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Technical Paper

Diffusion-Flame / Wall Interactions in a Heavy-Duty DI Diesel Engine

2001-03-05
2001-01-1295
Over the past decade, laser diagnostics have improved our understanding of many aspects of diesel combustion. However, interactions between the combusting fuel jet and the piston-bowl wall are not well understood. In heavy-duty diesel engines, with typical fuels, these interactions occur with the combusting vapor-phase region of the jet, which consists of a central region containing soot and other products of rich-premixed combustion, surrounded by a diffusion flame. Since previous work has shown that the OH radical is a good marker of the diffusion flame, planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) imaging of OH was applied to an investigation of the diffusion flame during wall interaction. In addition, simultaneous OH PLIF and planar laser-induced incandescence (PLII) soot imaging was applied to investigate the likelihood for soot deposition on the bowl wall.
Technical Paper

A Conceptual Model of DI Diesel Combustion Based on Laser-Sheet Imaging*

1997-02-24
970873
A phenomenological description, or “conceptual model,” of how direct-injection (DI) diesel combustion occurs has been derived from laser-sheet imaging and other recent optical data. To provide background, the most relevant of the recent imaging data of the author and co-workers are presented and discussed, as are the relationships between the various imaging measurements. Where appropriate, other supporting data from the literature is also discussed. Then, this combined information is summarized in a series of idealized schematics that depict the combustion process for a typical, modern-diesel-engine condition. The schematics incorporate virtually all of the information provided by our recent imaging data including: liquid- and vapor-fuel zones, fuel/air mixing, autoignition, reaction zones, and soot distributions.
Technical Paper

Chemiluminescence Imaging of Autoignition in a DI Diesel Engine

1998-10-19
982685
Chemiluminescence imaging has been applied to a parametric investigation of diesel autoignition. Time-resolved images of the natural light emission were made in an optically accessible DI diesel engine of the heavy-duty size class using an intensified CCD video camera. Measurements were obtained at a base operating condition, corresponding to a motored TDC temperature and density of 992 K and 16.6 kg/m3, and for TDC temperatures and densities above and below these values. Data were taken with a 42.5 cetane number blend of the diesel reference fuels for all conditions, and measurements were also made with no. 2 diesel fuel (D2) at the base condition. For each condition, temporal sequences of images were acquired from the time of first detectable chemiluminescence up through fully sooting combustion, and the images were analyzed to obtain quantitative measurements of the average emission intensity.
Technical Paper

The Effect of TDC Temperature and Density on the Liquid-Phase Fuel Penetration in a D. I. Diesel Engine*

1995-10-01
952456
A parametric study of the liquid-phase fuel penetration of evaporating Diesel fuel jets has been conducted in a direct-injection Diesel engine using laser elastic-scatter imaging. The experiments were conducted in an optically accessible Diesel engine of the “heavy-duty” size class at a representative medium speed (1200 rpm) operating condition. The density and temperature at TDC were varied systematically by adjusting the intake temperature and pressure. At all operating conditions the measurements show that initially the liquid fuel penetrates almost linearly with increasing crank angle until reaching a maximum length. Then, the liquid-fuel penetration length remains fairly constant although fuel injection continues. At a TDC density of 16.6 kg/m3 and a temperature of about 1000 K the maximum penetration length is approximately 23 mm. However, it varies significantly as TDC conditions are changed, with the liquid-length being less at higher temperatures and at higher densities.
Technical Paper

OH Radical Imaging in a DI Diesel Engine and the Structure of the Early Diffusion Flame

1996-02-01
960831
Laser-sheet imaging studies have considerably advanced our understanding of diesel combustion; however, the location on and nature of the flame zones within the combusting fuel jet have been largely unstudied. To address this issue, planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) imaging of the OH radical has been applied to the reacting fuel jet of a direct-injection diesel engine of the “heavy-duty” size class, modified for optical access. An Nd:YAG-based laser system was used to pump the overlapping Q19 and Q28 lines of the (1,0) band of the A→X transition at 284.01 nm, while the fluorescent emission from both the (0,0) and (1,1) bands (308 to 320 nm) was imaged with an intensified video camera. This scheme allowed rejection of elastically scattered laser light, PAH fluorescence, and laser-induced incandescence. OH PLIF is shown to be an excellent diagnostic for diesel diffusion flames.
Technical Paper

