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Journal Article

Integrated Numerical and Experimental Approach to Determine the Cooling Air Mass Flow in Different Vehicle Development Stages

2010-04-12
2010-01-0287
This paper presents an integrated numerical and experimental approach to take best possible advantage of the common development tools at hand (1D, CFD and wind tunnel) to determine the cooling air mass flow at the different vehicle development stages. 1D tools can be used early in development when neither 3D data nor wind tunnel models with detailed underhood flow are available. A problem that has to be resolved is the dependency on input data. In particular, the pressure coefficients on the outer surface (i.e. at the air inlet and outlet region) and the pressure loss data of single components are of great importance since the amount of cooling air flow is directly linked to these variables. The pressure coefficients at the air inlet and outlet are not only a function of vehicle configuration but also of driving velocity and fan operation. Both, static and total pressure coefficient, yield different advantages and disadvantages and can therefore both be used as boundary conditions.
Technical Paper

An Innovative Test System for Holistic Vehicle Dynamics Testing

2019-04-02
2019-01-0449
In the automotive industry, there is a continued need to improve the development process and handle the increasing complexity of the overall vehicle system. One major step in this process is a comprehensive and complementary approach to both simulation and testing. Knowledge of the overall dynamic vehicle behavior is becoming increasingly important for the development of new control concepts such as integrated vehicle dynamics control aiming to improve handling quality and ride comfort. However, with current well-established test systems, only separated and isolated aspects of vehicle dynamics can be evaluated. To address these challenges and further merge the link between simulation and testing, the Institute of Internal Combustion Engines and Automotive Engineering (IVK), University of Stuttgart is introducing a new Handling Roadway (HRW) Test System in cooperation with The Research Institute of Automotive Engineering and Vehicle Engines Stuttgart (FKFS) and MTS Systems Corporation.
Technical Paper

Introduction of the AeroSUV-A New Generic SUV Model for Aerodynamic Research

2019-04-02
2019-01-0646
Since the introduction of the DrivAer model, an increasing amount of aerodynamic research and CAE method development activities are based on this detailed generic car body. Due to the Open Access nature of the model, it has not only been quickly adopted by academia but also by several automotive OEMs and CAE software developers. The DrivAer has delivered high quality experimental data to permit validation of existing aerodynamic CAE capabilities and to accelerate the development of new sophisticated numerical methods. Within the last decades, the registration number of SUV, especially in Europe, has increased significantly. Among other things, a large cross-sectional area, an increased ground clearance and larger wheels characterize this kind of vehicle. The DrivAer is not capable of depicting this vehicle category. Therefore, there is a demand for an expansion of this generic vehicle concept.
Technical Paper

Flow around an Isolated Wheel - Experimental and Numerical Comparison of Two CFD Codes

2004-03-08
2004-01-0445
This paper presents velocity and pressure measurements obtained around an isolated wheel in a rotating and stationary configuration. The flow field was investigated using LDA and a total pressure probe in the model scale wind tunnel at IVK/FKFS. Drag and lift were determined for both configurations as well as for the wheel support only. These results were used as a reference for comparing numerical results obtained from two different CFD codes used in the automotive industry, namely STAR-CD™ and PowerFLOW™. The comparison gives a good overall agreement between the experimental and the simulated data. Both CFD codes show good correlation of the integral forces. The influence of the wheel rotation on drag and lift coefficients is predicted well. All mean flow structures which can be found in the planes measured with LDA can be recognized in the numerical results of both codes. Only small local differences remain, which can be attributed to the different CFD codes.
Technical Paper

Further Investigations on Gradient Effects

2004-03-08
2004-01-0670
In automotive wind tunnels with modern road simulation installations boundary layer pre-suction is a widely-used technique for boundary layer control. The consequence of boundary layer pre-suction is an additional pressure gradient in front of the model. In order to investigate the effects of the additional pressure gradient on drag, experiments were conducted with two different models (scale 1:5) in the IVK Model Wind Tunnel. In these experiments the suction velocity of the boundary layer pre-suction served as a parameter to change the static pressure gradient along the test section and was for this purpose adjusted higher and lower than the standard suction velocity. It is shown that the total drag increment due to boundary layer pre-suction consists of at least two parts: the ground simulation increment and the static pressure gradient increment. The ground simulation increment is due to a decrease in the boundary layer thickness and the resulting modified flow beneath the model.
Technical Paper

