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Technical Paper

The structure analysis of diesel free spray with phase change~(Effect of viscosity change of vapor-phase fuel on the structure of diesel free spray)

In this study, the purpose is placed in analysis the structure of diesel spray and, especially, making clear the mixture formation process in the evaporative diesel spray. The liquid fuel was injected from a single-hole nozzle (1/d = 1.0 mm/0.2 mm) into a constant-volume vessel possessing phenomena visualization under high pressure and temperature field. As for measurement method, in order to investigate liquid and vapor-phase of injected spray, exciplex fluorescence method was applied in the evaporative fuel spray. And the interested view region in injected spray is the downstream spray. For the minute investigation of spray flow, the liquid and vapor-phase region is taken with 35 mm still camera and CCD camera, respectively.
Technical Paper

Instantaneous and Statistical Structures of Non-Evaporative Diesel Spray

Instantaneous and statistical spray structures of diesel sprays are examined with numerical simulation and experiment. KIVALES, which is LES version of KIVA code, is used as the computational code. Injection velocity profiles measured by momentum method are employed for the initial condition of the calculation. In the experiment, shadowgraph photography is performed to measure macroscopic spray structure. LES approach predicts the instantaneous structure, which are the heterogeneity and intermittency in the periphery of the spray and the cyclic variability of each injection event. Moreover, LES can predict both the instantaneous and statistical spray structures.
Technical Paper

Detailed Kinetic Modeling and Laser Diagnostics of Soot Formation Process in Diesel Jet Flame

This work investigates the soot formation process in diesel jet flame using a detailed kinetic soot model implemented into the KIVA-3V multidimensional CFD code and 2D imaging by use of time-resolved laser induced incandescence (LII). The numerical model is based on the KIVA code which is modified to use CHEMKIN as the chemistry solver using Message Passing Interface (MPI). This allows for the chemical reactions to be simulated in parallel on multiple CPUs. The detailed soot model used is based on the method of moments, which begins with fuel pyrolysis, followed by the formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, their growth and coagulation into spherical particles, and finally, surface growth and oxidation of the particles. The model can describe the spatial and temporal characteristics of soot formation processes such as soot precursors distributions, nucleation rate and surface reaction rate.
Technical Paper

Flow Characteristics in Transient Gas Jet

The combustion of a diesel spray includes very complex processes, that is, atomization, evaporation, diffusion, turbulent mixing and burning. On the other hand, there are no phenomena of atomization and evaporation in the combustion of a transient gas jet. However, the latter jet can be treated as a fundamental of the former spray. From the standpoint mentioned above, acetylene gas was injected into the ambient during short duration as a transient gas jet and its flow characteristics were investigated by means of photography with a sheet of laser light and LDV to detect the turbulent vortex generated in the boundary layer between it and surroundings, in the experiments presented here. And the experimental results show that the jet itself is divided into four peculiar regions and the modelling of each region is carried out by use of the results to understand the mixture formation process owing to the turbulent diffusive mixing.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Visualized Fuel Flow inside the Slit Nozzle of Direct Injection SI Gasoline Engine

In the direct injection spark ignition gasoline engine (D-4), thin fan-shaped high-dispersion, high-penetration and high-atomization spray formed by the slit nozzle generates a stratified mixture cloud without depending on a strong intake air motion, subsequently realizing stable stratified charge combustion. To improve fuel economy further in actual traffic, the region of stratified charge combustion in torque-engine speed map must be expanded by improving spray characteristics. Since the fuel flow inside the nozzle has a large effect on the spray characteristics, it was clarified this effect by visual analysis of the fuel flow inside the nozzle using an enlarged acrylic slit nozzle of 10 magnifications. Consequently, it was found that vortices are generated frequently within a sac even in the case of steady state conditions. The effect on the spray characteristics is corresponding to the vortex scale.
Technical Paper

Large Eddy Simulation of Diesel Spray Combustion with Eddy-Dissipation Model and CIP Method by Use of KIVALES

Three-dimensional large eddy simulation (LES) has been conducted for a diesel spray flame using KIVALES which is LES version of KIVA code. Modified TAB model, velocity interpolation model and rigid sphere model are used to improve the prediction of the fuel-mixture process in the diesel spray. Combustion is simulated using the Eddy-Dissipation model. CIP method was incorporated into the KIVALES in order to suppress the numerical instability on the combustible flow. The formation of soot and NO was simulated using Hiroyasu model and KIVA original model. Three different grid resolutions were used to examine the grid dependency. The result shows that the LES approach with 0.5 mm grid size is able to resolve the instantaneous spray with the intermittency in the spray periphery, the axi-symmetric shape and meandering flow after the end of injection as shown in the experimental results.
Technical Paper

Large Eddy Simulation of Non-Evaporative and Evaporative Diesel Spray in Constant Volume Vessel by Use of KIVALES

