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Technical Paper

The structure analysis of diesel free spray with phase change~(Effect of viscosity change of vapor-phase fuel on the structure of diesel free spray)

2000-06-12
2000-05-0100
In this study, the purpose is placed in analysis the structure of diesel spray and, especially, making clear the mixture formation process in the evaporative diesel spray. The liquid fuel was injected from a single-hole nozzle (1/d = 1.0 mm/0.2 mm) into a constant-volume vessel possessing phenomena visualization under high pressure and temperature field. As for measurement method, in order to investigate liquid and vapor-phase of injected spray, exciplex fluorescence method was applied in the evaporative fuel spray. And the interested view region in injected spray is the downstream spray. For the minute investigation of spray flow, the liquid and vapor-phase region is taken with 35 mm still camera and CCD camera, respectively.
Technical Paper

Instantaneous and Statistical Structures of Non-Evaporative Diesel Spray

2007-07-23
2007-01-1899
Instantaneous and statistical spray structures of diesel sprays are examined with numerical simulation and experiment. KIVALES, which is LES version of KIVA code, is used as the computational code. Injection velocity profiles measured by momentum method are employed for the initial condition of the calculation. In the experiment, shadowgraph photography is performed to measure macroscopic spray structure. LES approach predicts the instantaneous structure, which are the heterogeneity and intermittency in the periphery of the spray and the cyclic variability of each injection event. Moreover, LES can predict both the instantaneous and statistical spray structures.
Technical Paper

Detailed Kinetic Modeling and Laser Diagnostics of Soot Formation Process in Diesel Jet Flame

2004-03-08
2004-01-1398
This work investigates the soot formation process in diesel jet flame using a detailed kinetic soot model implemented into the KIVA-3V multidimensional CFD code and 2D imaging by use of time-resolved laser induced incandescence (LII). The numerical model is based on the KIVA code which is modified to use CHEMKIN as the chemistry solver using Message Passing Interface (MPI). This allows for the chemical reactions to be simulated in parallel on multiple CPUs. The detailed soot model used is based on the method of moments, which begins with fuel pyrolysis, followed by the formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, their growth and coagulation into spherical particles, and finally, surface growth and oxidation of the particles. The model can describe the spatial and temporal characteristics of soot formation processes such as soot precursors distributions, nucleation rate and surface reaction rate.
Technical Paper

Flow Characteristics in Transient Gas Jet

1995-02-01
950847
The combustion of a diesel spray includes very complex processes, that is, atomization, evaporation, diffusion, turbulent mixing and burning. On the other hand, there are no phenomena of atomization and evaporation in the combustion of a transient gas jet. However, the latter jet can be treated as a fundamental of the former spray. From the standpoint mentioned above, acetylene gas was injected into the ambient during short duration as a transient gas jet and its flow characteristics were investigated by means of photography with a sheet of laser light and LDV to detect the turbulent vortex generated in the boundary layer between it and surroundings, in the experiments presented here. And the experimental results show that the jet itself is divided into four peculiar regions and the modelling of each region is carried out by use of the results to understand the mixture formation process owing to the turbulent diffusive mixing.
Technical Paper

Visualization of the Cavitating Flow inside the Nozzle Hole Using by Enlarged Acrylic Nozzle

2011-08-30
2011-01-2062
In this study, it is purpose to make clear the effect of cavitation phenomenon on the spray atomization. In this report, the cavitation phenomenon inside the nozzle hole was visualized and the pressure measurements along the wall of the nozzle hole were carried out by use of 25-times enlarged acrylic nozzle. For the representatives of regular gasoline, single and two-component fuels were used as a test fuel. In addition, various cavitating flow patterns same as experimental conditions were simulated by use of Barotropic model incorporated in commercial code of Star-CD scheme, and compared with experimental results.
Technical Paper

Measurement and Modeling on Wall Wetted Fuel Film Profile and Mixture Preparation in Intake Port of SI Engine