CFD Validation Study for a Sedan Scale Model in an Open Jet Wind Tunnel

2008-04-14
2008-01-0325
Aerodynamic simulations using CFD is now a standard tool in the automotive industry, and is becoming more and more integrated in the aerodynamic design process of new vehicles. This process is distinguished by parallel development with wind tunnel experiments and CFD simulation results, which demands comparable results to be generated by the two development tools. As wind tunnel effects are not simulated in most industrial applications of CFD, the comparison with experimental results normally show differences partly due to wind tunnel effects and ground simulation effects. Therefore a deeper understanding of wind tunnel effects and methods to fully reproduce experimental values with CFD is necessary. In this paper, an extensive validation study with a detailed scale notchback model inside an open jet wind tunnel is presented. This study includes experimental data from the real wind tunnel as well as CFD simulation results with and without wind tunnel effects.
Technical Paper

Audi Aero-Acoustic Wind Tunnel

1993-03-01
930300
The present paper reveals the design concept as well as results of experimental investigations, which were conducted in the early design stage of the planned AUDI Aero-Acoustic Wind Tunnel. This low-noise open-jet facility, featuring a nozzle exit area of 11 m2 and a top speed of approximately 60 m/s, enables aerodynamic as well as acoustic testing of both, full-scale and model-scale ground vehicles. Ground simulation is provided by means of a moving-belt rig. The surrounding plenum is designed as a semi-anechoic chamber to simulate acoustic free-field conditions around the vehicle. Fan noise will be attenuated below the noise level of the open jet. The work reported herein, comprises 1/8-scale pilot-tunnel experiments of aerodynamic and acoustic configurations which were carried out at the University of Darmstadt.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Different Ground Simulation Techniques for Use in Automotive Wind Tunnels

1990-02-01
900321
The range of applicability and the physical restrictions for the use of ground-simulation techniques in automotive wind tunnels are elucidated. The techniques considered are the moving-belt technique, as well as boundary layer control techniques like tangential blowing and distributed normal suction for use in wind tunnels with stationary ground boards. Attention has to be paid to the question of whether the flow to be simulated is of boundary layer or Couette type. In the case of boundary layer flow, interaction of the ground-floor boundary layer with the inviscid flow in the gap between a vehicle and the road can be fully simulated by introducing a negative transpiration velocity along the stationary ground plane. In practise however, angularity effects on the external flow result from mismatched control parameters. Very small relative ground clearances give rise to the formation of a Couette flow between the road and the vehicle.
Technical Paper

Thermal Simulation within the Brake System Design Process

2002-10-06
2002-01-2587
During the acquisition phase brake system supplier have to make predictions on a system's thermal behavior based on very few reliable parameters. Increasing system knowledge requires the usage of different calculation models along with the progress of the project. Adaptive modeling is used in order to integrate test results from first prototypes or benchmark vehicles. Since changes in the brake force distribution have a great impact on the simulation results fading conditions of the linings have to be integrated as well. The principle of co-simulation is used in order to use the actual brake force distribution of the system.
Technical Paper

CFD Investigations of Wind Tunnel Interference Effects

2007-04-16
2007-01-1045
Wind tunnel interference effects are still considered to be negligible - or at least undesired - in automotive aerodynamics. Consequently, up to now there is no standard correction method which is used in everyday wind tunnel testing although a lot of research has been done in recent years. In most full-vehicle CFD simulations, wind tunnel interference effects are not simulated. The flow about the car is computed under idealized conditions. The wind tunnel is designed to simulate these conditions but fails to do so to some degree due to its limited size. Therefore a comparison of blockage-free CFD results and wind tunnel measurements is deficient. Hence CFD simulations including wind tunnel interference effects should be favored in the future for validation purposes. Furthermore, CFD offers new possibilities to investigate individual contributions to wind tunnel interference effects and therefore could help to increase the understanding of the flow in the wind tunnel.
Journal Article

The Effect of High Turbulence Intensities on Surface Pressure Fluctuations and Wake Structures of a Vehicle Model

