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Journal Article

A Multi-Objective LMI-Based Antiroll Control System

2012-09-24
2012-01-1904
A long standing problem with heavy vehicle stability has been rollover. With the higher center of gravity, heavier loads, and narrower tracks (as compared to passenger vehicles), they have a lower rollover stability threshold. In this paper, a rollover stability control algorithm based on a two-degrees-of-freedom (DOF) and a three-DOF vehicle model for a two-axle truck was developed. First, the 3DOF model was used to predict the future Lateral load Transfer Rate (LTR). Using this LTR value, the dynamic rollover propensity was estimated. Then, a robust output feedback gain control rollover stability control algorithm based on the combination of active yaw control and active front steering control was developed. A H₂/H∞/poles placement multi-objective control strategy was developed based on the 2DOF reference model.
Technical Paper

Nonlinear Control of Vehicle Chassis Planar Stability Based on T-S Fuzzy Model

2016-04-05
2016-01-0471
In the past decades, the stability of vehicles has been improved significantly by use of variety of chassis control systems such as Antilock Braking System (ABS), Electric Stability Program (ESP) and Active Front Steering (AFS). Recently, in order to further improve the performance of vehicles, more and more researches are focused on the integration control of multiple degrees of freedom of vehicle dynamic. However, in order to control multiple degrees of freedom simultaneously, the nonlinear problems caused by the coupling between different degrees of freedom have to be solved, which is always a difficult task. In this paper, a three-degrees-of-freedom single track vehicle model, in which some nonlinear terms are considered, is built firstly. Then, the nonlinear model is processed by the fuzzy technique and the T-S fuzzy model is designed.
Technical Paper

Real-Time Automatic Test of AEB with Brake System in the Loop

2018-04-03
2018-01-1450
The limitation of drivers' attention and perception may bring collision dangers, Autonomous Emergency Braking (AEB) can help drivers to avoid the potential collisions through active braking. Since the positive effect of it, motor corporations have begun to equip their vehicles with the system, and regulatory agencies in various countries have introduced test standards. At this stage, the actuator of AEB usually adopts Electronic Stability Program (ESP), but it poor performance of continuous working period and active pressure built-up for all wheels limits its implements. Electromechanical brake booster can realize power assisted brake without relying on the vacuum source and a variety of specific power curves. Moreover it can achieve the active braking with a rapid response, which make it can fulfill requirements of automotive electric and intelligent development.
Technical Paper

Automatic Drive Train Management System for 4WD Vehicle Based on Road Situation Identification

2018-04-03
2018-01-0987
The slip ratio of vehicle driving wheels is easily beyond a reasonable range in the complex and changeable driving conditions. In order to achieve the adaptive acceleration slip regulation of four-wheel driving (4WD) vehicle, a fuzzy control strategy of Automatic Drive Train Management (ADM) system based on road situation identification was proposed in this paper. Firstly, the influence on the control strategy of ADM system was analyzed from two aspects, which included the different road adhesion coefficients and the vehicle’s ramp driving state. In the meantime several quantitative expressions of relevant control parameters were derived. Secondly, the fuzzy logic control algorithm was adopted to design a road situation identification subsystem and a ramp driving state identification subsystem respectively. The former was based on the μ-S curve model, and the latter was based on the vehicle driving equilibrium equation.
Technical Paper

Model-Based Pneumatic Braking Force Control for the Emergency Braking System of Tractor-Semitrailer

2018-04-03
2018-01-0824
As bottom layer actuator for the AEB system, the active brake system and the brake force control of tractor-semitrailer have been the hot topics recently. In this paper, a set of active pneumatic brake system was designed based on the traditional brake system of tractor-semitrailer, which can realize the active brake of the vehicle under necessary conditions. Then, a precise mathematical model of the active pneumatic brake system was built by referring the flow characteristics of the solenoid valve, and some tests were implemented to verify the accuracy and validity of the active brake system model. Based on the model, an active pneumatic brake pressure control strategy combining the feedforward and feedback controlling modes was designed. By generating the PWM control signal, it can precisely control the desired wheel cylinder brake pressure of the active brake system. Finally, the brake pressure control strategy was validated both by simulation tests and bench tests.
Technical Paper

ABS Control Algorithm Based on Direct Slip Rate for Hybrid Brake System

2018-04-03
2018-01-0830
The brake-by-wire system (BBW) is better match the new energy vehicle in the future direction of development. The electro-mechanical brake (EMB) is lack of the brake failure backup and need a high 42 V voltage for the power supply. This paper presents a new brake-by-wire hybrid brake system (HBS) with the electro-hydraulic brake (EHB) equipped on the front wheels and the EMB equipped on the rear wheels. The combination of these two brake-by-wire systems has advantages of both the EHB and EMB system. The EMB on the rear wheels totally removing the rear pipes and can be simply mounted. In addition, since the need of brake torque on the rear axle is relatively small, the power supply of EMB can be reduced to 12 V. Meanwhile, the EHB on the front wheels has the failure backup function through the hydraulic line. The HBS can quickly and accurately regulate four wheels brake force of vehicles which can well meet the requirement of antilock brake system (ABS).
Technical Paper