Ignition and Early Soot Formation in a DI Diesel Engine Using Multiple 2-D Imaging Diagnostics*

1995-02-01
950456
A combination of optical imaging diagnostics has been applied to the fuel jet of a direct-injection diesel engine to study the ignition and early soot formation processes. Measurements were made in an optically accessible direct-injection diesel engine of the “heavy-duty” size class at a representative medium speed (1200 rpm) operating condition. Two fuels were used, a 42.5 cetane number mixture of the diesel reference fuels and a new low-sooting fuel (needed to reduce optical attenuation at later crank angles) that closely matches both the cetane number and boiling point of the reference fuel mixture. The combustion and soot formation processes are found to be almost identical for both fuels. Ignition and early combustion were studied by imaging the natural chemiluminescence using a calibrated intensified video camera. The early soot development was investigated via luminosity imaging and simultaneous planar imaging of laser-induced incandescence (LII) and elastic scattering.
Technical Paper

PLIF Imaging of NO Formation in a DI Diesel Engine1

1998-02-01
980147
NO formation during direct-injection (DI) diesel combustion has been investigated using planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) imaging. Measurements were made at a typical medium-speed operating condition in a heavy-duty size-class engine modified for optical access. By combining a unique laser system with a particular spectroscopic scheme, single-shot NO images were obtained at realistic operating conditions with negligible O2 interference. Temporal sequences of NO PLIF images are presented along with corresponding images of combined elastic scattering and natural luminosity. These images show the location and timing of the NO formation relative to the other components of the reacting fuel jet. In addition, total NO formation was examined by integrating the NO PLIF signal over a large fraction of the combustion-chamber volume.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Fuel Volatility on the Liquid-Phase Fuel Penetration in a Heavy-Duty D.I. Diesel Engine

1998-02-23
980510
The objective of this investigation is to verify and characterize the influence of fuel volatility on maximum liquid-phase fuel penetration for a variety of actual Diesel fuels under realistic Diesel engine operating conditions. To do so, liquid-phase fuel penetration was measured for a total of eight Diesel fuels using laser elastic-scatter imaging. The experiments were carried out in an optically accessible Diesel engine of the “heavy-duty” size class at a representative medium speed (1200 rpm) operating condition. In addition to liquid-phase fuel penetration, ignition delay was assessed for each fuel based on pressure-derived apparent heat release rate and needle lift data. For all fuels examined, it was observed that initially the liquid fuel penetrates almost linearly with increasing crank angle until reaching a maximum characteristic length. Beyond this characteristic length, the fuel is entirely vapor phase and not just smaller fuel droplets.
Technical Paper

Quantitative 2-D Fuel Vapor Concentration Imaging in a Firing D.I. Diesel Engine Using Planar Laser-Induced Rayleigh Scattering*

1994-03-01
940682
The application of planar laser-induced Rayleigh scattering for quantitative 2-D measurements of vapor-phase fuel concentration in the main combustion zone of a direct-injection Diesel engine has been explored, developed and demonstrated. All studies were conducted in an optically accessible direct-injection Diesel engine of the “heavy-duty” size class at 1200 rpm and motored TDC conditions which were typical of the production version of this engine. First, this study verifies that beyond 27 mm from the injector all the fuel is vapor phase. This was done by investigating the Diesel jet under high magnification using 2-D elastic scatter imaging and subsequently evaluating the signal intensities from the droplets and other interfering particles (Mie scattering) and the vapor (Rayleigh scattering).
Technical Paper

Soot Distribution in a D.I. Diesel Engine Using 2-D Imaging of Laser-induced Incandescence, Elastic Scattering, and Flame Luminosity

