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Technical Paper

The Effects of Jatropha-derived Biodiesel on Diesel Engine Combustion and Emission Characteristics

The objective of the present research is to investigate the effects on diesel engine combustion and NOx and PM emission characteristics in case of blending the ordinary diesel fuel with biodiesel in passenger car diesel engines. Firstly, we conducted experiments to identify the combustion and emissions characteristics in a modern diesel engine complying with the EURO 4 emission standard. Then, we developed a numerical simulation model to explain and generalize biodiesel combustion phenomena in detail and generalize emission characteristics. The experimental and simulation results are useful to reduce biodiesel emissions by controlling engine operating and design parameters in the diesel engine. Engine tests were conducted and a mathematical model created to investigate the effects of 40% and 100% methyl oleate modeled fuel representing Jatropha-derived biodiesel on diesel combustion and emission characteristics, over a wide range of passenger car DI diesel engine operating conditions.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Characteristics of Natural Gas Combustion at a High Compression Ratio by Using a Rapid Compression and Expansion Machine

Natural gas is an attractive alternative fuel for internal combustion engines. Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion is considered to be one of the most promising measures for increasing thermal efficiency and reducing emissions, but it is difficult to control and stabilize its ignition and combustion processes. This paper describes an experimental study of natural gas combustion utilizing two types of ignition assistance. Spark assistance, which is used for conventional spark ignition (SI) engines, and pilot diesel injection, hereinafter called diesel pilot, which generates multiple ignition points by using a small injection of diesel that accounts for 2% of the total heat release for the cycle. The performance of these two approaches was compared with respect to various combustion characteristics when burning homogeneous natural gas mixtures at a high compression ratio.
Journal Article

Detailed Diesel Combustion and Soot Formation Analysis with Improved Wall Model Using Large Eddy Simulation

A mixed time-scale subgrid large eddy simulation was used to simulate mixture formation, combustion and soot formation under the influence of turbulence during diesel engine combustion. To account for the effects of engine wall heat transfer on combustion, the KIVA code's standard wall model was replaced to accommodate more realistic boundary conditions. This were carried out by implementing the non-isothermal wall model of Angelberger et al. with modifications and incorporating the log law from Pope's method to account for the wall surface roughness. Soot and NOx emissions predicted with the new model are compared to experimental data acquired under various EGR conditions.
Technical Paper

Effects of High Temperature Fuel on In-Cylinder Fuel Mixture Formation Process for Direct Injection Engine

Swirl injector spray at high fuel temperatures has unique characteristics [1][2][3][4] compared to normal fuel temperature spray such as strong penetration and narrow spray width. These characteristics have a possibility for improving fuel consumption and exhaust emission at the cold start condition. Thus, Swirl injector spray at high fuel temperature conditions was modeled in a CFD(Computational Fluid Dynamics) code by using a multi components fuel evaporation model and other spray sub-models to predict the mixture formation process at the cold start condition. Results show that, high temperature fuel decreases wall film amount and increases vapor amount. It can be concluded that high temperature fuel has the possibility for improving fuel consumption and exhaust emission at the cold start condtion.
Technical Paper

Controlling Combustion Characteristics Using a Slit Nozzle in a Direct-Injection Methanol Engine

A new type of fuel injection nozzle, called a “slit nozzle,” has been developed to improve poor ignitability and to stabilize combustion under low load conditions in direct-injection methanol diesel engines manufactured for medium-duty trucks. This nozzle has a single oblong vent like a slit. Engine test results indicate that the slit nozzle can improve combustion and thermal efficiency, especially at low loads and no load. This can be explained by the fact that the slit nozzle forms a more highly concentrated methanol spray around the glow-plug than do multi-hole nozzles. As a result, this nozzle improves flame propagation.
Technical Paper

Predicting Exhaust Emissions in a Glow-Assisted DI Methanol Engine Using a Combustion Model Combined with Full Kinetics

A numerical model has been developed to predict the formation of NOx and formaldehyde in the combustion and post-combustion zones of a methanol DI engine. For this purpose, a methanol-air mixture model combined with a full kinetics model has been introduced, taking into account 39 species with their 157 related elementary reactions. Through these kinetic simulations, a concept is proposed for optimizing methanol combustion and reducing exhaust emissions.
Technical Paper

Numerical Study on Iso-Octane Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition

A numerical study was carried out to investigate auto-ignition characteristics during HCCI predicted by using zero and multi-dimensional models combined with detailed kinetics including 116 chemical species and 689 elementary reactions involving iso-octane. In the simulation, homogeneous charge compression ignition of the fuel was analyzed under the same conditions as encountered in internal combustion engines. The results elucidated the combustible region and oxidation process of iso-octane with the formation and destruction of various chemical species in the cylinder.
Technical Paper

A Numerical Study on Ignition and Combustion of a DI Diesel Engine by Using CFD Code Combined with Detailed Chemical Kinetics

