vapor-phase distributions of diesel fuel at engine-like conditions. The influence of the k-factor (0 and 1.5) of a single-hole axial-disposed injector (0.100 mm diameter and 10 L/d ratio) has been studied by spraying fuel in an optically-accessible constant-volume combustion vessel. A high-speed imaging system, capable of acquiring Mie-scattering and Schlieren images in a near simultaneous fashion mode along the same line of sight, has been developed at the Michigan Technological University using a high-speed camera and a pulsed-wave LED system. The time resolved pair of schlieren and Mie-scattering images identifies the instantaneous position of both the vapor and liquid phases of the fuel spray, respectively. The studies have been performed at three injection pressures (70, 120 and 180 MPa), 23.9 kg/m3 ambient gas density and 900 K gas temperature in the vessel.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study on the Interaction between Flow and Spark Plug Orientation on Ignition Energy and Duration for Different Electrode Designs

2017-03-28
2017-01-0672
The effect of flow direction towards the spark plug electrodes on ignition parameters is analyzed using an innovative spark aerodynamics fixture that enables adjustment of the spark plug gap orientation and plug axis tilt angle with respect to the incoming flow. The ignition was supplied by a long discharge high energy 110 mJ coil. The flow was supplied by compressed air and the spark was discharged into the flow at varying positions relative to the flow. The secondary ignition voltage and current were measured using a high speed (10MHz) data acquisition system, and the ignition-related metrics were calculated accordingly. Six different electrode designs were tested. These designs feature different positions of the electrode gap with respect to the flow and different shapes of the ground electrodes. The resulting ignition metrics were compared with respect to the spark plug ground strap orientation and plug axis tilt angle about the flow direction.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Flow Conditions and Tumble near the Spark Plug in a DI Optical Engine at Ignition

2018-04-03
2018-01-0208
Tumble motion plays a significant role in modern spark-ignition engines in that it promotes mixing of air/fuel for homogeneous combustion and increases the flame propagation speed for higher thermal efficiency and lower combustion variability. Cycle-by-cycle variations in the flow near the spark plug introduce variability to the initial flame kernel development, stretching, and convection, and this variability is carried over to the entire combustion process. The design of current direct-injection spark-ignition engines aims to have a tumble flow in the vicinity of the spark plug at the time of ignition. This work investigates how the flow condition changes in the vicinity of the spark plug throughout the late compression stroke via high-speed imaging of a long ignition discharge arc channel and its stretching, and via flow field measurement by particle imaging velocimetry.
Technical Paper

A Methodology to Estimate the Mass of Particulate Matter Retained in a Catalyzed Particulate Filter as Applied to Active Regeneration and On-Board Diagnostics to Detect Filter Failures

2008-04-14
2008-01-0764
A methodology to estimate the mass of particulate retained in a catalyzed particulate filter as a function of measured total pressure drop, volumetric flow rate, exhaust temperature, exhaust gas viscosity and cake and wall permeability applicable to real-time computation is discussed. This methodology is discussed from the view point of using it to indicate when to initiate active regeneration and as an On-Board Diagnostic tool to detect filter failures. Steady-state loading characterization experiments were conducted on a catalyzed diesel particulate filter (CPF) in a Johnson Matthey CCRT® (catalyzed continuously regenerating trap) system. The experiments were performed using a 10.8 L 2002 Cummins ISM heavy-duty diesel engine. Experiments were conducted at 20, 60 and 75% of full engine load (1120 Nm) and rated speed (2100 rpm) to measure the pressure drop, transient filtration efficiency, particulate mass balance, and gaseous emissions.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Study of Water Spray Injection at Engine-Relevant Conditions

2013-04-08
2013-01-0250
Water spray characterization of a multi-hole injector under pressures and temperatures representative of engine-relevant conditions was investigated for naturally aspirated and boosted engine conditions. Experiments were conducted in an optically accessible pressure vessel using a high-speed Schlieren imaging to visualize the transient water spray. The experimental conditions included a range of injection pressures of 34, 68, and 102 bar and ambient temperatures of 30 - 200°C, which includes flash-boiling and non-flash-boiling conditions. Transient spray tip penetration and spray angle were characterized via image processing of raw Schlieren images using Matlab code. The CONVERGE CFD software was used to simulate the water spray obtained experimentally in the vessel. CFD parameters were tuned and validated against the experimental results of spray profile and spray tip penetration measured in the combustion vessel (CV).
Technical Paper

Experimental Studies of an Advanced Ceramic Diesel Particulate Filter

2008-04-14
2008-01-0622
A Cummins ISB 5.9 liter medium-duty engine with cooled EGR has been used to study an early extrusion of an advanced ceramic uncatalyzed diesel particulate filter (DPF). Data for the advanced ceramic material (ACM) and an uncatalyzed cordierite filter of similar dimensions are presented. Pressure drop data as a function of mass loadings (0, 4, and 6 grams of particulate matter (PM) per liter of filter volume) for various flow rate/temperature combinations (0.115 - 0.187 kg/sec and 240 - 375 °C) based upon loads of 15, 25, 40 and 60% of full engine load (684 N-m) at 2300 rpm are presented. The data obtained from these experiments were used to calibrate the MTU 1-D 2-Layer computer model developed previously at MTU. Clean wall permeability determined from the model calibration for the ACM was 5.0e-13 m2 as compared to 3.0e-13 m2 for cordierite.
Technical Paper

