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Technical Paper

Phenomena that Determine Knock Onset in Spark-Ignition Engines

2007-01-23
2007-01-0007
Experiments were carried out to collect in-cylinder pressure data and microphone signals from a single-cylinder test engine using spark timingsbefore, at, and after knock onset for toluene reference fuels. The objective was to gain insight into the phenomena that determine knock onset, detected by an external microphone. In particular, the study examines how the end-gas autoignition process changes as the engine's spark timing is advanced through the borderline knock limit into the engine's knocking regime. Fast Fourier transforms (FFT) and bandpass filtering techniques were used to process the recorded cylinder pressure data to determine knock intensities for each cycle. Two characteristic pressure oscillation frequencies were detected: a peak just above 6 kHz and a range of peaks in the 15-22 kHz range. The microphone data shows that the audible knock signal has the same 6 kHz peak.
Technical Paper

Comparative Analysis of Automotive Powertrain Choices for the Next 25 Years

2007-04-16
2007-01-1605
This paper assesses the potential improvement of automotive powertrain technologies 25 years into the future. The powertrain types assessed include naturally-aspirated gasoline engines, turbocharged gasoline engines, diesel engines, gasoline-electric hybrids, and various advanced transmissions. Advancements in aerodynamics, vehicle weight reduction and tire rolling friction are also taken into account. The objective of the comparison is the potential of anticipated improvements in these powertrain technologies for reducing petroleum consumption and greenhouse gas emissions at the same level of performance as current vehicles in the U.S.A. The fuel consumption and performance of future vehicles was estimated using a combination of scaling laws and detailed vehicle simulations. The results indicate that there is significant potential for reduction of fuel consumption for all the powertrains examined.
Technical Paper

Measurements and Modeling of Residual Gas Fraction in SI Engines

2001-05-07
2001-01-1910
The residual gas in SI engines is one of important factors on emission and performance such as combustion stability. With high residual gas fractions, flame speed and maximum combustion temperature are decreased and there are deeply related with combustion stability, especially at Idle and NOx emission at relatively high engine load. Therefore, there is a need to characterize the residual gas fraction as a function of the engine operating parameters. A model for predicting the residual gas fraction has been formulated in this paper. The model accounts for the contribution due to the back flow of exhaust gas to the cylinder during valve overlap and it includes in-cylinder pressure prediction model during valve overlap. The model is derived from the one dimension flow process during overlap period and a simple ideal cycle model.
Technical Paper

Piston Fuel Film Observations in an Optical Access GDI Engine

2001-05-07
2001-01-2022
A gasoline direct injection fuel spray was observed using a fired, optical access, square cross-section single cylinder research engine and high-speed video imaging. Spray interaction with the piston is described qualitatively, and the results are compared with Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation results using KIVA-3V version 2. CFD simulations predicted that within the operating window for stratified charge operation, between 1% and 4% of the injected fuel would remain on the piston as a liquid film, dependent primarily on piston temperature. The experimental results support the CFD simulations qualitatively, but the amount of fuel film remaining on the piston appears to be under-predicted. High-speed video footage shows a vigorous spray impingement on the piston crown, resulting in vapor production.
Technical Paper

Contribution of Liquid Fuel to Hydrocarbon Emissions in Spark Ignition Engines

2001-09-24
2001-01-3587
The purpose of this work was to develop an understanding of how liquid fuel transported into the cylinder of a port-fuel-injected gasoline-fueled SI engine contributes to hydrocarbon (HC) emissions. To simulate the liquid fuel flow from the valve seat region into the cylinder, a specially designed fuel probe was developed and used to inject controlled amounts of liquid fuel onto the port wall close to the valve seat. By operating the engine on pre-vaporized Indolene, and injecting a small amount of liquid fuel close to the valve seat while the intake valve was open, we examined the effects of liquid fuel entering the cylinder at different circumferential locations around the valve seat. Similar experiments were also carried out with closed valve injection of liquid fuel at the valve seat to assess the effects of residual blowback, and of evaporation from the intake valve and port surfaces.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Combustion Process of Multiple Injection in HSDI Diesel Engines using Modified Two-Dimensional Flamelet