1992-02-01
920115
A combusting plume in an optically accessible direct-injection diesel engine was studied using simultaneous 2-D imaging of laser-induced incandescence (LII) and natural flame luminosity, as well as simultaneous 2-D imaging of LII and elastic scattering. Obtaining images simultaneously via two different techniques makes the effects of cycle-to-cycle variation identical for both images, permitting the details of the simultaneous images to be compared. Since each technique provides unique information about the combusting diesel plume, more can be learned from comparison of the simultaneous images than by any of the techniques alone. Among the insights gained from these measurements are that the combusting plume in this engine has a general pattern of high soot concentration towards the leading edge with a lower soot concentration extending upstream towards the injector. Also, the soot particles are found to be larger towards the leading edge of the plume than in the upstream region.
Technical Paper

Soot and Fuel Distributions in a D.I. Diesel Engine via 2-D Imaging

1992-10-01
922307
Soot and fuel distributions have been studied in an optically accessible direct-injection diesel engine of the “heavy-duty” size class. Laser-induced incandescence (LII) was used to study the effects of changes in the engine speed on the in-cylinder soot distribution, and elastic (Mie) scattering and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) were used to examine the fuel distribution. The investigation showed that, in this engine, soot is distributed throughout the cross section of the combusting region of the fuel jet for engine speeds ranging from 600 to 1800 rpm. No indication was found that soot occurs preferentially around the periphery of the plume. The LII images showed that the soot concentration decreases with increasing engine speed and injection pressure, and that the soot distribution extends much further upstream (toward the injector) at the lower engine speeds than at higher speeds.
Technical Paper

Soot Distribution in a D.I. Diesel Engine Using 2-D Laser-Induced Incandescence Imaging

1991-02-01
910224
Laser-induced incandescence (LII) has been explored as a diagnostic for qualitative two-dimensional imaging of the in-cylinder soot distribution in a diesel engine. Advantages of LII over elastic-scatter soot imaging techniques include no interfering signals from liquid fuel droplets, easy rejection of laser light scattered by in-cylinder surfaces, and the signal intensity being proportional to the soot volume fraction. LII images were obtained in a 2.3-liter, single cylinder, direct-injection diesel engine, modified for optical access. To minimize laser sheet and signal attenuation (which can affect almost any planar imaging technique applied to diesel engine combustion), a low-sooting fuel was used whose vaporization and combustion characteristics are typical of standard diesel fuels. Temporal and spatial sequences of LII images were made which show the extent of the soot distribution within the optically accessible portion the combusting spray plume.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Injection Timing and Diluent Addition on Late-Combustion Soot Burnout in a DI Diesel Engine Based on Simultaneous 2-D Imaging of OH and Soot

2000-03-06
2000-01-0238
The effects of injection timing and diluent addition on the late-combustion soot burnout in a direct-injection (DI) diesel engine have been investigated using simultaneous planar imaging of the OH-radical and soot distributions. Measurements were made in an optically accessible DI diesel engine of the heavy-duty size class at a 1680 rpm, high-load operating condition. A dual-laser, dual-camera system was used to obtain the simultaneous “single-shot” images using planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) and planar laser-induced incandescence (PLII) for the OH and soot, respectively. The two laser beams were combined into overlapping laser sheets before being directed into the combustion chamber, and the optical signal was separated into the two cameras by means of an edge filter.
Technical Paper

An Investigation of Thermal Stratification in HCCI Engines Using Chemiluminescence Imaging

2006-04-03
2006-01-1518
Chemiluminescence imaging has been applied to investigate the naturally occurring charge stratification in an HCCI engine. This stratification slows the pressure-rise rate (PRR) during combustion, making it critical to the high-load operating limit of these engines. Experiments were conducted in a single-cylinder HCCI engine modified with windows in the combustion chamber for optical access. Using this engine, chemiluminescence images were obtained from three different view angles. These included both single-shot images with intensified CCD cameras and high-speed (20kHz) sequences with an intensified CMOS video camera. The engine was fueled with iso-octane, which has been shown to be a reasonable surrogate for gasoline and exhibits only single-stage ignition at these naturally aspirated conditions. The chemiluminescence images show that the HCCI combustion is not homogeneous but has a strong turbulent structure even when the fuel and air are fully premixed prior to intake.
Technical Paper