Target Based Rapid Prototyping Control System for Engine Research

2006-04-03
2006-01-0860
Today's advanced technology engines have a high content of electronic actuation requiring sophisticated real-time embedded software sensing and control. To enable research on such engines, a system with a flexible engine control unit (ECU) that can be rapidly configured and programmed is desired. Such a system is being used in the Advanced Internal Combustion Engine (AICE) Laboratories at Michigan Tech University (MTU) for research on a multi-cylinder spark-ignited gasoline, a high pressure common rail diesel and a single cylinder alternative fuels research engine. The system combines a production ECU with a software development system utilizing Mathworks Simulink/Stateflow © modeling tools. The interface in the Simulink modeling environment includes a library of modeling and interface blocks to the production Operating System (OS), Low Level Drivers (LLD) and CAN-based calibration tool.
Journal Article

Ionization Signal Response during Combustion Knock and Comparison to Cylinder Pressure for SI Engines

2008-04-14
2008-01-0981
In-cylinder ion sensing is a subject of interest due to its application in spark-ignited (SI) engines for feedback control and diagnostics including: combustion knock detection, rate and phasing of combustion, and mis-fire On Board Diagnostics (OBD). Further advancement and application is likely to continue as the result of the availability of ignition coils with integrated ion sensing circuitry making ion sensing more versatile and cost effective. In SI engines, combustion knock is controlled through closed loop feedback from sensor metrics to maintain knock near the borderline, below engine damage and NVH thresholds. Combustion knock is one of the critical applications for ion sensing in SI engines and improvement in knock detection offers the potential for increased thermal efficiency. This work analyzes and characterizes the ionization signal in reference to the cylinder pressure signal under knocking and non-knocking conditions.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation of Autoignition of Gasoline-Ethanol/Air Mixtures under Different Conditions of Pressure, Temperature, Dilution, and Equivalence Ratio.

2011-04-12
2011-01-0341
A numerical simulation of autoignition of gasoline-ethanol/air mixtures has been performed using the closed homogeneous reactor model in CHEMKIN® to compute the dependence of autoignition time with ethanol concentration, pressure, temperature, dilution, and equivalence ratio. A semi-detailed validated chemical kinetic model with 142 species and 672 reactions for a gasoline surrogate fuel with ethanol has been used. The pure components in the surrogate fuel consisted of n-heptane, isooctane and toluene. The ethanol volume fraction is varied between 0 to 85%, initial pressure is varied between 20 to 60 bar, initial temperature is varied between 800 to 1200K, and the dilution is varied between 0 to 32% at equivalence ratios of 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 to represent the in-cylinder conditions of a spark-ignition engine. The ignition time is taken to be the point where the rate of change of temperature with respect to time is the largest (temperature inflection point criteria).
Technical Paper

Combustion Robustness Characterization of Gasoline and E85 for Startability in a Direct Injection Spark-Ignition Engine

2012-04-16
2012-01-1073
An experimental study and analysis was conducted to investigate cold start robustness of an ethanol flex-fuel spark ignition (SI) direct injection (DI) engine. Cold starting with ethanol fuel blends is a known challenge due to the fuel characteristics. The program was performed to investigate strategies to reduce the enrichment requirements for the first firing cycle during a cold start. In this study a single-cylinder SIDI research engine was used to investigate gasoline and E85 fuels which were tested with three piston configurations (CR11F, CR11B, CR15.5B - which includes changes in compression ratio and piston geometry), at three intake cam positions (95, 110, 125 °aTDC), and two fuel pressures (low: 0.4 MPa and high: 3.0 MPa) at 25°C±1°C engine and air temperature, for the first cycle of an engine start.
Technical Paper

Development of an Improved Residuals Estimation Model for Dual Independent Cam Phasing Spark-Ignition Engines

2013-04-08
2013-01-0312
Estimating internal residual during engine operation is essential to robust control during startup, steady state, and transient operation. Internal residual has a significant effect on combustion flame propagation, combustion stability and emissions. Accurate residual estimate also provides a better foundation for optimizing open loop fuel control during startup, while providing a basis for reducing emissions during closed loop control. In this paper we develop an improved model to estimate residual gas fraction by means of isolation and characterization of the physical processes in the gas exchange. Examining existing residuals model as the base, we address their deficiencies making changes to appropriate terms to the model. Existing models do not work well under wide angle dual independent cam phasing. The improved residual estimation model is not limited by the initial data set used for its calibration and does not need cylinder pressure data.
Technical Paper

Stochastic Knock Detection, Control, Software Integration, and Evaluation on a V6 Spark-Ignition Engine under Steady-State Operation