2009-04-20
2009-01-0001
The unsteady environment road vehicles are exposed to is subject of many investigations that are currently made. Yet, the approaching flow is only one aspect of unsteady forces acting on the vehicle. Unsteady wake structures also lead to time-varying surface pressures and consequently fluctuating forces even in steady and low turbulent flows. However, little is known about the influence of realistic flow conditions, i.e. as found on road, on the unsteady surface pressures and wake structures of a vehicle. Therefore, to derive a deeper understanding of the unsteady aerodynamic properties of a vehicle this paper presents results of measurements conducted on a vehicle body both in smooth and turbulent flow conditions in the IVK model scale wind tunnel. Unsteady surface pressure measurements in the area where separation occurs and the base of the vehicle were made together with time accurate total pressure measurements in the wake.
Journal Article

Rating Mass-related Energy Demand for Vehicles with New Powertrain Concepts

2011-06-09
2011-37-0010
The combination of enhanced powertrains and adapted vehicle concepts can reduce the energy demand of vehicles significantly, especially when energy conversion efficiency rises and at the same time driving resistances decrease. In addition, new powertrain concepts are able to offer extra functionality due to a growing cross-linking with chassis and vehicle body. The design of highly linked vehicles and powertrain systems requires additional new development methods in order to answer interacting questions of driving dynamics and vehicle energy efficiency at an early stage of development. In the paper a database-based simulation platform is presented which was developed at the IVK of the University of Stuttgart in cooperation with the Research Institute of Automotive Engineering and Vehicle Engines Stuttgart (FKFS). The simulation platform is used as an example to discuss mass reducing developments for various powertrain concepts.
Journal Article

Unsteady Aerodynamic Properties of a Vehicle Model and their Effect on Driver and Vehicle under Side Wind Conditions

2011-04-12
2011-01-0154
In this paper the effect of aerodynamic modifications that influence the unsteady aerodynamic properties of a vehicle on the response of the closed loop system driver-vehicle under side wind conditions is investigated. In today's aerodynamic optimization the side wind sensitivity of a vehicle is determined from steady state values measured in the wind tunnel. There, the vehicle is rotated with respect to the wind tunnel flow to create an angle of attack. In this approach however, the gustiness that is inherent in natural wind is not reproduced. Further, unsteady forces and moments acting on the vehicle are not measured due to the limited dynamic response of the commonly used wind tunnel balances. Therefore, a new method is introduced, overcoming the shortcomings of the current steady state approach. The method consists of the reproduction of the properties of natural stochastic crosswind that are essential for the determination of the side wind sensitivity of a vehicle.
Technical Paper

Some Basic Investigations into the Principles of Ground Simulation Techniques in Automotive Wind Tunnels

1989-02-01
890369
With the help of theoretical considerations it is shown that the flow between a car and the ground is of boundary layer type, as long as there is no recirculation. Thus, boundary layer theory can be applied to evaluate the order of magnitude of typical effects like displacement and momentum-loss thicknesses of ground-plane boundary layer. If the boundary layer in a wind tunnel with stationary ground is to be controlled, either by distributed suction or by tangential blowing, to simulate on-road conditions, boundary layer theory can provide the orders of magnitude of modifications that have to be applied. Experiments with a ground-effect quarter-scale car with ground simulation by distributed suction and moving belt showed coincidence with theoretical predictions concerning the required suction rate, if integral coefficients (eg CD, CL) of both flow cases are matched.
Technical Paper

CFD Approach to Evaluate Wind-Tunnel and Model Setup Effects on Aerodynamic Drag and Lift for Detailed Vehicles

2010-04-12
2010-01-0760
Previous work by the authors showed the development of an aerodynamic CFD model using the Lattice Boltzmann Method for simulating vehicles inside the IVK Model-Scale Wind-Tunnel test-section. In both experiment and simulation, alternate configurations of the wind-tunnel geometry were studied to change the pressure distribution in the wind-tunnel test section, inducing a reduction in aerodynamic drag due to interference between the wind-tunnel geometry and the pressure on the surface of the vehicle. The wind-tunnel pressure distribution was modified by adding so-called “stagnation bodies” inside the collector to create blockage and to increase the pressure in the rear portion of the test section. The primary purpose of previous work was to provide a validated CFD approach for modeling wind-tunnel interference effects, so that these effects can be understood and accounted for when designing vehicles.
Journal Article