Large Eddy Simulation (LES) is applied to non-evaporative and evaporative diesel spray simulations. KIVALES, which is LES version of KIVA code, is used as the LES computational code. Modified TAB model is used as breakup model, and interpolated donor cell differencing scheme is employed to calculate convective terms. To validity LES simulation, LES results using KIVALES are compared with experimental results and simulated results with conventional RANS approach using KIVA3V res.2. The results show that the LES simulation of non-evaporative spray depends on the grid size in comparison with RANS simulation, and good agreement is obtained between experimental results and the LES results with fine grid (720,000 cells). Furthermore, asymmetric non-evaporative spray which has intermittency at the outer edge of sprays is simulated, since instantaneous turbulent flow field can be predicted directly in LES case.
Technical Paper

A Fundamental Study on Ignition Characteristics of Two-Component Fuel in a Diesel Spray

The authors have explored the potential of fuel to control spray and its combustion processes in a diesel engine. Fuel has some potential for low emission and high thermal efficiency because its volatility and ignitability are one of the ultimate performing factors of the engines. In present study, the ignition process of mixed fuel spray was investigated in a constant volume combustion vessel and in a rapid compression and expansion machine, The ignition delay based on the diagram of rate of the heat release, the imaging of natural flame emissions and the numerical simulation were carried out to clarify the effect of the physical and chemical properties of mixed fuel on ignition characteristics.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Fuel Flow and Spray Atomization in Slit Nozzle for Direct Injection SI Gasoline Engines

The slit nozzle in the fuel injection valve for a direct injection spark ignition gasoline engine forms a thin, fan-shaped spray. The fan-shaped spray is characterized by high dispersion, comparatively high penetration, and fine atomization. This enables it to form a stable air-fuel mixture. However, further improvement of engine performance requires that the spray characteristics (particularly the level of atomization) be improved. Since the spray characteristics are strongly influenced by the fuel flow within the nozzle, it was clarified this effect by visual analyses of the fuel flow inside the nozzle using enlarged acrylic slit nozzles. The results demonstrated that vortices that are formed within the nozzle sac are continuously propagated in a periodic manner within the sac and that they influence the streamline of fuel flow from the sac to the slit.
Technical Paper

Effect of Breakup Model on Diesel Spray Structure Simulated by Large Eddy Simulation

LES of non-evaporative diesel spray have been performed to investigate the effects of breakup models of Modified TAB, WAVE and KHRT model on computational results. KIVALES that is LES version of KIVA code was used for base code. In our KIVALES, CIP scheme was incorporated in order to suppress the numerical diffusion. Results showed that the breakup model is significantly affected on the calculated spray shape, because the droplet diameter determined by breakup models affects on the transmittance of the droplet momentum into the ambient gas, the evolution of the vortex structure in the gas phase and the droplet dispersion by the vortex structure.
Technical Paper

Effect of Ambient Gas Properties for Characteristics of Non-Reacting Diesel Fuel Spray

In this paper, spray characteristics were examined to deduce the effect of ambient gas properties. Considered ambient properties were the viscosity μa and density ρa, and thus the kinematic viscosity νa. The objective of this paper is to reveal the effect of compressibility of the ambient gas to spray formation. In the experiments, the changed ranges were And a standard-sac volume nozzle of hole diameter dn =0.25 mm (ln/dn=3.0) was used at constant injection pressure difference (Δp=16.2 MPa). Also the injection pressure was varied in the range of 55 to 120 MPa with a mini-sac volume nozzle of hole diameter dn =0.20 mm (ln/dn =5.5). Several different gases were used to change the ambient viscosity at a room temperature. From the experiments, it is obtained that larger the viscosity, the more the spray spreads in the radial direction, thus the spray angle gets larger and the tip penetration became shorter.
Technical Paper

Effect of Nozzle Configurations for Characteristics of Non-Reacting Diesel Fuel Spray

The spray structure under the pressurized atmosphere at a room temperature was examined by the various photographic methods. The fuel flow inside the nozzle was investigated by the transparent model nozzles. The experimental analysis of sprays yielded the spray dispersing angle, the distribution of fuel droplets inside the spray and the jet intact core length. The obtained results of those spray characteristics showed that the spray structure is divided into two spatial regimes due to their formation mechanisms. Within 10 mm from the nozzle, the spray dispersion is dominated by the turbulent states of fuel which are initiated inside the nozzle. At distance from the nozzle z > 20 - 40 mm, the spray consists of an induced gas vortex street whose length is about half of the spray width. It is proposed that the kinematic viscosity of ambient gas is a important factor which rules the process of momentum exchange form the fuel jet to the ambient gas.
Technical Paper