2014-04-01
2014-01-1358
The ability to operate a spark-ignition (SI) engine near the knock limit provides a net reduction of engine fuel consumption. This work presents a real-time knock control system based on stochastic knock detection (SKD) algorithm. The real-time stochastic knock control (SKC) system is developed in MATLAB Simulink, and the SKC software is integrated with the production engine control strategy through ATI's No-Hooks. The SKC system collects the stochastic knock information and estimates the knock level based on the distribution of knock intensities fitting to a log-normal (LN) distribution. A desired knock level reference table is created under various engine speeds and loads, which allows the SKC to adapt to changing engine operating conditions. In SKC system, knock factor (KF) is an indicator of the knock intensity level. The KF is estimated by a weighted discrete FIR filter in real-time.
Technical Paper

Schlieren and Mie Scattering Visualization for Single-Hole Diesel Injector under Vaporizing Conditions with Numerical Validation

2014-04-01
2014-01-1406
This paper reports an experimental and numerical investigation on the spatial and temporal liquid- and vapor-phase distributions of diesel fuel spray under engine-like conditions. The high pressure diesel spray was investigated in an optically-accessible constant volume combustion vessel for studying the influence of the k-factor (0 and 1.5) of a single-hole axial-disposed injector (0.100 mm diameter and 10 L/d ratio). Measurements were carried out by a high-speed imaging system capable of acquiring Mie-scattering and schlieren in a nearly simultaneous fashion mode using a high-speed camera and a pulsed-wave LED system. The time resolved pair of schlieren and Mie-scattering images identifies the instantaneous position of both the vapor and liquid phases of the fuel spray, respectively. The studies were performed at three injection pressures (70, 120, and 180 MPa), 23.9 kg/m3 ambient gas density, and 900 K gas temperature in the vessel.
Technical Paper

Effect of Combustion on Diesel Spray Penetrations in Relation to Vaporizing, Non-Reacting Sprays

2016-10-17
2016-01-2201
Extensive studies have addressed diesel sprays under non-vaporizing, vaporizing and combusting conditions respectively, but further insights into the mechanism by which combustion alters the macroscopic characteristics including the spray penetration and the shape of the spray under diesel engine conditions are needed. Contradictory observations are reported in the literature regarding the combusting diesel spray penetration compared to the inert conditions, and it is an objective of this study to provide further insights and analyses on the combusting spray characteristics by expanding the range of operating parameters. Parameters varied in the studies are charge gas conditions including oxygen levels of 0 %, 15%, 19%, charge densities of 22.8 & 34.8 kg/m3, and charge temperatures of 800, 900 & 1050 K for injection pressures of 1200, 1500, and 1800 bar with a single-hole injector with a nozzle diameter of 100 μm.
Technical Paper

Air Charge and Residual Gas Fraction Estimation for a Spark-Ignition Engine Using In-Cylinder Pressure

2017-03-28
2017-01-0527
An accurate estimation of cycle-by-cycle in-cylinder mass and the composition of the cylinder charge is required for spark-ignition engine transient control strategies to obtain required torque, Air-Fuel-Ratio (AFR) and meet engine pollution regulations. Mass Air Flow (MAF) and Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP) sensors have been utilized in different control strategies to achieve these targets; however, these sensors have response delay in transients. As an alternative to air flow metering, in-cylinder pressure sensors can be utilized to directly measure cylinder pressure, based on which, the amount of air charge can be estimated without the requirement to model the dynamics of the manifold.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulations for Spray Characterization of Uneven Multiple Jet-to-Jet Impingement Injectors

2016-04-05
2016-01-0840
Spray structure has a significant effect on emissions and performance of an internal combustion engine. The main objective of this study is to investigate spray structures based on four different multiple jet impingement injectors. These four different multiple jet-to-jet impingement injectors include 1). 4-hole injector (Case 1), which has symmetric inwardly opening nozzles; 2). 5-1-hole (Case 2); 3). 6-2-hole (Case 3); and 4). 7-3-hole (Case 4) which corresponding to 1, 2, 3 numbers of adjacent holes blocked in a 5-hole, 6-hole, and 7-hole symmetrical drill pattern, respectively. All these configurations are basically 4-holes but with different post collision spray structure. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) work of these sprays has been performed using an Eulerian-Lagrangian modelling approach.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Multi-Hole Impinging Jet High Pressure Spray Characteristics under Gasoline Engine-Like Conditions

2016-04-05
2016-01-0847
Impingement of jet-to-jet has been found to give improved spray penetration characteristics and higher vaporization rates when compared to multi-hole outwardly injecting fuel injectors which are commonly used in the gasoline engine. The current work studies a non-reacting spray by using a 5-hole impinging-jet style direct-injection injector. The jet-to-jet collision induced by the inwardly opening nozzles of the multi-hole injector produces rapid and short jet breakup which is fundamentally different from how conventional fuel injectors operate. A non-reacting spray study is performed using a 5-hole impinging jet injector and a traditional 6-hole Bosch Hochdruck-Einspritzventil (HDEV)-5 gasoline direct-injection (GDI) injector with gasoline as a fuel injected at 172 bar pressure with ambient temperature of 653 K and 490 K and ambient pressure of 37.4 bar and 12.4 bar.
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