Refine Your Search


Search Results

Technical Paper


This paper reviews the exhaust emissions from direct injection diesel engines in the initial period following startup. The tests were undertake in “cold start” mode (temperature of cooling water and lube oil equal ambient temperature) and “warm start” modes (after getting equilibrium state). Both results were compared. Exhaust emissions in the period of run from cold start to warmed-up is very important to satisfy present day standards worldwide.
Technical Paper

Gasoline and LPG Vehicle Emission Factors in a Road Test

In order to measure the concentration of toxic compounds a mobile analyzer for toxic tests SEMTECH DS by SENSORS Inc. was used. In the study the results of the vehicle emission tests in the road conditions were presented as this was the only way to obtain the information on real vehicle emissions. They include information on the emissivity of the vehicles in operation and deal with the real conditions of the vehicle motion. Reliable measurement results were obtained which were verified in simulated conditions on a chassis test bed. The obtained data were used to specify the dependence characteristics for the influence of the dynamic engine properties on the harmful compound emissions. The dynamic engine properties were indirectly taken into account using all the speed range and the range of acceleration calculated for the city traffic in order to prepare a matrix of emission intensity.
Technical Paper

Exhaust Emission Tests from Agricultural Machinery under Real Operating Conditions

The tests related to the exhaust emissions from non-road vehicles are currently performed on a chassis dynamometer under the name of NRSC (ISO 8178) and NRTC. In light of the growing requirements related to the environment protection in transport the authors recommend determining the exhaust emissions through real vehicle operating conditions. The tests carried out under real operating conditions could be used for the process of optimization of future power trains of regular road vehicles and non-road vehicles. What is more, these tests should be taken into account in the works on the changes of the legislation related to the emission limits from combustion engines. The paper presents the results of the tests on the exhaust emissions from an agricultural harvester engine and a tractor engine in real operating conditions. The harvester operation during the test consisted in crops collection from the field and the tractor operation during the test consisted in plowing.
Technical Paper

Gaseous and PM Emission from Combat Vehicle Engines during Start and Warm-Up

The paper presents the results of the investigations of an armored modular vehicle 8x8 Rosomak fitted with a diesel engine during start and warm-up. For the measurements of the toxic compounds a portable SEMTECH DS analyzer by SENSORS was used. The analyzer allowed a measurement of exhaust emission at the same time measuring the mass flow rate of the exhaust gases. The analysis of the PM emission was performed based on the measurement of the size of the particulate matter (analyzer 3090 EEPS - Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer™ Spectrometer - by TSI Incorporated) and counting of the particles (analyzer Particle Counter by AVL). The measurements of CO, HC, NOx, PM and fuel consumption have also been carried out under static conditions, during startup and at constant engine speed without engine load. For the measurement of the engine operating conditions and the fuel consumption a diagnostic vehicle system was used.
Technical Paper

The Analysis of the Emission of Particulate Matter from Non-Road Vehicles Under Actual Operating Conditions

The paper discusses the measurement of the PM emissions from non-road vehicles (a farm tractor and an excavator) under actual operating conditions. Full exploration of the relations between the operating parameters of these vehicles and their emissions requires measurements under actual conditions of their operation. The specificity of the emission measurements, PM in particular, requires technologically advanced measuring devices. The situation gets even more complicated if, beside the PM mass, we also wish to obtain the PM size distribution and particle number (PN). One of the more important technical issues is the difficulty in fitting of the measurement equipment in/on the vehicle in operation (e.g. a farm tractor). That is the reason why the investigations were carried out in a laboratory. The laboratory technicians applied load to the engines through external devices - a hydraulic system for the excavator and a brake coupled to the farm tractor power takeoff.
Technical Paper

On-Board Emissions Measurement from Gasoline, Diesel and CNG fuelled Vehicles

In order to measure the concentration of exhaust emissions a mobile emission testing analyzer SEMTECH DS by SENSORS Inc was used. In the study the results of the vehicle emission tests in the road conditions were presented, as this was the only way to obtain the information on real vehicle emissions. They include information on the emissivity of the vehicles in operation and deal with the real conditions of the vehicle in motion. Reliable measurement results were obtained which were verified in simulated conditions on a chassis test bed. The obtained data were used to specify the dependence characteristics for the influence of the dynamic engine properties on the exhaust emissions. The dynamic engine properties were indirectly taken into account using all the speed range and the range of acceleration calculated for the city traffic in order to prepare a matrix of the emission intensity.
Journal Article

The Exhaust Emission from Light Duty Vehicles in Road Test in Urban Traffic

The investigations into the emissions from light-duty vehicles are carried out on a chassis dynamometer in the NEDC test in Europe and FTP75 test in the US. Such tests do not entirely reflect the real road conditions. It should be noted that the changes in the methodology of emissions testing should go in the direction where they get closer to the actual road conditions. The paper presents the road test results obtained in an urban congested areas. The analysis of the road tests results (exhaust emissions and fuel consumption) was carried out considering the road conditions (vehicle speed and acceleration). The obtained data were used to specify the dependence characteristics for the influence of the dynamic engine properties on the exhaust emissions. For these measurements a portable SEMTECH DS analyzer by SENSORS, Particle Counter by AVL and Particle Seizer EEPS by TSI has been used.
Journal Article