2007-09-16
2007-24-0042
Ignition delay of the second injection of HSDI diesel engines is generally much shorter than that of the first injection because of the interaction between the radicals generated during the combustion process and the mixed gas of the second injection. Although previous Diesel combustion models could not explain this reaction, Hasse and Peters described the mass and heat transfer of the second injection and estimated the ignition delay of the second injection using two-dimensional flamelet equations. But a simulation of the two-dimensional flamelet equations requires enormous computational time. Thus, to analyze the combustion phenomena of the multiple injection mode in HSDI diesel engines effectively, the two-dimensional flamelet combustion model was modified in this study. To reduce the calculation time, two-dimensional flamelet equations were only applied near the stoichiometric region.
Technical Paper

Lean SI Engines: The role of combustion variability in defining lean limits

2007-09-16
2007-24-0030
Previous research has shown the potential benefits of running an engine with excess air. The challenges of running lean have also been identified, but not all of them have been fundamentally explained. Under high dilution levels, a lean limit is reached where combustion becomes unstable, significantly deteriorating drivability and engine efficiency, thus limiting the full potential of lean combustion. This paper expands the understanding of lean combustion by explaining the fundamentals behind this rapid rise in combustion variability and how this instability can be reduced. A flame entrainment combustion model was used to explain the fundamentals behind the observed combustion behavior in a comprehensive set of lean gasoline and hydrogen-enhanced cylinder pressure data in an SI engine. The data covered a wide range of operating conditions including different compression ratios, loads, types of dilution, fuels including levels of hydrogen enhancement, and levels of turbulence.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Unburned Hydrocarbon Oxidation in Engine Conditions using Modified One-step Reaction Model

2007-08-05
2007-01-3536
Modeling of unburned hydrocarbon oxidation in an SI engine was performed in engine condition using modified one-step oxidation model. The new one-step equation was developed by modifying the Arrhenius reaction rate coefficients of the conventional one-step model. The modified model was well matched with the results of detailed chemical reaction mechanism in terms of 90 % oxidation time of the fuel. In this modification, the effect of pressure and intermediate species in the burnt gas on the oxidation rate investigated and included in developed one-step model. The effect of pressure was also investigated and included as an additional multiplying factor in the reaction equation. To simulate the oxidation process of piston crevice hydrocarbons, a computational mesh was constructed with fine mesh density at the piston crevice region and the number of cell layers in cylinder was controlled according to the motion of piston.
Technical Paper

An Experimental and Theoretical Study of the Contribution of Oil Evaporation to Oil Consumption

2002-10-21
2002-01-2684
Engine oil consumption is an important source of hydrocarbon and particulate emissions in automotive engines. Oil evaporating from the piston-ring-liner system is believed to contribute significantly to total oil consumption, especially during severe operating conditions. This paper presents an extensive experimental and theoretical study on the contribution of oil evaporation to total oil consumption at different steady state speed and load conditions. A sulfur tracer method was used to measure the dependence of oil consumption on coolant outlet temperature, oil volatility, and operating speed and load in a production spark ignition engine. Liquid oil distribution on the piston was studied using a one-point Laser-Induced-Fluorescence (LIF) technique. In addition, important in-cylinder variables for oil evaporation, such as liner temperature and cylinder pressure, were measured. A multi-species cylinder liner oil evaporation model was developed to interpret the oil consumption data.
Technical Paper

3-dimensional Simulation of Knock in a Heavy-Duty LPG Engine

2002-10-21
2002-01-2700
Three-dimensional transient simulation was performed and an autoignition model was implemented to predict knock occurrence and autoignition site in a heavy-duty liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) engine. A flame area evolution (FAE) premixed combustion model was applied to simulate flame propagation. Engine experiments using a single-cylinder research engine were performed to calibrate the reduced kinetic model and to verify the result of this modeling. A pressure transducer and a head-gasket type ion-probe circuit board were installed to detect knock occurrence, flame arrival angle, and autoignition site. The simulation result shows good agreement with engine experiments. It also provides much information about in-cylinder phenomena and some ways to reduce knocking tendency. This knock simulation can be used as a development tool of engine design.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Liquid Fuel on the Cylinder Liner on Engine-Out Hydrocarbon Emissions in SI Engines

