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Technical Paper

EXHAUST EMISSION FROM DIESEL ENGINE DURING COLD START IN AMBIENT TEMPERATURE CONDITIONS

2000-06-12
2000-05-0316
This paper reviews the exhaust emissions from direct injection diesel engines in the initial period following startup. The tests were undertake in “cold start” mode (temperature of cooling water and lube oil equal ambient temperature) and “warm start” modes (after getting equilibrium state). Both results were compared. Exhaust emissions in the period of run from cold start to warmed-up is very important to satisfy present day standards worldwide.
Technical Paper

Effects of Fuel Properties on Exhaust Emissions from the Latest Light-Duty DI Diesel Engine

2003-05-19
2003-01-1882
The great reduction in future diesel engine emission limits, especially PM and NOx, forces one to develop means to comply with stringent legislation. Environmentally friendly fuels are regarded as a very effective means to decrease emissions. Although the emission reduction is less than could be achieved by the most modern engine technology or alternative fuels, the immediate net effect of reformulated diesel fuel on emissions is significant, as it takes place over the whole vehicle population. The experimental results presented in this paper were obtained within a research program investigating the effect of different fuels upon emissions from compression-ignition automotive engines. The research were carried out in the laboratories of the BOSMAL Automotive R & D Centre in co-operation to Institute of Internal Combustion Engines at Poznan University of Technology. The partial results of this research program were presented in SAE Paper 2002-01-2219.
Technical Paper

About Relationship Between the Oil Consumption and the Toxic Compounds Emission from IC-Engines

1996-02-01
960319
The oil consumption can be considered as a source of the toxic compounds emission in internal combustion engines, The paper presents a theoretical and experimental analysis of the problem. Experimental investigation has been carried out according the European ECE R15 and ECE R49 standard tests for engines (Otto and Diesel types) of regular and doubled oil consumption. A significant increase in emission of hydrocarbons has been found for the increased oil consumption. Characteristics of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) group as well as an individual method of the PAH compounds examination have been discussed in the paper (gas freezing method and chromatography have been applied).
Technical Paper

Cold Start Emissions Investigation at Different Ambient Temperature Conditions

1998-02-23
980401
A vital question for car manufacturers in countries where the temperature over night falls below freezing, is the significant increase of CO (carbon monoxide) and HC (hydrocarbon) emissions during the start and warm-up of spark ignition engines. ECE (Economic Commission for Europe) (UDC) (Urban Driving Cycle) cycles, divided into elementary phases, have been used to determine the level of harmful CO and HC emissions and fuel consumption in the cold start and warm up phase. Tests were undertaken on cars conditioned in temperatures ranging from +22°C to -15°C have shown significant increases in CO and HC as the temperature decreases.
Technical Paper

Exhaust Emission from Passenger Cars During Engine Cold Start and Warm-Up

1997-02-24
970740
An increased of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons emissions from gasoline engines in ambient temperatures at or below 0°C is a key issue, not only in Scandinavia or northern parts of the USA and Canada, but also in countries of Central and Eastern Europe. It is typical of Poland and neighbouring countries that for six to seven months (from October to April) air temperature fails to about 0°C at night, while in winter months this temperature often fails below -10 to even -20°C. Due to this, in these countries the cars are started in the morning when the engine and all other parts of the car are considerably cool. This paper presents a special climatic conditions in view of their effect on the actual exhaust emission from a car with SI engine and results of emission tests for such gaseous pollutants as CO, HC and NOx, achieved during tests performed on a chassis dynamometer according to ECE and FTP 75 cycles.
Technical Paper

Exhaust Emission Tests from Agricultural Machinery under Real Operating Conditions

2010-10-05
2010-01-1949
The tests related to the exhaust emissions from non-road vehicles are currently performed on a chassis dynamometer under the name of NRSC (ISO 8178) and NRTC. In light of the growing requirements related to the environment protection in transport the authors recommend determining the exhaust emissions through real vehicle operating conditions. The tests carried out under real operating conditions could be used for the process of optimization of future power trains of regular road vehicles and non-road vehicles. What is more, these tests should be taken into account in the works on the changes of the legislation related to the emission limits from combustion engines. The paper presents the results of the tests on the exhaust emissions from an agricultural harvester engine and a tractor engine in real operating conditions. The harvester operation during the test consisted in crops collection from the field and the tractor operation during the test consisted in plowing.
Technical Paper