1999-03-01
1999-01-0798
In SI engines with port injection system, the injected fuel spray adheres surely on the port wall and the inlet valve, consequently, the spray-wall interaction process leads to the generation of unburned hydrocarbons and uncontrollable mixture formation. This paper deals with the fuel mixture preparation process including basic research on characteristics of the wall-wetted fuel film on a flat wall inside a constant volume vessel. In the experiments, iso-octane mixed with biacetyl as a tracer dopant was injected through a pintle type injector against a flat glass wall under the ambient conditions of atmospheric pressure and room temperature. The thickness of the adhered fuel film on the wall was quantitatively measured by using laser induced fluorescence (LIF) technique, which provides 2-D distribution information with high special resolution as a function of the injection duration, the impingement distance from the injector to the wall, and the impingement angle against the wall.
Technical Paper

Distribution of Fuel Droplets, Hydrocarbon and Soot in Diesel Combustion Chamber

1983-02-01
830456
Distribution of injected fuel droplets, total hydrocarbon concentration and soot concentration in the combustion chamber of a diesel engine with a swirl chamber have been measured microscopically with regard to the time and the space by means of optical method. As a result of this study, effect of the swirl flow on atomized droplet distribution, relation between the droplets and hydrocarbon concentration, and relation between the change in concentration gradient of hydrocarbon with the time and the velocity of the swirl flow, and effect of non-luminous flame on the time of heat release rate raising period have been obtained. And from spatial distributions of hydrocarbon concentration, soot concentration, and local temperature in the combustion chamber at each time, the locational characteristics of soot generation are clarified. Further, effects of hydrocarbon and local temperature on soot generation have been considered.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Measurement on Evaporation Process of Multicomponent Fuels

2000-03-06
2000-01-0280
In previous multi-dimensional modeling on spray dynamics and vapor formation, single component fuel with pure substance has been analyzed to assess the mixture formation. Then it should be expected that the evaporation process could be performed for the multicomponent fuel such as actual Gasoline and Diesel gas oil. In this study, vapor-liquid equilibrium prediction was conducted for multicomponent fuels such as 3 and 10 components mixed solution with ideal solution analysis and non-ideal solution analysis. And the computation of distillation characteristics was conducted for the steady state fuel condition fuel condition to understand the evaporation process. As a result, calculated distillation characteristics are consistent well with experiment results. And the evaporation process of a multicomponent droplet in the combustion chamber has been calculated with the variation of ambient pressure and temperature.
Technical Paper

Soot Kinetic Modeling and Empirical Validation on Smokeless Diesel Combustion with Oxygenated Fuels

2003-05-19
2003-01-1789
This paper provides new insights on the mechanism of the smokeless diesel combustion with oxygenated fuels, based on a combination of soot kinetic modeling and optical diagnostics. The chemical effects of fuel compositions, including aromatics - paraffins blend, neat oxygenated fuels and oxygenate additives, on sooting equivalence ratio ‘ϕ’ - temperature ‘T’ dependence were numerically examined using a detailed soot kinetic model. To better understand the physical factors affecting soot formation in oxygenated fuel sprays, the effects of injection pressure and ambient gas temperature on the flame lift-off length and relative soot concentration in oxygenated fuel jets were experimentally investigated. The computational results show that the leaner mixture side of soot formation peninsula on the ϕ - T map, rather than the lower temperature one, should be utilized to suppress the formation of PAHs and ultra-fine particles together with the large reduction in particulate mass.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Wall Impinging Behavior with a Fan Shaped Spray

2003-05-19
2003-01-1841
The experiment-based droplet impinging breakup model was applied to a fan shaped spray and the impinging behavior was analyzed quantitatively. Evaluation of the quantitative results with validation tests verified the following. The model enables prediction of fan shaped spray thickness after impingement caused by the breakup of fuel droplets, which could not be represented with the Wall-Jet model, widely used at present. Fuel film movement on a wall is negligible when the injection pressure of the fan shaped spray is high and the spray travelling length is not too short. The proposed heat transfer coefficient between fuel film and the wall is too small to represent the vaporizing rate of the fuel film.
Technical Paper