2001-09-24
2001-01-3489
The liquid fuel film on the cylinder liner is believed to be a major source of engine-out hydrocarbon emissions in SI engines, especially during cold start and warm-up period. Quantifying the liquid fuel film on the cylinder liner is essential to understand the engine-out hydrocarbon emissions formation in SI engines. In this research, two-dimensional visualization was carried out to quantify liquid fuel film on the quartz cylinder liner in an SI engine test rig. In addition, comparing visualization results with the trend of hydrocarbon emissions in this engine, the effect of cylinder wall-wetting during a simulated cold start and warmed-up condition was investigated with the engine experiment. The visualization was based on laser-induced fluorescence and total reflection. Using a quartz liner and a special lens, only the liquid fuel on the liner was visualized.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Oil Consumption Behavior during Ramp Transients in a Production Spark Ignition Engine

2001-09-24
2001-01-3544
Engine oil consumption is recognized to be a significant source of pollutant emissions. Unburned or partially burned oil in the exhaust gases contributes directly to hydrocarbon and particulate emissions. In addition, chemical compounds present in oil additives poison catalytic converters and reduce their conversion efficiency. Oil consumption can increase significantly during critical non-steady operating conditions. This study analyzes the oil consumption behavior during ramp transients in load by combining oil consumption measurements, in-cylinder measurements, and computer-based modeling. A sulfur based oil consumption method was used to measure real-time oil consumption during ramp transients in load at constant speed in a production spark ignition engine. Additionally in-cylinder liquid oil behavior along the piston was studied using a one-point Laser-Induced-Fluorescence (LIF) technique.
Technical Paper

Enhancing Performance and Combustion of an LPG MPI Engine for Heavy Duty Vehicles

2002-03-04
2002-01-0449
An LPG engine for heavy duty vehicles has been developed using liquid phase LPG injection (hereafter LPLI) system, which has regarded as as one of next generation LPG fuel supply systems. In this work the optimized piston cavities were investigated and chosen for an LPLI engine system. While the mass production of piston cavities is considered, three piston cavities were tested: Dog-dish type, bathtub type and top-land-cut bathtub type. From the experiments the bathtub type showed the extension of lean limit while achieving the stable combustion, compared to the dog-dish type at the same injection timing. Throughout CFD analysis, it was revealed that the extension of lean limit was due to an increase of turbulence intensity by the enlarged crevice area, and the enlargement of flame front surface owing to the shape of the bathtub piston cavity compared to that of the dog-dish type.
Technical Paper

Modeling NO Formation in Spark Ignition Engines with a Layered Adiabatic Core and Combustion Inefficiency Routine

2001-03-05
2001-01-1011
A thermodynamic based cycle simulation which uses a thermal boundary layer, either, a fully mixed or layered adiabatic core, and a crevice combustion inefficiency routine has been used to explore the sensitivity of NO concentration predictions to critical physical modeling assumptions. An experimental database, which included measurements of residual gas fraction, was obtained from a 2.0 liter Nissan engine while firing on propane. A model calibration methodology was developed to ensure accurate predictions of in-cylinder pressure and burned gas temperature. Comparisons with experimental NO data then showed that accounting for temperature stratification during combustion with a layered adiabatic core and including a crevice/combustion inefficiency routine, improved the match of modeling predictions to data, in comparison to a fully mixed adiabatic core.
Technical Paper

Reducing Exhaust HC Emission at SI Engine Using Continuous and Synchronized Secondary Air Injection

2000-06-12
2000-05-0296
The effect of secondary air injection (SAI) on exhaust hydrocarbon (HC) emission has been investigated in a spark-ignition (SI) single cylinder engine operating at steady-state cold condition. Both continuous SAI and synchronized SAI, which corresponds to intermittent secondary air injection to exhaust port, are tested. Oxidation characteristics of HC are monitored with a FID analyzer and exhaust gas temperatures with thermocouples. Effects of exhaust air-fuel ratio (A/F), location of SAI, and engine-A/F have been investigated. Results show that HC reduction rate increases as the location of SAI is closer to the exhaust valve for both synchronized and continuous SAIs. HC emission decreases with increasing exhaust-A/F when exhaust-A/F is rich, and is relatively insensitive when exhaust-A/F is lean. In synchronized SAI, SAI timing has significant effect on HC reduction and exhaust gas temperature. Optimum SAI timing observed is ATDC 100° and 230°.
Technical Paper