A CFD code combined with detailed chemical kinetics has been developed, linking with KIVA-3 and subroutines in CHEMKIN-II directly with some modifications. By using this CFD code, formation processes of combustion and exhaust gas emission for a turbo-charged DI diesel engine with common rail fuel injection system were simulated. As a result, formation processes of pollutant including NOx and soot were also considered according to the calculation results. The results show that NO caused by the extended Zeldvich mechanism accounted for about 88% of all NO, and it was found that there is a possibility to predict where and when soot will be formed by considering a simplified soot formation model.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study on Unregulated Emission Characteristics of Turbocharged DI Diesel Engine with Common Rail Fuel Injection System

In this study, we selected four unregulated emissions species, formaldehyde, benzene, 1,3-butadiene and benzo[a]pyrene to research the emission characteristics of these unregulated components experimentally. The engine used was a water-cooled, 8-liter, 6-cylinder, 4-stroke-cycle, turbocharged DI diesel engine with a common rail fuel injection system manufactured for the use of medium-duty trucks, and the fuel used was JIS second-class light gas oil, which is commercially available as diesel fuel. The results of experiments indicate as follows: formaldehyde tends to be emitted under the low load condition, while 1,3-butadiene is emitted at the low engine speed. This is believed to be because 1,3-butadiene decomposes in a short time, and the exhaust gas stays much longer in a cylinder under the low speed condition than under the high engine speed one. Benzene is emitted under the low load condition, as it is easily oxidized in high temperature.
Technical Paper

Mixture formation and combustion characteristics of directly injected LPG spray

It has been recognized that alternative fuels such as liquid petroleum gas (LPG) has less polluting combustion characteristics than diesel fuel. Direct-injection stratified-charge combustion LPG engines with spark-ignition can potentially replace conventional diesel engines by achieving a more efficient combustion with less pollution. However, there are many unknowns regarding LPG spray mixture formation and combustion in the engine cylinder thus making the development of high-efficiency LPG engines difficult. In this study, LPG was injected into a high pressure and temperature atmosphere inside a constant volume chamber to reproduce the stratification processes in the engine cylinder. The spray was made to hit an impingement wall with a similar profile as a piston bowl. Spray images were taken using the Schlieren and laser induced fluorescence (LIF) method to analyze spray penetration and evaporation characteristics.
Technical Paper

Study on Burning Velocity of LPG Fuel in a Constant Volume Combustion Chamber and an SI Engine

Compared with petroleum fuel, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) demonstrates advantages in low CO₂ emission. This is because of propane (C₃H₈), n-butane (n-C₄H₁₀) and i-butane (i-C₄H₁₀), which are the main components of LPG, making H/C ratio higher. In addition, LPG is suitable for high efficient operation of a spark ignition (SI) engine due to its higher research octane number (RON). Because of these advantages, that is, diversity of energy source and reduction of CO₂, in the past several years, LPG vehicles have widely been used as the alternate gasoline vehicles all over the world. Consequently, it is absolutely essential for the performance increase in LPG vehicles to comprehend combustion characteristics of LPG. In this study, the differences of laminar burning velocity between C₃H₈, n-C4H10, i-C₄H₁₀ and regular gasoline were evaluated experimentally with the use of a constant volume combustion chamber (CVCC).
Journal Article

Effect of Ethanol on Knock in Spark Ignition Gasoline Engines

This study examines the effects of ethanol content on engine performances and the knock characteristics in spark ignition gasoline engine under various compression ratio conditions by cylinder pressure analysis, visualization and numerical simulation. The results confirm that increasing the ethanol content provides for greater engine torque and thermal efficiency as a result of the improvement of knock tolerance. It was also confirmed that increasing the compression ratio together with increasing ethanol content is effective to overcome the shortcomings of poor fuel economy caused by the low calorific value of ethanol. Further, the results of one dimensional flame propagation simulation show that ethanol content increase laminar burning velocity. Moreover, the results of visualization by using a bore scope demonstrate that ethanol affects the increase of initial flame propagation speed and thus helps suppress knock.
Technical Paper

A Numerical Study on Combustion and Exhaust Gas Emissions Characteristics of a Dual Fuel Natural Gas Engine Using a Multi-Dimensional Model Combined With Detailed Kinetics

A numerical study was carried out to investigate combustion characteristics of a dual-fuel gas diesel engine, using a multi-dimensional model combined with detailed chemical kinetics, including 43 chemical species and 173 elementary reactions. In calculations, the effects of initial temperature, EGR ratios on ignition, and combustion were examined. The results indicated EGR combined with intake preheating can favorably reduced NOx and THC emissions simultaneously. This can be explained by the fact that combustion mechanism is changed from flame propagation to HCCl like combustion.
Technical Paper

Simulating Exhaust Emissions Characteristics and Their Improvements in a Glow-Assisted DI Methanol Engine Using Combustion Models Combined with Detailed Kinetics

An experimental and numerical study has been conducted on the emission and reduction of HCHO (formaldehyde) and other pollutants formed in the cylinder of a direct-injection diesel engine fueled by methanol. Engine tests were performed under a variety of intake conditions including throttling, heating, and EGR (exhaust gas recirculation) for the purpose of improving these emissions by changing gas compositions and combustion temperatures in the cylinder. Moreover, a detailed kinetics model was developed and applied to methanol combustion to investigate HCHO formation and the reduction mechanism influenced by associated elementary reactions and in-cylinder mixing.
Technical Paper