Gaseous and PM Emission from Combat Vehicle Engines during Start and Warm-Up

2010-10-25
2010-01-2283
The paper presents the results of the investigations of an armored modular vehicle 8x8 Rosomak fitted with a diesel engine during start and warm-up. For the measurements of the toxic compounds a portable SEMTECH DS analyzer by SENSORS was used. The analyzer allowed a measurement of exhaust emission at the same time measuring the mass flow rate of the exhaust gases. The analysis of the PM emission was performed based on the measurement of the size of the particulate matter (analyzer 3090 EEPS - Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer™ Spectrometer - by TSI Incorporated) and counting of the particles (analyzer Particle Counter by AVL). The measurements of CO, HC, NOx, PM and fuel consumption have also been carried out under static conditions, during startup and at constant engine speed without engine load. For the measurement of the engine operating conditions and the fuel consumption a diagnostic vehicle system was used.
Technical Paper

The Comparison of the Emissions from Light Duty Vehicle in On-road and NEDC Tests

2010-04-12
2010-01-1298
The investigations into the emissions from light-duty vehicles have been carried out on a chassis dynamometer (NEDC test in Europe and FTP75 test in the US). Such tests do not entirely reflect the real road conditions and that is why we should analyze the correlation of the laboratory versus on-road test results. The paper presents the on-road test results obtained in an urban and extra urban cycles. For these measurements a portable SEMTECH DS analyzer by SENSORS has been used. The device is an analyzer enabling an on-line measurement of the emission gases concentration in a real driving cycle under real road conditions. The road tests were performed on road portions of several kilometers each. The obtained results were compared with the results obtained for the same vehicle during the NEDC test on a chassis dynamometer. The comparative analysis was performed including the urban and extra-urban cycles.
Technical Paper

On-Board Emissions Measurement from Gasoline, Diesel and CNG fuelled Vehicles

2010-05-05
2010-01-1568
In order to measure the concentration of exhaust emissions a mobile emission testing analyzer SEMTECH DS by SENSORS Inc was used. In the study the results of the vehicle emission tests in the road conditions were presented, as this was the only way to obtain the information on real vehicle emissions. They include information on the emissivity of the vehicles in operation and deal with the real conditions of the vehicle in motion. Reliable measurement results were obtained which were verified in simulated conditions on a chassis test bed. The obtained data were used to specify the dependence characteristics for the influence of the dynamic engine properties on the exhaust emissions. The dynamic engine properties were indirectly taken into account using all the speed range and the range of acceleration calculated for the city traffic in order to prepare a matrix of the emission intensity.
Technical Paper

Gaseous and Particle Emissions Results from Light Duty Vehicle with Diesel Particle Filter

2009-11-02
2009-01-2630
In order to measure the concentration of exhaust a mobile analyzer SEMTECH DS by SENSORS Inc and particle matter by TSI was used. In the study the results of the vehicle emission tests in the road conditions were presented as this was the only way to obtain the information on real vehicle emissions. They include information on the emissivity of the vehicles in operation and deal with the real conditions of the vehicle motion. Reliable measurement results were obtained which were verified in simulated conditions on a chassis test bed. The obtained data were used to specify the dependence characteristics for the influence of the dynamic engine properties on the exhaust emissions. The dynamic engine properties were indirectly taken into account using all the speed range and the range of acceleration calculated for the city traffic in order to prepare a matrix of emission intensity.
Technical Paper