Fuel Stratification for Low-Load HCCI Combustion: Performance & Fuel-PLIF Measurements

2007-10-29
2007-01-4130
Fuel stratification has been investigated as a means of improving the low-load combustion efficiency in an HCCI engine. Several stratification techniques were examined: different GDI injectors, increased swirl, and changes in injection pressure, to determine which parameters are effective for improving the combustion efficiency while maintaining NOx emissions below U.S. 2010 limits. Performance and emission measurements were obtained in an all-metal engine. Corresponding fuel distribution measurements were made with fuel PLIF imaging in a matching optically accessible engine. The fuel used was iso-octane, which is a good surrogate for gasoline. For an idle fueling rate (ϕ = 0.12), combustion efficiency was improved substantially, from 64% to 89% at the NOx limit, using delayed fuel injection with a hollow-cone injector at an injection pressure of 120 bar.
Journal Article

PLIF Measurements of Thermal Stratification in an HCCI Engine under Fired Operation

2011-04-12
2011-01-1291
Tracer-based PLIF temperature diagnostics have been used to study the distribution and evolution of naturally occurring thermal stratification (TS) in an HCCI engine under fired and motored operation. PLIF measurements, performed with two excitation wavelengths (277, 308 nm) and 3-pentanone as a tracer, allowed investigation of TS development under relevant fired conditions. Two-line PLIF measurements of temperature and composition were first performed to track the mixing of the fresh charge and hot residuals during intake and early compression strokes. Results showed that mixing occurs rapidly with no measureable mixture stratification remaining by early compression (220°CA aTDC), confirming that the residual mixing is not a leading cause of thermal stratification for low-residual (4-6%) engines with conventional valve timing.
Journal Article

Investigating the Development of Thermal Stratification from the Near-Wall Regions to the Bulk-Gas in an HCCI Engine with Planar Imaging Thermometry

2012-04-16
2012-01-1111
A tracer-based single-line PLIF imaging technique using a unique optical configuration that allows simultaneously viewing the bulk-gas and the boundary layer region has been applied to an investigation of the naturally occurring thermal stratification in a HCCI engine. Thermal stratification is critical for HCCI engines, because it determines the maximum pressure rise rate which is a limiting factor for high-load operation. The investigation is based on the analysis of temperature maps that were derived from PLIF images, using the temperature sensitivity of fluorescence from toluene introduced as tracer in the fuel. Measurements were made in a single-cylinder optically accessible HCCI engine operating under motored conditions with a vertical laser-sheet orientation that allows observation of the development of thermal stratification from the cold boundary layers into the central region of the charge.
Journal Article

Characterizing the Development of Thermal Stratification in an HCCI Engine Using Planar-Imaging Thermometry

2009-04-20
2009-01-0650
A planar temperature imaging diagnostic has been developed and applied to an investigation of naturally occurring thermal stratification in an HCCI engine. Natural thermal stratification is critical for high-load HCCI operation because it slows the combustion heat release; however, little is known about its development or distribution. A tracer-based single-line PLIF imaging technique was selected for its good precision and simplicity. Temperature-map images were derived from the PLIF images, based on the temperature sensitivity of the fluorescence signal of the toluene tracer added to the fuel. A well premixed intake charge assured that variations in fuel/air mixture did not affect the signal. Measurements were made in a single-cylinder optically accessible HCCI research engine (displacement = 0.98 liters) at a typical 1200 rpm operating condition. Since natural thermal stratification develops prior to autoignition, all measurements were made for motored operation.
Technical Paper

Diesel Combustion: An Integrated View Combining Laser Diagnostics, Chemical Kinetics, And Empirical Validation

1999-03-01
1999-01-0509
This paper proposes a structure for the diesel combustion process based on a combination of previously published and new results. Processes are analyzed with proven chemical kinetic models and validated with data from production-like direct injection diesel engines. The analysis provides new insight into the ignition and particulate formation processes, which combined with laser diagnostics, delineates the two-stage nature of combustion in diesel engines. Data are presented to quantify events occurring during the ignition and initial combustion processes that form soot precursors. A framework is also proposed for understanding the heat release and emission formation processes.
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