Reduction of Reaction Mechanism for n-Tridecane Based on Knowledge of Detailed Reaction Paths

2016-10-17
2016-01-2238
n-Tridecane is a low boiling point component of gas oil, and has been used as a single-component fuel for diesel spray and combustion experiments. However, no reduced chemical kinetic mechanisms for n-tridecane have been presented for three-dimensional modeling. A detailed mechanism developed by KUCRS (Knowledge-basing Utilities for Complex Reaction Systems), contains 1493 chemical species and 3641 reactions. Reaction paths during ignition process for n-tridecane in air computed using the detailed mechanism, were analyzed with the equivalence ratio of 0.75 and the initial temperatures of 650 K, 850 K, and 1100 K, which are located in the cool-flame dominant, negative-temperature coefficient, and blue-flame dominant regions, respectively.
Technical Paper

Vaporization Characteristics and Liquid-Phase Penetration for Multi-Component Fuels

2004-03-08
2004-01-0529
The maximum liquid-phase penetration and vaporization behavior was investigated by using simultaneous measurement for mie-scattered light images and shadowgraph ones. The objective of this study was to analyze effect of variant parameters (injection pressure, ambient gas condition and fuel temperature) and fuel properties on vaporization behavior, and to investigate liquid phase penetration for the single- and multi-component fuels. The experiments were conducted in a constant-volume vessel with optical access. Fuel was injected into the vessel with electronically controlled common rail injector.
Technical Paper

Combustion Phenomena in IDI Diesel Engine Detected by Optical Methods

1999-10-25
1999-01-3652
The combustion phenomena in an IDI diesel engine having a swirl chamber were detected by optical methods. The spatial and temporal distribution of the natural emission of OH radical was measured through the band pass filters and those of KL factor and flame temperature were obtained by the two-color method. As a consequence, the combustion phenomena are made clear by these experimental results.
Technical Paper

Detailed Chemical Kinetic Modeling of Diesel Spray Combustion with Oxygenated Fuels

2001-03-05
2001-01-1262
This paper confirms a structure for the soot formation process inside a burning diesel jet plume of oxygenated fuels. An explanation of how the soot formation process changes by the use of oxygenated fuel in comparison with that for using a conventional diesel fuel, and why oxygenated fuel drastically suppresses the soot formation has been derived from the chemical kinetic analysis. A detailed chemical kinetic mechanism, which is combined with various proposed chemical kinetic models including normal paraffinic hydrocarbon oxidation, oxygenated hydrocarbon oxidation, and poly-aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) formation, was developed in present study. The calculated results are presented to elucidate the influence of fuel mixture composition and fuel structure, especially relating to oxygenated fuels, on PAH formation. The analysis also provides a new insight into the initial soot formation process in terms of the temperature range of PAH formation.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Fuel-Vapor Concentration on the Process of Initial Combustion and Soot Formation in a DI Diesel Engine Using LII and LIEF

2001-03-05
2001-01-1255
A phenomenological or empirical model based on experimental results obtained from various optical measurements is critical for the understanding of DI diesel combustion phenomena as well as for the improvement of its emission characteristics. Such a model could be realized by the application of advanced optical measurement, which is able to isolate a particular phenomenon amongst complicated physical and chemical interactions, to a DI diesel combustion field. The authors have conducted experimental studies to clarify the combustion characteristics of unsteady turbulent diffusion flames in relation to the soot formation and oxidation process in a small-sized DI diesel engine. In the present study, the effect of fuel vapor concentration on the process of early combustion and soot formation has been investigated using several optical measurements.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Diesel Spray Structure by Using a Hybrid Model of TAB Breakup Model and Vortex Method