Gasoline and LPG Vehicle Emission Factors in a Road Test

2009-04-20
2009-01-0937
In order to measure the concentration of toxic compounds a mobile analyzer for toxic tests SEMTECH DS by SENSORS Inc. was used. In the study the results of the vehicle emission tests in the road conditions were presented as this was the only way to obtain the information on real vehicle emissions. They include information on the emissivity of the vehicles in operation and deal with the real conditions of the vehicle motion. Reliable measurement results were obtained which were verified in simulated conditions on a chassis test bed. The obtained data were used to specify the dependence characteristics for the influence of the dynamic engine properties on the harmful compound emissions. The dynamic engine properties were indirectly taken into account using all the speed range and the range of acceleration calculated for the city traffic in order to prepare a matrix of emission intensity.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Oxygenated Diesel Fuels on a Diesel Vehicle PM/NOx Emission Trade-Off

2009-11-02
2009-01-2696
Research on the influence of oxygenated diesel fuels on the PM/NOx emission trade-off was carried out with use of 11 different synthetic oxygenated compounds, representing 3 chemical groups (glycol ethers, maleates, carbonates). Each of oxygenates were evaluated as a fuel additive at a concentration of 5% v/v in the same base diesel fuel. The tests were conducted on a passenger car equipped with a common rail turbocharged diesel engine over the European cycle NEDC and US FTP-75 cycle. All the tested oxygenates caused a reduction in PM emissions and most of them caused a certain increase in NOx emissions. The changes in emissions depended on the oxygenate type and cycle. In general, the favorable and unfavorable influence of oxygenated compounds was more intensive during the NEDC, which is a softer and less transient cycle than the FTP-75. The most favorable changes in the PM/NOx emission trade-off were obtained for maleates and carbonates.
Technical Paper

Exhaust Emissions from Heavy-Duty Vehicles Under Actual Traffic Conditions in the City of Poznań

2013-03-25
2013-01-0119
The paper presents an analysis of the emission level from a heavy-duty truck of the GVW of 12,000 kg. The exhaust emission tests were performed under actual traffic conditions in the area of Poznań. For the tests portable exhaust emission analyzers SEMTECH DS and AVL Micro Soot Sensor were used. The characteristics of the exhaust emission components have been determined in relation to the engine speed and load as well as vehicle parameters (speed and acceleration). The paper includes an analysis of the engine operating conditions as well as the range of engine speeds and engine loads. The vehicle fuel consumption was also determined through the carbon balance method. Based on the obtained values of the emission of CO, NOx and PM, the emission indexes were determined that provided information on the relation of the measured emissions to the levels specified in the EEV standard. The emissions of all the exhaust components, except NOx were lower than the EEV limits.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Synthetic Oxygenates on Euro IV Diesel Passenger Car Exhaust Emissions - Part 3

2008-10-06
2008-01-2387
The paper presents the test results relating to the influence of carbonate oxygenated additives to diesel fuel on exhaust emissions. Following the previous tests of glycol ethers (SAE Paper 2007-01-0069) and maleates (SAE Paper 2008-01-1813), the authors decided to use carbonates to obtain an even greater reduction in PM emissions. The significant effectiveness of carbonates on PM emission reduction was confirmed in tests performed by the authors. Diethyl carbonate was the most effective oxygenated compound with regard to PM emission reduction among all the 11 oxygenates which have been tested so far. Moreover, it is important to note that diethyl carbonate caused only a small increase in NOx emissions, thus it allowed for an essential improvement in the PM/NOx trade-off. A significant increase in the CO and HC emissions was, however, a negative effect of the use of carbonates.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Particle Concentrations and Smoke in Common-Rail Diesel Engine

2008-06-23
2008-01-1743
The article shows the results of particulate matter emissions obtained in the ESC cycle. In order to carry out the tests different devices were applied for the measurement of particular matter (AVL Smart Sampler - measurement by means of a gravimetric method of a partial exhaust smoke dilution, Horiba Mexa 1220 PM - measurement with the use of two flame ionizing detectors), which were then compared to the smokiness values (AVL 415 - measurement of exhaust smoke values, Opacimetr 439 - measurement of exhaust opacity). Having compared the obtained correlation results, main relationships of fractional composition of particular matter, obtained in the tests, were defined.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Synthetic Oxygenates on Euro IV Diesel Passenger Car Exhaust Emissions - Part 2