Effects of Charge Motion Control During Cold Start of SI Engines

2006-10-16
2006-01-3399
An experimental study was performed to investigate the effects of various intake charge motion control valves (CMCVs) on mixture preparation, combustion, and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions during the cold start-up process of a port fuel injected spark ignition (SI) engine. Different charge motions were produced by three differently shaped plates in the CMCV device, each of which blocked off 75% of the engine's intake ports. Time-resolved HC, CO and CO2 concentrations were measured at the exhaust port exit in order to achieve cycle-by-cycle engine-out HC mass and in-cylinder air/fuel ratio. Combustion characteristics were examined through a thermodynamic burn rate analysis. Cold-fluid steady state experiments were carried out with the CMCV open and closed. Enhanced charge motion with the CMCV closed was found to shorten the combustion duration, which caused the location of 50% mass fraction burned (MFB) to occur up to 5° CA earlier for the same spark timing.
Technical Paper

An Investigation of Gasoline Engine Knock Limited Performance and the Effects of Hydrogen Enhancement

2006-04-03
2006-01-0228
A set of experiments was performed to investigate the effects of relative air-fuel ratio, inlet boost pressure, and compression ratio on engine knock behavior. Selected operating conditions were also examined with simulated hydrogen rich fuel reformate added to the gasoline-air intake mixture. For each operating condition knock limited spark advance was found for a range of octane numbers (ON) for two fuel types: primary reference fuels (PRFs), and toluene reference fuels (TRFs). A smaller set of experiments was also performed with unleaded test gasolines. A combustion phasing parameter based on the timing of 50% mass fraction burned, termed “combustion retard”, was used as it correlates well to engine performance. The combustion retard required to just avoid knock increases with relative air-fuel ratio for PRFs and decreases with air-fuel ratio for TRFs.
Technical Paper

Effects of Combustion Phasing, Relative Air-fuel Ratio, Compression Ratio, and Load on SI Engine Efficiency

2006-04-03
2006-01-0229
In an effort to both increase engine efficiency and generate new, consistent, and reliable data useful for the development of engine concepts, a modern single-cylinder 4-valve spark-ignition research engine was used to determine the response of indicated engine efficiency to combustion phasing, relative air-fuel ratio, compression ratio, and load. Combustion modeling was then used to help explain the observed trends, and the limitations on achieving higher efficiency. This paper analyzes the logic behind such gains in efficiency and presents correlations of the experimental data. The results are helpful for examining the potential for more efficient engine designs, where high compression ratios can be used under lean or dilute regimes, at a variety of loads.
Technical Paper

The Performance of Future ICE and Fuel Cell Powered Vehicles and Their Potential Fleet Impact

2004-03-08
2004-01-1011
A study at MIT of the energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions from advanced technology future automobiles has compared fuel cell powered vehicles with equivalent gasoline and diesel internal combustion engine (ICE) powered vehicles [1][2]. Current data regarding IC engine and fuel cell vehicle performance were extrapolated to 2020 to provide optimistic but plausible forecasts of how these technologies might compare. The energy consumed by the vehicle and its corresponding CO2 emissions, the fuel production and distribution energy and CO2 emissions, and the vehicle manufacturing process requirements were all evaluated and combined to give a well-to-wheels coupled with a cradle-to-grave assessment. The assessment results show that significant opportunities are available for improving the efficiency of mainstream gasoline and diesel engines and transmissions, and reducing vehicle resistances.
Technical Paper

Knock Behavior of a Lean-Burn, H2 and CO Enhanced, SI Gasoline Engine Concept

2004-03-08
2004-01-0975
Experiments were performed to identify the knock trends of lean hydrocarbon-air mixtures, and such mixtures enhanced with hydrogen (H2) and carbon monoxide (CO). These enhanced mixtures simulated 15% and 30% of the engine's gasoline being reformed in a plasmatron fuel reformer [1]. Knock trends were determined by measuring the octane number (ON) of the primary reference fuel (mixture of isooctane and n-heptane) supplied to the engine that just produced audible knock. Experimental results show that leaner operation does not decrease the knock tendency of an engine under conditions where a fixed output torque is maintained; rather it slightly increases the octane requirement. The knock tendency does decrease with lean operation when the intake pressure is held constant, but engine torque is then reduced.
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