Organized Structure and Motion in Diesel Spray

This paper deals with the particle distribution in Diesel spray under the non-evaporating condition from the analytical aspect based on our experimental results. In the analysis, TAB method of KIVA II code and the k-ε turbulent model were used, and the mono-disperse distribution of the initial parcel's diameter, whose size equals to the nozzle hole diameter, was utilized in conjunction with the breakup model. The size distribution of atomized droplets (i.e. the χ-squared distribution function) is justified with the degree of freedom. It is shown that the ambient gas, which is initially quiescent, is induced and led to a turbulent gas jet. The turbulent gas jet which has a equivalent momentum with the Diesel spray was also examined by Discrete Vortex method. The quantitative jet growth was shown to be possible for the estimation and determination in its initial boundary values at the nozzle.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Free and Impinging Gas Jets by Means of Image Processing

A transient gas jet seems to be a model of a diesel spray because it has no vaporization process. Recently, CNG is utilized in a diesel engine. In the case of diesel engine, sprays or jets have the free state in some cases, and they are impinging surely on the piston surface in the other cases. The 2-D image of acetylene gas with tracer particles was taken by high-speed photography. In both jets, the outer shape was measured on the images and the characteristics of the internal flow was obtained by particle image velocimetry. Then, the physical models of these jets were constructed by use of experimental results.
Technical Paper

Modeling Spray Impingement Considering Fuel Film Formation on the Wall

In this study, a new submodel concerning fuel film formation process is proposed in order to simulate the behavior of diesel spray impingement on relatively low temperature wall surface. Here, super - heating degree of the surface, defined by the temperature difference between the wall surface and the fuel saturated temperature, is newly considered for the behavior of impinged liquid droplets. In this spray impingement submodel, fuel film formation process, droplet interaction, film breakup process, and velocity and direction of dispersing droplets were considered based on several experimental results. This new submodel was incorporated into KIVA-II code, and the results were compared with experimental data KIVA-II original code and the spray / wall impingement model proposed by Naber & Reitz. As a result, it is found that the calculated results of impinging spray behavior by the new model agree well with experimental results.
Journal Article

Modeling of Auto-Ignition and Combustion Processes for Dual-Component Fuel Spray

Auto-ignition and combustion processes of dual-component fuel spray were numerically studied. A source code of SUPERTRAPP (developed by NIST), which is capable of predicting thermodynamic and transportation properties of pure fluids and fluid mixtures containing up to 20 components, was incorporated into KIVA3V to provide physical fuel properties and vapor-liquid equilibrium calculations. Low temperature oxidation reaction, which is of importance in ignition process of hydrocarbon fuels, as well as negative temperature coefficient behavior was taken into account using the multistep kinetics ignition prediction based on Shell model, while a global single-step mechanism was employed to account for high temperature oxidation reaction. Computational results with the present multi-component fuel model were validated by comparing with experimental data of spray combustion obtained in a constant volume vessel.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Transient Gas Diffusion Flame

CNG is one of the future fuel for a CI engine. Recently, the general tendency is the use of the high pressure injection system over 100 MPa in a CI engine for the near future severe regulation. Combustion phenomenon in a CI engine with such injection system is like a transient gas diffusion flame. The flow in a gas diffusion flame was investigated by the particle image velocimetry on its 2-D images, the relative soot concentration, the temperature and the relative CO2 concentration was detected in the experiments. And the model of transient gas diffusion flame was constructed by use of experimental data.
Technical Paper

Vaporization Characteristics and Liquid-Phase Penetration for Multi-Component Fuels

The maximum liquid-phase penetration and vaporization behavior was investigated by using simultaneous measurement for mie-scattered light images and shadowgraph ones. The objective of this study was to analyze effect of variant parameters (injection pressure, ambient gas condition and fuel temperature) and fuel properties on vaporization behavior, and to investigate liquid phase penetration for the single- and multi-component fuels. The experiments were conducted in a constant-volume vessel with optical access. Fuel was injected into the vessel with electronically controlled common rail injector.
Technical Paper

Combustion Phenomena in IDI Diesel Engine Detected by Optical Methods

The combustion phenomena in an IDI diesel engine having a swirl chamber were detected by optical methods. The spatial and temporal distribution of the natural emission of OH radical was measured through the band pass filters and those of KL factor and flame temperature were obtained by the two-color method. As a consequence, the combustion phenomena are made clear by these experimental results.
Technical Paper

Detailed Chemical Kinetic Modeling of Diesel Spray Combustion with Oxygenated Fuels

This paper confirms a structure for the soot formation process inside a burning diesel jet plume of oxygenated fuels. An explanation of how the soot formation process changes by the use of oxygenated fuel in comparison with that for using a conventional diesel fuel, and why oxygenated fuel drastically suppresses the soot formation has been derived from the chemical kinetic analysis. A detailed chemical kinetic mechanism, which is combined with various proposed chemical kinetic models including normal paraffinic hydrocarbon oxidation, oxygenated hydrocarbon oxidation, and poly-aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) formation, was developed in present study. The calculated results are presented to elucidate the influence of fuel mixture composition and fuel structure, especially relating to oxygenated fuels, on PAH formation. The analysis also provides a new insight into the initial soot formation process in terms of the temperature range of PAH formation.