Emission Measurements of the AI-14RA Aviation Engine in stationary test and under Real Operating Conditions of PZL-104 ‘Wilga’ Plane

Due to a rapid development of air transportation there is a need for the assessment of real environmental risk related to the aircraft operation. The emission of carbon monoxide and particulate matter is still a serious threat~constituting an obstacle in the development of combustion engines. The applicable regulations related to the influence of the air transportation on the environment introduced by EPA (Environmental Protection Agency), ICAO (International Civil Aviation Organization) contained in JAR 34 (JAA, Joint Aviation Requirements, JAR 34, Aircraft Engine Emissions), FAR 34 (FAA, Federal Aviation Regulations, Part 34, Fuel Venting and Exhaust Emission Requirements for Turbine Engine Powered Airplanes), mostly pertain to the emission of noise and exhaust gas compounds, NOx in particular. They refer to jet engines and have stationary test procedures depending on the engine operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Non-Linear Analysis of the Combustion Process in Compression-Ignition Direct Injection Engines of Non-Road Vehicles with the Use of Vibroacoustic Processes in the Point of View of the OBD III Engine Diagnostics

The paper presents a new method for assessment of combustion process correctness taking place in CI engines, based on the expanded vibroacoustic signal analysis. The method uses chosen non-linear, spectrum and time-frequency analyses of the signal. Diagnostics of the correctness of the above main engine process and misfire detection for engines at exploitation conditions with the use of the various methods of the accompanying processes analysis was the aim of the presented analyses. Possibility of the method application to combustion process assessment of the CI engines was verified, algorithms of misfire detection for the each method are described, quantity point estimators of processes and conditions of the OBD diagnostics realization were obtained, methodology of the measurement process, limits of the methods use and their diagnostic accuracy in the point of view of the combustion OBD III engine monitor design are also presented.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Emission Factors in RDE Tests As Well as in NEDC and WLTC Chassis Dynamometer Tests

This paper presents a study of passenger cars in terms of emissions measurements in tests conducted under real driving conditions (RDE - Real Driving Emissions) by means of PEMS (Portable Emission Measurement System) equipment. A special feature of the RDE tests presented in this paper is that they were performed under Polish conditions and the specified parameters may differ from those in most other European Union countries. Emission correction coefficients have been defined, based on the test results, equal to the increase (or decrease) of driving emissions during the laboratory (‘chassis dyno’) test or during normal usage in relation to the EU emission standards (emission class) of the vehicle.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Gaseous Emissions from a Hybrid Vehicle and a Non-Hybrid Vehicle under Real Driving Conditions

In this study, two vehicles were tested under real driving conditions with gaseous exhaust emissions measured using a portable emissions measurement system (PEMS). One of the vehicles featured a hybrid powertrain with a spark ignition internal combustion engine, while the other vehicle featured a non-hybrid (conventional) spark ignition internal combustion engine. Aside from differences in the powertrain, the two test vehicles were of very similar size, weight and aerodynamic profile, meaning that the power demand for a given driving trace was very similar for both vehicles. The test route covered urban conditions (but did include driving on a road with speed limit 90 km/h). The approximate test route distance was 12 km and the average speed was very close to 40 km/h.
Technical Paper

RDE Testing of Passenger Cars: The Effect of the Cold Start on the Emissions Results

This paper discusses the importance of the inclusion of emissions from the cold start event during legislative on-road tests on passenger cars (RDE - real driving emissions tests conducted under real-world driving conditions, as defined by EU legislation). Results from a recently-registered gasoline-powered vehicle are presented, with the main focus on the comparison of exhaust emission results: excluding/including the cold start during the initial phase of the RDE test. Cold start is the most challenging aspect of emissions control for vehicles with spark ignition engines and the inclusion of the cold start event in RDE test procedure has wide-ranging implications both for the testing process and compliance with RDE legislation via optimisation of aftertreatment systems and the engine calibration. In addition to some theoretical arguments, the results of an RDE-compliant test performed using the aforementioned procedures are presented.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Synthetic Oxygenates on Euro IV Diesel Passenger Car Exhaust Emissions

In the year 2005, the EURO IV fuel specification came into effect and the requirements for diesel fuel properties have become even more stringent. In this way, the potential of diesel fuel for emissions reduction has already been to a large extent exploited and the most emissions-sensitive fuel parameters can now be changed in a narrow range only. The shortfall in NOx and PM emissions control in diesel engines is, however, so great that more drastic fuel changes will be needed. One of the most promising fuel modifications for exhaust emissions control seems to be oxygenated additives. The objective of the study described in this paper was to analyze under transient conditions the influence of synthetic oxygenated fuel additives on exhaust emissions. The tests were conducted on a Euro IV passenger car. Six oxygenated additives were tested over the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC).
Technical Paper