2001-03-05
2001-01-1240
This study proposes a hybrid model which consists of modified TAB(Taylor Analogy Breakup) model and DVM(Discrete Vortex Method). In this study, the simulation process is divided into three steps. The first step is to analyze the breakup of droplet of injected fuel by using modified TAB model. The second step based on the theory of Siebers' liquid length is analysis of spray evaporation. The liquid length analysis of injected fuel is used for connecting both modified TAB model and DVM. The final step is to reproduce the ambient gas flow and inner vortex flow injected fuel by using DVM. In order to examine the hybrid model, an experiment of a free evaporating fuel spray at early injection stage of in-cylinder like conditions had been executed. The numerical results calculated by using the present hybrid model are compared with the experimental ones.
Technical Paper

Compressible Large-Eddy Simulation of Diesel Spray Structure using OpenFOAM

2015-09-01
2015-01-1858
The compressible Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) for the diesel spray with OpenFOAM is presented to reduce CPU time by massively parallel computing of the scalar type supercomputer (CRAY XE6) and simulate the development of the non-evaporative and the evaporative spray. The maximum computational speeds are 14 times (128 cores) and 43 times (128 cores) for of the non-evaporative spray and the spray flame with one-step reaction, respectively, compared to the one core simulation. In the spray flame simulation with the reduced reaction mechanism (29 species, 52 reactions), the maximum computational speed is 149 times (512 cores). Then LES of the non-evaporative and the evaporative spray (Spray A) are calculated. The results indicate that the spray tip penetration is well predicted, although the size of the computational domain must be set equal to that of the experiment.
Technical Paper

Visualization of Cavitation Inside Nozzle Hole and Injected Liquid Jet

2015-09-01
2015-01-1908
The atomization structure of the fuel spray is known to be affected by flow conditions and cavitation inside the nozzle hole. In this paper, the cavitation phenomena inside the nozzle hole was visualized by using large-scale transparent nozzles, as well as the effect of length-to-width ratio (l/w ratio) of the nozzle hole on cavitation and on the behavior of injection liquid jet. In addition, various flow patterns inside the nozzle hole same as experimental conditions were simulated by the use of Cavitation model incorporated in Star-CCM+, which was compared with experimental results.
Technical Paper

Large Eddy Simulation of Diesel Spray Combustion with Eddy-Dissipation Model and CIP Method by Use of KIVALES

2007-04-16
2007-01-0247
Three-dimensional large eddy simulation (LES) has been conducted for a diesel spray flame using KIVALES which is LES version of KIVA code. Modified TAB model, velocity interpolation model and rigid sphere model are used to improve the prediction of the fuel-mixture process in the diesel spray. Combustion is simulated using the Eddy-Dissipation model. CIP method was incorporated into the KIVALES in order to suppress the numerical instability on the combustible flow. The formation of soot and NO was simulated using Hiroyasu model and KIVA original model. Three different grid resolutions were used to examine the grid dependency. The result shows that the LES approach with 0.5 mm grid size is able to resolve the instantaneous spray with the intermittency in the spray periphery, the axi-symmetric shape and meandering flow after the end of injection as shown in the experimental results.
Technical Paper

Large Eddy Simulation of Non-Evaporative and Evaporative Diesel Spray in Constant Volume Vessel by Use of KIVALES

2006-10-16
2006-01-3334
Large Eddy Simulation (LES) is applied to non-evaporative and evaporative diesel spray simulations. KIVALES, which is LES version of KIVA code, is used as the LES computational code. Modified TAB model is used as breakup model, and interpolated donor cell differencing scheme is employed to calculate convective terms. To validity LES simulation, LES results using KIVALES are compared with experimental results and simulated results with conventional RANS approach using KIVA3V res.2. The results show that the LES simulation of non-evaporative spray depends on the grid size in comparison with RANS simulation, and good agreement is obtained between experimental results and the LES results with fine grid (720,000 cells). Furthermore, asymmetric non-evaporative spray which has intermittency at the outer edge of sprays is simulated, since instantaneous turbulent flow field can be predicted directly in LES case.
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