Pressure Control for Hydraulic Brake System Equipped with an Electro-Mechanical Brake Booster

2018-04-03
2018-01-0829
The Electro-Mechanical Brake Booster (Ebooster) is a critical component of the novel brake system for electric intelligent vehicles. It is independent of engine vacuum source, provides powerful active brake performance and can be combined with electric regenerative braking. In this paper, a brake control algorithm for hydraulic brake system equipped with an Ebooster is proposed. First, the configuration of the Ebooster is introduced and the system model including the permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) and hydraulic brake system is established by Matlab/Simulink. Second, a Four-closed-loop algorithm is introduced for accurate active brake pressure control. Finally, according to the requirement of different brake force, series of simulations are carried out under active braking condition. The results show that the control algorithm introduced in this paper can ensure the brake hydraulic pressure tracking a target value precisely and show a good control performance.
Technical Paper

Modelling and Validation for an Electro-Hydraulic Braking System Equipped with the Electro-Mechanical Booster

2018-04-03
2018-01-0828
The intelligent and electric vehicles are the future of vehicle technique. The development of intelligent and electric vehicles also promotes new requirements to many traditional chassis subsystems, including traditional braking system equipped with vacuum boosters. The Electro-Mechanical Booster is an applicable substitute of traditional vacuum booster for future intelligent and electric vehicles. It is independent of engine vacuum source, and can be combined with electric regenerative braking. A complete system model is necessary for system analysis and algorithm developing. For this purpose, the modeling of electro-hydraulic braking system is necessary. In this paper, a detailed electro-hydraulic braking system model is studied. The system consists of an electro-mechanical booster and hydraulic braking system. The electro-mechanical booster which mainly contains a permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) and a set of transmission mechanism is the critical component.
Technical Paper

Regenerative Braking Pedal Decoupling Control for Hydraulic Brake System Equipped with an Electro-Mechanical Brake Booster

2019-04-02
2019-01-1108
Electrification and intelligence are the important development directions of vehicle techniques. The Electro-Mechanical Brake Booster (Ebooster) as a brake booster which is powered by a motor, can be used to replace the traditional vacuum booster. Ebooster not only improves the intelligence level of vehicle braking and significantly improves the braking performance, but also adapts to the application in new energy vehicles and facilitates coordinated regenerative braking. However, Ebooster cannot complete pedal decoupling independently. It needs to cooperate with other components to realize pedal decoupling. In this paper, a pedal decoupling control algorithm for regenerative brake, which is based on the coordination control of Ebooster and ESP, is proposed. First, regenerative braking strategy is designed to distribute the hydraulic brake force and regenerative braking force.
Journal Article

Design and Power-Assisted Braking Control of a Novel Electromechanical Brake Booster

2018-04-03
2018-01-0762
As a novel assist actuator of brake system, the electromechanical brake (EMB) booster has played a significant role in the battery electric vehicles and automatic driving vehicles. It has advantages of independent to vacuum source, active braking, and tuning pedal feeling compared with conventional vacuum brake booster. In this article, a novel EMB booster system is proposed, which is consisted of a permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM), a two-stage reduction by gears and ball screw, a servo body, and a reaction disk. Together with the hydraulic control unit, it has two working modes: active braking for automatic drive and passive braking for driver intervention. The structure and work principle of the electric brake booster system is first introduced. The precise control from pedal force to hydraulic pressure is the key for such a power-assisted brake actuator. We translate the control problem of force feedback control to position tracking control.
Journal Article

Design and Position Control of a Novel Electric Brake Booster

2018-04-03
2018-01-0812
The electric vehicles and the intelligent vehicles put forward to new requirements for the brake system, such as the vacuum-independent braking, automatic or active braking, and regenerative braking, which are the key link for the vehicle’s safety and economy. However, the traditional vacuum brake booster is no longer able to meet these requirements. In this article, a novel integrated power-assisted actuator of brake system is proposed to satisfy the brake system requirements of the electric vehicles and intelligent vehicles. The electronic brake booster system is designed to achieve the function of boosting pedal force of driver, being independent on vacuum source, supplying autonomous or active braking. It is mainly composed of a permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM), a two-stage reduction transmission (gears and a ball screw), a servo body, and a reaction disk. The scheme design and power-assisted braking control are the key for the electronic actuator.
Technical Paper

Recognition and Classification of Vehicle Target Using the Vehicle-Mounted Velodyne LIDAR

2014-04-01
2014-01-0322
This paper describes a novel recognition and classification method of vehicle targets in urban road based on a vehicle-mounted Velodyne HDL64E light detection and ranging (LIDAR) system. The autonomous vehicle will choose different driving strategy according to the surrounding traffic environments to guarantee that the driving is safe, stable and efficient. It is helpful for controller to provide the efficient stagey to know the exact type of vehicle around. So this method concentrates on reorganization and classification the type of vehicle targets so that the controller can provide a safe and efficient driving strategy for autonomous ground vehicles. The approach is targeted at high-speed ground vehicle, so real-time performance of the method plays a critical role. In order to improve the real-time performance, some methods of data preprocessing should be taken to simplify the large-size long-range 3D point clouds.
Journal Article