The Effect of Center Belt Roughness on Vehicle Aerodynamics

2009-04-20
2009-01-0776
Recently built or refurbished wind tunnel facilities show a trend towards a detailed simulation of road conditions. Therefore, these wind tunnel facilities are equipped with boundary layer conditioning systems and a rolling road consisting of one or several belts in order to simulate the rotation of the wheels and the relative motion between the vehicle underfloor and the road. Belts are either realized in rubber or steel. Steel belts offer the possibility to be coated with rubber to protect the belt itself. This coating additionally offers the possibility to attain a certain roughness to represent the road surface. This paper presents measurements of the roughness of the steel belt systems installed in the IVK Model Scale and Aero-Acoustic Full Scale Wind Tunnel in comparison to road surfaces. Additionally, the influence of roughness on the aerodynamic coefficients drag and lift is presented and discussed for the SAE reference body with different rear end configurations.
Technical Paper

Road Load Determination Based on Driving-Torque-Measurement

2003-03-03
2003-01-0933
This paper introduces a driving-torque measurement method for the determination of vehicle road load and its components. To increase the accuracy, the torque measurements are combined with rolling resistance measurements performed with a specially developed trailer. This method is a strictly experimental approach and does not use any mathematical models. The experimental techniques are described as well as the proceedings to compare test stand and road measurements. The results that are shown prove that this method is suitable for the investigation of single road load components. Furthermore, the comparison of different rolling resistance measurement devices shows the potential of the measurement trailer and the necessity to perform rolling resistance measurements on real road surfaces and not solely on test stands.
Technical Paper

Underhood Temperature Analysis in Case of Natural Convection

2005-05-10
2005-01-2045
This paper describes a method to simulate underhood temperature distributions in passenger cars. A simplified engine compartment simulation test rig is used to perform measurements with well known boundary conditions to validate the simulation strategy. The measurement setup corresponds to idle without working fan. The aim of this setup is to validate cases with strong natural convection, e.g. thermal soaking. A coupled steady-state CFD run and thermal analysis is undertaken to simulate the temperature distribution in the test rig. Convective heat transfer coefficients and air temperatures are calculated in StarCD™. The radiative and conductive heat transfer is considered in a RadTherm™ analysis. The strong coupling of flow field and wall temperature in buoyancy driven flows requires an iterative process. Calculated temperatures are compared to measured results in order to validate the simulation method as far as possible. Some of the results are reported in this paper.
Journal Article

Investigation of Aerodynamic Drag in Turbulent Flow Conditions

2016-04-05
2016-01-1605
In this paper the influence of different turbulent flow conditions on the aerodynamic drag of a quarter scale model with notchback and estate back rear ends is investigated. FKFS swing® (Side Wind Generator) is used to generate a turbulent flow field in the test section of the IVK model scale wind tunnel. In order to investigate the increase in drag with increasing yaw, a steady state yaw sweep is performed for both vehicle models. The shape of the drag curves vary for each vehicle model. The notchback model shows a more pronounced drag minimum at 0° yaw angle and experiences a more severe increase in drag at increasing yaw when compared to the estate back model. Unsteady time averaged aerodynamic drag values are obtained at two flow situations with different turbulent length scales, turbulence intensities, and yaw angle amplitudes. While the first one is representing light wind, the second one is recreating the presence of strong gusty wind.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Ground Simulation and Wheel Rotation on Aerodynamic Drag Optimization - Potential for Reducing Fuel Consumption

1996-02-01
960672
In automobile development, wind tunnel measurements are used to optimize fuel consumption and the vehicle's road behavior. The classic measuring technique is based on a stationary vehicle set up in the wind tunnel with stationary wheels. Relative movement between vehicle and road surface is therefore ignored. In more recent studies, measurements have been taken with improved ground simulation. For example, a belt is used instead of the stationary wind tunnel floor and the car wheels rotate. Ground simulation using a belt and rotating wheels generally leads to a reduction in flow angularity at the front wheels, in the same way as blocking the cooling air flow, whereby, as a matter of fact, the aerodynamic drag is reduced. Analogous air flow angle correlations can be established for the effect of underfloor panels.
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