2008-06-23
2008-01-1813
The paper presents the test results of the influence of maleate oxygenated additives to diesel fuel on exhaust emissions. Following the previous tests of glycol ethers (SAE Paper 2007-01-0069), the authors decided to use maleates as oxygenates to obtain greater changes in PM/NOx trade-off than the changes obtained as a result of the use of glycol ethers. It was found that in the NEDC maleates at the same concentration as in the case of glycol ethers ensure more favourable changes of PM/NOx trade-off and, as a matter of fact, caused greater reduction in PM emissions without the growth of NOx emissions, however, at the cost of CO and HC emissions. The tests performed in the FTP-75 confirmed a significantly weaker influence of maleates, both positive (PM) and negative (CO, HC) than in the NEDC. They did not find in both cycles any influence of maleates at the tested concentration upon fuel consumption and CO2 emissions.
Technical Paper

The Analysis of the Exhaust Emission Level in Combat Vehicles Under Real Operating Conditions

2011-01-19
2011-26-0041
The paper presents the results of tests on a combustion engine of an armored modular vehicle 8x8 Rosomak under combat simulating conditions. For the measurements of the toxic compounds a portable SEMTECH DS analyzer by SENSORS was used. The analyzer allowed a measurement of toxic compounds at the same time measuring the mass flow rate of the exhaust gases. The analysis of the PM emission was performed based on the measurement of the size of the particulate matter (analyzer 3090 EEPS - Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer™ Spectrometer - by TSI Incorporated) and counting of the particles (analyzer Particle Counter by AVL). The measurements of CO, HC, NOx, PM and fuel consumption were performed under the conditions of combat simulation and in the overboost mode. Based on the obtained results, an analysis of the engine and vehicle operation was performed and the on-road and unit exhaust emissions as well as on-road and unit fuel consumption were compared.
Technical Paper

The Analysis of the Emission of Particulate Matter from Non-Road Vehicles Under Actual Operating Conditions

2012-09-24
2012-01-1965
The paper discusses the measurement of the PM emissions from non-road vehicles (a farm tractor and an excavator) under actual operating conditions. Full exploration of the relations between the operating parameters of these vehicles and their emissions requires measurements under actual conditions of their operation. The specificity of the emission measurements, PM in particular, requires technologically advanced measuring devices. The situation gets even more complicated if, beside the PM mass, we also wish to obtain the PM size distribution and particle number (PN). One of the more important technical issues is the difficulty in fitting of the measurement equipment in/on the vehicle in operation (e.g. a farm tractor). That is the reason why the investigations were carried out in a laboratory. The laboratory technicians applied load to the engines through external devices - a hydraulic system for the excavator and a brake coupled to the farm tractor power takeoff.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Emission Factors in RDE Tests As Well as in NEDC and WLTC Chassis Dynamometer Tests

2016-04-05
2016-01-0980
This paper presents a study of passenger cars in terms of emissions measurements in tests conducted under real driving conditions (RDE - Real Driving Emissions) by means of PEMS (Portable Emission Measurement System) equipment. A special feature of the RDE tests presented in this paper is that they were performed under Polish conditions and the specified parameters may differ from those in most other European Union countries. Emission correction coefficients have been defined, based on the test results, equal to the increase (or decrease) of driving emissions during the laboratory (‘chassis dyno’) test or during normal usage in relation to the EU emission standards (emission class) of the vehicle.
Technical Paper

The Measurement of Particulate Matter from Construction Machinery under Actual Operating Conditions

2015-09-29
2015-01-2810
The paper describes the measurement of PM emission from an excavator engine under actual operating conditions. The exploration of the relations between the engine operating parameters and its emissions requires measurements under actual conditions of engine operation. The specificity of the emission measurements, PM in particular, requires technologically advanced measuring devices. The situation gets even more complicated when, beside the PM mass. The particle size distribution and number (PN) also need to be measured. An important technical issue is the difficulty in fitting the measurement equipment in/on the vehicle in operation (e.g. excavator), which is why the presented investigations were carried out in a laboratory under simulated operation. The laboratory technicians applied load to the engines through the excavator hydraulic system.
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