Analysis of Particle Concentrations and Smoke in Common-Rail Diesel Engine

The article shows the results of particulate matter emissions obtained in the ESC cycle. In order to carry out the tests different devices were applied for the measurement of particular matter (AVL Smart Sampler - measurement by means of a gravimetric method of a partial exhaust smoke dilution, Horiba Mexa 1220 PM - measurement with the use of two flame ionizing detectors), which were then compared to the smokiness values (AVL 415 - measurement of exhaust smoke values, Opacimetr 439 - measurement of exhaust opacity). Having compared the obtained correlation results, main relationships of fractional composition of particular matter, obtained in the tests, were defined.
Technical Paper

Dissolving Gas in Diesel Fuel as a Way for Fuel Oxygenation and Diesel Exhaust Emissions Reduction

The paper describes the research on the problem of oxygenating diesel fuel with the use of gases containing oxygen (air or diesel exhaust gas). The incentive, which encouraged the authors to exploit this idea, was a number of promising results of some earlier research on oxygenated fuel additives. The paper provides a detailed description of the system, especially the injection pump for dissolving gas in the fuel, designed and built by the authors. The paper describes also some changes in physical and chemical parameters of the fuel, which were observed while the fuel was flowing through the experimental injection system. These changes resulted from the reactions between fuel and oxygen, which were additionally reinforced by high pressure and temperature in the experimental injection system. In the further part of the article, the attention is drawn to the way the gases containing oxygen influence the exhaust emissions.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Synthetic Oxygenates on Euro IV Diesel Passenger Car Exhaust Emissions - Part 2

The paper presents the test results of the influence of maleate oxygenated additives to diesel fuel on exhaust emissions. Following the previous tests of glycol ethers (SAE Paper 2007-01-0069), the authors decided to use maleates as oxygenates to obtain greater changes in PM/NOx trade-off than the changes obtained as a result of the use of glycol ethers. It was found that in the NEDC maleates at the same concentration as in the case of glycol ethers ensure more favourable changes of PM/NOx trade-off and, as a matter of fact, caused greater reduction in PM emissions without the growth of NOx emissions, however, at the cost of CO and HC emissions. The tests performed in the FTP-75 confirmed a significantly weaker influence of maleates, both positive (PM) and negative (CO, HC) than in the NEDC. They did not find in both cycles any influence of maleates at the tested concentration upon fuel consumption and CO2 emissions.
Technical Paper

Exhaust Emissions from Heavy-Duty Vehicles Under Actual Traffic Conditions in the City of Poznań

The paper presents an analysis of the emission level from a heavy-duty truck of the GVW of 12,000 kg. The exhaust emission tests were performed under actual traffic conditions in the area of Poznań. For the tests portable exhaust emission analyzers SEMTECH DS and AVL Micro Soot Sensor were used. The characteristics of the exhaust emission components have been determined in relation to the engine speed and load as well as vehicle parameters (speed and acceleration). The paper includes an analysis of the engine operating conditions as well as the range of engine speeds and engine loads. The vehicle fuel consumption was also determined through the carbon balance method. Based on the obtained values of the emission of CO, NOx and PM, the emission indexes were determined that provided information on the relation of the measured emissions to the levels specified in the EEV standard. The emissions of all the exhaust components, except NOx were lower than the EEV limits.
Technical Paper

Effects of Fuel Properties on Exhaust Emissions from the Latest Light-Duty DI Diesel Engine

The great reduction in future diesel engine emission limits, especially PM and NOx, forces one to develop means to comply with stringent legislation. Environmentally friendly fuels are regarded as a very effective means to decrease emissions. Although the emission reduction is less than could be achieved by the most modern engine technology or alternative fuels, the immediate net effect of reformulated diesel fuel on emissions is significant, as it takes place over the whole vehicle population. The experimental results presented in this paper were obtained within a research program investigating the effect of different fuels upon emissions from compression-ignition automotive engines. The research were carried out in the laboratories of the BOSMAL Automotive R & D Centre in co-operation to Institute of Internal Combustion Engines at Poznan University of Technology. The partial results of this research program were presented in SAE Paper 2002-01-2219.
Technical Paper

Methods of Testing Logical and Electrical Conformity of OBDII and EOBD Communication Bus Parameters Employed to Validate and Certify Diagnostic Scanner Tools

This paper describes a framework of a system for examining OBD scanners, presenting that system's functionality and how to implement it in practice. There is a brief discussion of software designed for the Microsoft Windows environment to control and visualise the testing process. The paper also discusses additional software modules designed to examine specific properties of the OBD-equipped devices that are manufactured for the German market. These include examining the technical status of the two-state and broadband oxygen sensors based on analysing logged the temporal sequence of momentary current or voltage values.
Technical Paper

About Relationship Between the Oil Consumption and the Toxic Compounds Emission from IC-Engines

The oil consumption can be considered as a source of the toxic compounds emission in internal combustion engines, The paper presents a theoretical and experimental analysis of the problem. Experimental investigation has been carried out according the European ECE R15 and ECE R49 standard tests for engines (Otto and Diesel types) of regular and doubled oil consumption. A significant increase in emission of hydrocarbons has been found for the increased oil consumption. Characteristics of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) group as well as an individual method of the PAH compounds examination have been discussed in the paper (gas freezing method and chromatography have been applied).