An Indirect TPMS Algorithm Based on Tire Resonance Frequency Estimated by AR Model

2016-04-05
2016-01-0459
Proper tire pressure is very important for multiple driving performance of a car, and it is necessary to monitor and warn the abnormal tire pressure online. Indirect Tire Pressure Monitoring System (TPMS) monitors the tire pressure based on the wheel speed signals of Anti-lock Braking System (ABS). In this paper, an indirect TPMS method is proposed to estimate the tire pressure according to its resonance frequency of circumferential vibration. Firstly, the errors of ABS wheel speed sensor system caused by the machining tolerance of the tooth ring are estimated based on the measured wheel speed using Recursive Least Squares (RLS) algorithm and the measuring errors are eliminated from the wheel speed signal. Then, the data segments with drive train torsional vibration are found out and eliminated by the methods of correlation analysis.
Technical Paper

Identification of Driver Individualities Using Random Forest Model

2017-09-23
2017-01-1981
Driver individualities is crucial for the development of the Advanced Driver Assistant System (ADAS). Due to the mechanism that specific driving operation action of individual driver under typical conditions is convergent and differentiated, a novel driver individualities recognition method is constructed in this paper using random forest model. A driver behavior data acquisition system was built using dSPACE real-time simulation platform. Based on that, the driving data of the tested drivers were collected in real time. Then, we extracted main driving data by principal component analysis method. The fuzzy clustering analysis was carried out on the main driving data, and the fuzzy matrix was constructed according to the intrinsic attribute of the driving data. The drivers’ driving data were divided into multiple clusters.
Technical Paper

Steering Control Based on the Yaw Rate and Projected Steering Wheel Angle in Evasion Maneuvers

2018-04-03
2018-01-0030
When automobiles are at the threat of collisions, steering usually needs shorter longitudinal distance than braking for collision avoidance, especially under the condition of high speed or low adhesion. Thus, more collision accidents can be avoided in the same situation. The steering assistance is in need since the operation is hard for drivers. And considering the dynamic characteristics of vehicles in those maneuvers, the real-time and the accuracy of the assisted algorithms is essential. In view of the above problems, this paper first takes lateral acceleration of the vehicle as the constraint, aiming at the collision avoidance situation of the straight lane and the stable driving inside the curve, and trajectory of the collision avoidance is derived by a quintic polynomial.
Technical Paper

Travelling Resistance Estimation and Sandy Road Identification for SUVs

2018-04-03
2018-01-0578
The mechanical properties of sandy road are quite different from those of hard surface road. For vehicle control systems such as EMS (engine management system), TCU (transmission control unit) and ABS (antilock brake system), the strategies and parameters set for solid surface road are not optimal for driving on sandy road. It is an effective way to improve the mobility of all-terrain vehicles by identifying sandy road online and shifting the control strategies and parameters of control systems to sandy sets. In this paper, a sandy road identification algorithm for SUVs is proposed. Firstly, the vehicle signals, such as engine torque and speed, gear position, wheel and vehicle speed, are acquired from EMS, TCU and ESP (electronic stability program) through CAN (controller area network) bus respectively. Based on the information and longitudinal force equilibrium equation, the travelling resistance of vehicle is estimated.
Journal Article

Integrated Longitudinal Vehicle Dynamics Control with Tire/Road Friction Estimation

2015-04-14
2015-01-0645
The longitudinal dynamics control is an essential task of vehicle dynamics control. In present, it is usually applied by adjusting the slip ratio of driving wheels to achieve satisfactory performances both in stability and accelerating ability. In order to improve its performances, the coordination of different subsystems such as engine, transmission and braking system has to be considered. In addition, the proposed algorithms usually adopt the threshold methods based on less road condition information for simpleness and quick response, which cannot achieve optimal performance on various road conditions. In this paper, an integrated longitudinal vehicle dynamics control algorithm with tire/road friction estimation was proposed. First, a road identification algorithm was designed to estimate tire forces of driving wheels and the friction coefficient by the method of Kalman Filter and Recursive Least Squares (RLS).
Technical Paper

Accurate Speed Control of the DC Motor for Anti-Lock Braking System

2015-04-14
2015-01-0654
The permanent-magnet DC motor, which is directly connected to the hydraulic pump, is a significant component of hydraulic control unit (HCU) in an anti-lock braking system (ABS). It drives the pump to dump the brake fluid from the low-pressure accumulator back to master cylinder and makes sure the pressure decreases of wheel cylinder in ABS control. Obviously, the motor should run fast enough to provide sufficient power and prevent the low-pressure accumulator from fully charging. However, the pump don't need always run at full speed for the consideration of energy conservation and noise reduction. Therefore, it is necessary to accurately regulate the speed of the DC motor in order to improve quality of ABS control. In this paper, an accurate speed control algorithm was developed for the permanent-magnet DC motor of the ABS to implement the performance of the system, reduce the noise and save the energy in the meanwhile.
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