A Numerical Study on Predicting Combustion Chamber Wall Surface Temperature Distributions in a Diesel Engine and their Effects on Combustion, Emission and Heat Loss Characteristics by Using a 3D-CFD Code Combined with a Detailed Heat Transfer Model

A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (3D-CFD) code was combined with a detailed combustion chamber heat transfer model. The established model allowed not only prediction of instantaneous combustion chamber wall surface temperature distributions in practical calculation time but also investigation of the characteristics of combustion, emissions and heat losses affected by the wall temperature distributions. Although zero-dimensional combustion analysis can consider temporal changes in the heat transfer coefficient and in-cylinder gas temperature, it cannot take into account the effect of interactions between spatially distributed charge and wall temperatures. In contrast, 3D-CFD analysis can consider temporal and spatial changes in both parameters. However, in most zero-/multi- dimensional combustion analyses, wall temperatures are assumed to be temporally constant and spatially homogeneous.
Technical Paper

Numerical Optimization of Parameters to Improve Thermal Efficiency of a Spark-Ignited Natural Gas Engine

Natural gas is a promising alternative fuel for internal combustion engines because of its clean combustion characteristics and abundant reserves. However, it has several disadvantages due to its low energy density and low thermal efficiency at low loads. Thus, to assist efforts to improve the thermal efficiency of spark-ignited (SI) engines operating on natural gas and to minimize test procedures, a numerical simulation model was developed to predict and optimize the performance of a turbocharged test engine, considering flame propagation, occurrence of knock and ignition timing. The numerical results correlate well with empirical data, and show that increasing compression ratios and retarding the intake valve closing (IVC) timing relative to selected baseline conditions could effectively improve thermal efficiency. In addition, employing moderate EGR ratios is also effective for avoiding knock.
Technical Paper

3D Simulationson Premixed Laminar Flame Propagation of iso-Octane/Air Mixture at Elevated Pressure and Temperature

This paper aims to validate chemical kinetic mechanisms of surrogate gasoline three components fuel by calculating one-dimensional laminar burning velocity of iso-octane/air mixture. Next, the application of level-set method on premixed combustion without consideration the effect of turbulence eddies on flame front is also studied in three-dimensional computational fluid dynamic (3D-CFD) simulation. In the 3D CFD simulation, there is an option to calculate laminar burning velocity by using empirical correlations, however it is applicable only for particular initial pressure and temperature in spark ignition engine cases. One-dimensional burning velocities from lean to rich of iso-octane/air mixture are calculated by using CHEMKIN-PRO with detailed chemistry and transport phenomena as a function of different equivalence ratios, different unburnt temperature and pressure ranges.
Technical Paper

Computational Study to Improve Thermal Efficiency of Spark Ignition Engine

The objective of this paper is to investigate the potential of lean burn combustion to improve the thermal efficiency of spark ignition engine. Experiments used a single cylinder gasoline spark ignition engine fueled with primary reference fuel of octane number 90, running at 4000 revolution per minute and at wide open throttle. Experiments were conducted at constant fueling rate and in order to lean the mixture, more air is introduced by boosted pressure from stoichiometric mixture to lean limit while maintaining the high output engine torque as possible. Experimental results show that the highest thermal efficiency is obtained at excess air ratio of 1.3 combined with absolute boosted pressure of 117 kPa. Three dimensional computational fluid dynamic simulation with detailed chemical reactions was conducted and compared with results obtained from experiments as based points.
Technical Paper

A Numerical Study on Correlation of Chemiluminescent Species and Heat Release Distributions Using Large Eddy Simulation

A mixed timescale subgrid model of a large eddy simulation was used to simulate the turbulence regime in diesel engine combustion. The combustion model used the direct integration approach with a diesel oil surrogate mechanism (developed at Chalmers University of Technology and consisting of 70 species and 309 reactions). Additional reactions for the generation and consumption of OH*, CO2*, and CH* species were added from recent kinetic studies. Collisional quenching and spontaneous emission resulted in de-excitation of the excited state radical. A phenomenological soot formation model (developed at Waseda University) was combined with the LES code. The following important steps were considered in the soot model: particle inception where naphthalene grows irreversibly to form soot, surface growth with the addition of C2H2, surface oxidation (induced by OH radicals and O2 attack), and particle coagulation.
Technical Paper

Kinetic Modeling of Ammonia-SCR and Experimental Studies over Monolithic Cu-ZSM-5 Catalyst

Ammonia-selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems have been introduced commercially in diesel vehicles, however catalyst systems with higher conversion efficiency and better control characteristics are required to know the actual emissions during operation and the emissions in random test cycles. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is an effective approach when applied to SCR catalyst development, and many models have been proposed, but these models need experimental verification and are limited in the situations they apply to. Further, taking account of redox cycle is important to have better accuracy in transient operation, however there are few models considering the cycle. Model development considering the redox reactions in a zeolite catalyst, Cu-ZSM-5, is the object of the research here, and the effects of exhaust gas composition on the SCR reaction and NH3 oxidation at high temperatures are investigated.